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Lazhechnikov Ivan Ivanovich

( One of the creators of the Russian historical novel)

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Biography Lazhechnikov Ivan Ivanovich
photo Lazhechnikov Ivan Ivanovich
Born September 14, 1792, Mr.. His father, a commercial adviser and one of the richest merchants of Kolomna, characterized by a love of education. The recommendation of NI. Novikova, he invited the son of a French emigre Beaulieu, a man of humane and enlightened. When Emperor Paul Lazhechnikov-father, as a result of denunciation, was imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress. He was soon released, but the material welfare of the family collapsed. For 15 years Lazhechnikov placed in the "News of Europe" (Part 36) "My thoughts" (imitation Labryueru). By serving in the Moscow archives of the foreign board, then at the Moscow office of governor-general, he took lessons in rhetoric, the professor Pobedonostsev and listened private lectures Merzlyakova. In 1808, Mr.. he wrote "war songs" ( "Russian Messenger"), a number of poems in the "Aglaia" and reasoning on moral hazard "(" Herald of Europe). In 1812, Mr.. Lazhechnikov against the wishes of parents enrolled in the militia, participated in a Brienne and the capture of Paris, later, an adjutant of Count Osterman-Tolstoi. In 1817, Mr.. published "The first experiments in prose and verse", which later bought up and destroyed. In the next Labor Lazhechnikov "Hiking note Russian officer" (St. Petersburg, 1820) many interesting details, showing the author's observation. He praises the care of the Prussian government on public education and welfare; places there are direct attacks against serfdom. In 1819, Mr.. Lazhechnikov left military service. He was director of the College of Penza province, Visitator Saratov schools, director of the Kazan school. By this time is his familiarity with Belinsky, later transformed into friendship. Upon his retirement in 1826, Lazhechnikov settled in Moscow and began to collect material for his "The Last Novick; for the same purpose, he traveled to Livonia. "Last Novik (St. Petersburg, 1831 - 1833) - the apotheosis of love for the motherland. Not only the main characters - Patkul and Novick - gave life good of the motherland, . and secondary - Captain Wolfe, . Prince Vadbolsky, . Carl Sheremetev, . Goliath Samsonych, . father Roses, . soldiers patriots, . Finally, . Peter, . Menshikov - all constantly thinking about the homeland, . pushing into the background other interests,
. "Last Novik was a major success. Disadvantages him, as indeed all the novels Lazhechnikov, it is attributable tastes era. Now "Last Novik" seems stilted, but at the time he struck his realism and the desire for historical accuracy. "Last Novik gives Lazhechnikov right to name the first pioneers of the Russian historical novel. In 1831, Mr.. Lazhechnikov was appointed director of schools Tver province. In Tver, he wrote his most famous novel - "Ice House" (Moscow, 1835). Now historical criticism discredit Volyn, and even then, Pushkin found that Lazhechnikov idealizes his hero. But the character of Anna Ioannovna, clowns, ice house - all this is typical of both the artistic and from a historical point of view. Upon his retirement in 1837, Lazhechnikov settled in a village near Staritsa and wrote a "Basurmana (Moscow, 1838). The main character - a healer Anton - is not typical features of the XV century, but John III, portrayed with remarkable for the thirties artistic boldness. Lazhechnikov not hide his selfishness, cruelty and revenge, Martha-Governor's Wife, he was able to give vital features. In 1842 - 1854 years Lazhechnikov served as vice-governor of Tver and Vitebsk in 1856 - 1858 years - the censor in St. Petersburg Censorship Committee. Recent activities, he is very weary, even though it coincided with the time to mitigate the censorship. He wrote in 1842, Mr.. Drama Oprichnik was banned (perhaps for trying to bring to the stage of Grozny) and appeared in print only in 1859, Mr.. ( "Russian Word", separately, Moscow, 1867). In AMD: "Hristiern II, and Gustav Vasa" (Fatherland Notes, . 1841), . "Hunchback" (St. Petersburg, . 1858), . vaudeville "Okopirovalsya" (presented in 1854) and small stories and excerpts, . Lazhechnikov belong more interesting in his autobiographical the "little black, . Belenky and gray "(" Russian Messenger, . 1856),
. Prices of his works memoirs: "Notes for a biography of VG. Belinsky ( "Moscow Journal", 1859; heartfelt apology), "A g. Nadezhdin about his raid on my article on Belinsky "(ib.,? 32)," Materials for biography A.P. Ermolova "(" Russian Messenger, 1864), "How do I know Magnitsky" (ib., 1866). Lazhechnikov until his death was interested in new trends in literature and with delight, reaching up to naivete, treated to a new era in the novel: "A few years ago" (St. Petersburg, 1862). In another novel: "A granddaughter bony boyar" ( "Everyone. Work ", 1868, and separately, St. Petersburg., 1868) he was not free from the narrow hatred of the Poles. His most recent work was the drama "Mother-rival" ( "Everyone. Labor, 1868). May 3, 1869, Mr.. was celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of the literary activity Lazhechnikov, . On June 26 the same year he died, . written in his will: "the state of my wife and my children do not leave any, . but good name, . I will make and what they themselves observe and maintain in its purity,
. Novels Lazhechnikov withstood many publications. Edition published in 1858 and 1884 (the last published article SA. Vengerov on Lazhechnikov). - Wed. F. Lebanon "Jubilee Lazhechnikov" ( "Modern Izvestia, 1869,? 100), his" In Memoriam Lazhechnikov "(ib.,? 174); Longinov" For biographies Lazhechnikov "(" Russian Archive ", 1869); L. Nelyubov Ivan Lazhechnikov "(" Russian Messenger ", 1869," 10); DD. Languages "I.I. Lazhechnikov (Moscow, 1894); H. Ovsianikov "Materials for biography Lazhechnikov" ( "Historical Journal", 1895,? 4), "Proceedings of the Vitebsk Scientific Archive Commission" (Book 1, Vitebsk, 1910).

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