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Martens, Friedrich Fromgold

( Famous Russian lawyer)

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Biography Martens, Friedrich Fromgold
(1845 - 1909). He graduated from the course at St. Petersburg University, was left at the university and studied under the guidance of Professor Ivanovo. Defended his master's thesis ( "The right of private property during the war, St. Petersburg, 1869), Martens began in 1871. Associate Professor, in 1873, to protect his doctoral dissertation, a professor of international law at St. Petersburg University, the same thing he taught at the School of Law and at the Lyceum. Martens, belonged to the ruling in the literature of international law towards the positive, not limiting, however, the objectives of the study one stating the existing norms and institutions. He tried by historical study to discover the laws of their development and analysis of the conditions of modern life to determine their value and viability of. Thus, doctoral dissertation ( "The consuls and consular jurisdiction in the East", St. Petersburg, 1873, German translation Skerst'a, Berlin, 1874) was designed to "study the laws of the international administration". Interstate relations Martens thought it necessary to study not in isolation but in their natural connection with the legal institutions of individual countries and varied, both the spiritual and economic interests of society. Since the satisfaction of the latter is closely dependent on the esteem in which the human person in the state, the degree of freedom is a measure of the intensity of the Martens for state involvement in international relations. Progress of international law due to the development of free public institutions. Only the state in which the person has received recognition of their rights, can become a member of properly organized international communication. Martens therefore limited to international law society of European civilization, believing it possible to apply in relations with the rest of the mere "natural right", the contents of which he is not precisely defined. In connection with these visions, . though not always consistently, . construct a system of international law (the best of existing ones) in his famous course: "Modern international law of civilized nations" (St. Petersburg, . 1882 - 83; edition 5-e, . 1904 - 05 years; translated into German, . French and Spanish),
. This - Russia's first independent and comprehensive guide to international law. At the base of the system laid borrowed from the philosophical school of thought about international relations, but some parts are not aligned with her. The major difficulty Martens is a "collection of treatises and conventions concluded by Russia with foreign powers" (St. Petersburg, since 1874), with a very valuable historical explanations. Left volumes contain: I - IV treaties with Austria (1675 - 1,878), V - VIII - treaties with Germany (1656 - 1888), IX (X) - XII - treaties with Britain (1710 - 1895), XIII - XV contracts with France (to 1906). Polemical nature of his work are: "East war and the Brussels Conference in 1874" (St. Petersburg, . 1879); French translation of "La paix et la guerre", . Petersburg, . 1901), . "La Russie et l'Angleterre dans l'Asie Centrale" (1879; translated into Russian, . English and German), . "La conflit entre la Russie et la Chine" (1882), . "La question egyptienne" (1883) and other,
. Many articles published Martens in "Collection of the State of Knowledge", "Journal of the Ministry of National Education", "News of Europe", Journal of the Civil and Criminal Enlightenment "," Military Collection "," Revue de droit international "and other. Since 1874. Martens was a member of the Institute of International Law and took an active part in its work, not just its projects are permitted Institute (mixed procedure at the consular courts, . navigation on international rivers, . measures against the slave trade at sea, etc.),
. Martens was an official for special assignments at the State Chancellor, and from 1881. until the death of a member of the Board of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. A representative of the Russian government at many conferences, including at the Brussels 1874. (the codification of military law), 1889 - 90 years (to combat the slave trade), the Hague, 1893, 1894 and 1906 - on private international law at the Hague Peace 1899. Since 1884. Martens, representing the Russian government at all conferences of the Red Cross and in 1906. in the Geneva Conference on the revision of Convention 1864. Martens has repeatedly participated as judges in international courts of arbitration and before his death was a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague. - Wed. Obituaries Baron Nolde ( "Russian Thought", 1909, December) and Baron Taube ( "Journal of the Ministry of National Education, 1909). Vl. Grabar.

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