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Manuilov Alexander Apollonovich

( The economist and public figure)

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Biography Manuilov Alexander Apollonovich
photo Manuilov Alexander Apollonovich
Born in 1861,. Secondary education in the school Richelieu in Odessa, graduated from the Faculty of the University of Novorossiysk. Moved to Moscow, he became a member of "Russian Gazette", both published by the partnership, which he then entered. In 1889, Mr.. he placed in the 6 th book "Russian Thought" article: "The latest research on the history of the peasantry in some districts of Germany", . and "Legal Notice" for 1890, . Book I - "Militarism and Capitalism, . excellent article, . explaining, . incidentally, . actual value of the first social letters Rodbertus-Yagettsova to von Kirhmanu,
. In 1895, Mr.. Manuilov thesis master's degree in economics and statistics: for rent land in Ireland ", . - The result of his work in the British Museum on the data, . largely formal nature, . many parliamentary reports, . and the outcome of his own observations on the ground,
. Pointing to the fact, . that the beginning of individual ownership and free competition, . dominant in the field of agrarian relations, . not provide proper land organization, . Manuilov preference system, . in which the ownership of the land belongs to the state, . as individuals - only use it for rental right,
. In choosing the subject of his research leases in Ireland, . was guided by the fact, . that the rent was there the greatest development, . and those, . that we have regular employment to peasants is a significant similarity with the Irish rental in its worst form, . did not exist when there is a legislative regulation of its,
. Details noting the merits of the outstanding work of the late Professor AI. Chuprov in his review, . submitted to the commission on award of the Academy of Sciences Award Metropolitan Macarius, . expressed in the conclusion: "If we take into account the high interest in the subject under review, work, . rich content of its, . novelty and high-value findings, . especially on long-term lease, . considered in the first four chapters, . and the history of legislative regulation of leases, . out in the last three chapters, if weighed an enormous amount of material collected by the author and a model of his design, if, . Finally, . take into account the solid, . strictly scientific and at the same time simple and entertaining presentation, . one can not recognize the book lord Manuilova one of the largest investments in our economic literature in recent years ",
. In 1901, Mr.. Manuilov received a doctorate for a thesis: "The concept of value for the teaching of the classical economists". For his academic work Maniulov chose one of the most important topics of economic science, . as the teaching of values, . the words of Bohm-Bawerk, . is located in the central point of political economy: almost all the important and complex issues, . especially the big questions about the distribution of income - on land rent, . Wages, . the percentage of capital, . have their roots in the theory of value ",
. In the introduction to his work the author points out reasons, . prompted him to dwell on this fundamental question: "Over the past century, . - He says, . - Study of economic phenomena has made such huge progress, . factual, . which economists have, . so grown, . that the theoretical foundations of political economy could not undergo revision, . checking and re-evaluation,
. We are in the midst of this period, . and we have now, . more than ever, . focuses on the principles of economic science and again put on all matters, . that a few decades ago seemed finally solved,
. In some of these issues the first place is worth ". Describing the main directions of modern, . presented the so-called defenders of the classical school of economists and the subjective school, . mainly Austrian, . - Manuilov rightly says, . that the disadvantages of, . which are first, . "is, . that their views on the problem and the laws of theoretical economics is far from uniform, . oscillating between Senior and Mill, . one hand, . and Marx and Engels - the other,
. They are beginning their ideas from the classics, . but in fact in their basic views are different from each other just as much, . as well as from the opposite direction, . with whom they are fighting, and in some cases, their mutual differences even stronger ",
. In view of this, Manuilov considers it necessary to consider the teaching of the classics of value in connection with the general system of economic theory, which contain their respective writings and the historical context in which it emerged and developed. "The study of the classical theory in the writings of its main representatives shows, . - He says, . - That the modern theory of value, . based on the principle of cost of production and in particular at the beginning of labor, . not represent, . at least full, . development of ideas of the classical school, that many of the beliefs of Austrian theorists do not belong to the classical theory of value, . Although this theory is based on the early labor, and finally, . that the classical theory of value contains the data for further development on the basis of the same principle,
. In line with this correct view, . Manuilov devotes its study to the teachings of Smith and Ricardo and their immediate followers, . that seems quite appropriate to have on, . that the views of the classics themselves far from uniform and require a strict distinction,
. However, in the first two chapters, he stops and understand the basic features of the Austrian school, details of which were then still not so widespread in our. Manuilov returns to the same subject, and later, he touches it, for example, in a very interesting article: "Questions of economic theory in the new book P.B. Struve (Journal Europe ", 1913, X) and in his later work:" Political Economy "(Moscow, 1914). On retirement AI. Chuprova Manuilov took his chair at the Moscow University. In 1905, after the publication of Imperial decree on August 27, restored the right of universities to elect the rector, his assistant and vice-rector, Manuilov was elected assistant to the president, and after the death of Prince S.N. Trubetskoy, in the autumn of that year - Rector. In 1907, Mr.. Manuilov was elected a member of the State Council of the Academy of Sciences and universities. First, his speech here was devoted to the protection of the Autonomous University of attacks against him, which warrant introduced in the same 1907. Request 35-member council on the status of our high school. Of the later speeches Manuilova attention drawn the two big speeches made by him as a member of a special commission elected the State Council for review carried out in due time in accordance with Article 87 of the Basic Law. Regulation 9 November 1906, Mr.. the peasant land tenure, against the domestic foundations. Manuilov spoke strongly oppose the application of before forced to transition farmers from communal ownership to private ownership, . correctly arguing, . that "the public itself should provide the solution to the problem, . Does he live in community-based orders, . or go to the personal property,
. In 1908, Mr.. Manuilov was re-elected Rector for the next four-year period, but after the publication of January 11, 1911, Mr.. Decisions of the Council of Ministers on the avoidance of the walls of institutions of higher education student rallies and impute the responsibility of the police ranks to take swift and decisive action against them, . he was dismissed from the post of rector and professor for, . that filed a petition to release him from the Rector's duties while a professor Menzbir and Minakova, . refuse: the first - of his duties as Assistant Rector, . Second - Vice Rector,
. At the meeting on 28 January 1911. Council of Moscow University, . inquired about the decision of members of the presidium of the university to resign, . unanimously thanked them for their work and at the same time, almost unanimously (voice of all against one) fully agree to set out their explanation of their retirement,
. Council recognized that the execution of their duties by persons chosen by them under the action of Cabinet becomes impossible, because the decision that established the University of dual power, never had it not existed. Almost from it follows that either the two authorities - the rector and governor - would cease to function correctly, or one of them would have been subordinated to other. At the meeting on 2 February, the Council of the University, . about infiltrators print officious information to be removed from among the professors Manuilova, . Menzbira and Minakova, . found it necessary to ask about this to the head of the Ministry of Education and in its ruling made, . incidentally, . follows: "The Council can not consider ourselves to be closely related to their elected officials, not only because, . that they suffered the punishment due to his election, . but because, . that act, . they perfect, . Body found quite correct,
. Council considers it impossible to ignore, . that a number of professors of Moscow State University looks at this measure as forcing them to resign, . for removal from the university people, . correctly performing the assigned board on their responsibilities, . transfers, . they believe, . the whole thing on the basis of personal dignity "(H,
. Speranski "The crisis of the Russian School", 1914, p.. 109 - 111). This appeal to the managing board of the University of the Ministry had not, however, no consequences, "A number of professors and university professors, in fact, found himself compelled to resign. In connection with the official notification of the Minister of Education Kasso Manuilova dismissal from office of rector and professor at Moscow University raised the issue of recognition of its outgoing from the Council of State. The note, . introduced in the Soviet commission personnel, . Manuilov, . quite objectively protecting the dignity of the elected representative of the academic curia, . correctly argued, . that dismissal of professor - a member of the Council of State - from office without a petition with the subsequent recognition of his outgoing from the board - is at odds with the basic principle of independence and autonomy of the elected members of the Legislative Chamber,
. At the general meeting, . in addressing this issue, . was said, . moreover, . that the relevant articles of the establishment of the State Council and State Duma did not give grounds for the recognition of members of the academic curia, . dismissed the petition without, . administratively, . outgoing from the board,
. Nevertheless, the State Council, the majority acknowledged Manuilova, for the loss of qualification for the ordinary university professor, outgoing from the board. The fallacy of this perspective, led to the fact that the State Council itself deprived himself of one of his worthy fellow members, who later was recognized by the same board, renounced it in 1914. a similar case a member of the Board of DD. Grimm. Forced to stop lecturing at Moscow State University, Manuilov was invited by the economic department of the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute of Emperor Peter the Great, but could not accept this proposal. He continues to teach a course of political economy at the present time (1915) in the urban university Shanyavsky, at the Moscow Commercial Institute and University for Women and at the same time was the head of the publication "Russian Gazette". Of the printed works of his, . other than above, . yet issued the following: "The capitalist idyll" ( "Russian Wealth", . 1897), "On the forms of association charitable institutions in Western Europe and America" (1900), "Analysis of scientific works of Professor AN,
. Filippov and MA. Dyakonov and feedback on their professors D.YA. Samokvasova "(1903)," Essays on the peasant question ", published under his editorship (1904 - 05);" on land issue in Russia. Land shortage, . additional allotment or rent "(1905)," Handbook for the lectures on political economy "(1907)," Reform of the 19 February and communal land tenure "(in the collection of" great reforms ", . publication of the Association IDSytin), "The latest legislation on land community" (Journal of Europe "1912, . XI); "The economy and the right,
. Introduction to the program committee for the organization home reading "(1912)," Political Economy "; lectures (Issue I, 1914). For clarity and consistency in the development of strong themes, . This work is particularly valuable, . incidentally, . because, . that introduce the latest trends in the economic literature and, . quite objective, . free of any polemical attacks,
. A very important labor Manuilova large: for rent land in Russia in economic terms "(and a special enclosure -" Plans for lease land in some villages of Moscow province, which he submitted in 1903. in the highest institution of the Special Meeting the needs of the agricultural industry. The practical significance of this work, . especially for our time, . it is clear already from some of the main provisions of the author, . establishing, . that "the overriding reason for the wide spread of non-allotment rent in our country is lack of a peasant allotment land ..,
. Along with land poverty is extremely important reason for the wide dissemination in our country, renting is the inconvenient location of peasant lands for privately. Sometimes a foreign land cut deeply into the allotment, in other cases it is located in the middle of it, in the third - cuts the allotments on part. Such cherespolositsa very often makes very difficult for the peasants farming their own land ... "The Emerging hence" forced lease is serious inconvenience to the agricultural population ", . especially in those cases, . when ..,
. land falls into the hands of speculators, especially those buying up land to surrender them to the peasants' ... On the other hand, with the help of private owners rent often exploit more or less significant part of their estates and, in addition, compensate the lack of working capital and provide their management workforce ... Turning, therefore, the most important vital interests of the millions of our rural population, Manuilov back to them and recalled them in the press constantly. Of the number of his subsequent articles on the rental deserves special attention in the paper? 1 "Russian Gazette" for 1913. ( "The lease issue"), is expanding its previous position and in support of their latest data. The provisions of these in the finished design included an extremely important bill on the regulation of land leases made by the faction of people's freedom in the second session IV of the State Duma. A. Posnikov.

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Manuilov Alexander Apollonovich, photo, biography
Manuilov Alexander Apollonovich, photo, biography Manuilov Alexander Apollonovich  The economist and public figure, photo, biography
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