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Pavel Ivanovich Melnikov (Andrew Crypt)

( Prominent writer-ethnographer)

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Biography Pavel Ivanovich Melnikov (Andrew Crypt)
photo Pavel Ivanovich Melnikov (Andrew Crypt)
known under the pseudonym Andrew Caves. Born October 22, 1819, Mr.. in Nizhny Novgorod, where his father was chief of the gendarmerie command. In 15 years Melnikov graduated from the Nizhny Novgorod school, and in 18 years was a candidate for the verbal faculty of Kazan University. He left the university to prepare for the Department of Slavic tongues, but one of camaraderie buster he "carried away", . that was intended for shipment to Shadrinsk county teacher and only in the form of grace was a teacher of history and geography of the Permian High School,
. On vacation Melnikov went to the Ural factories, came closer to the people and became acquainted with the people's life, "a guy lying on the wards". Some of his observations, he placed in the "Notes of the Fatherland" in 1839, Mr.. ( "Trip Notes") and has since become a fairly active member of the journal Krajewski and his "Literary Gazette" (articles on history and ethnography, translation from Mickiewicz, a bad story in the style of Gogol - Elpidifor Tall "). In 1839 - 46 years. Melnikov was a history teacher in the Nizhny Novgorod school. Teaching experience its burdens, and for the ordinary student, he was maloudovletvoritelnym teacher, but students in gifted he aroused a thirst for knowledge, and he must love the history of two prominent Russian historian - Eshevsky and Bestuzhev-Ryumin. More readily exchanged Melnikov teachers out local officials for special assignments for the governor of Nizhny Novgorod, about the same time, he was appointed editor of the Nizhny Novgorod province news ", . in which well-placed department of development of the local antiquities,
. Researches in the local archives brought him the title of Corresponding Member of the Archaeological Commission. The subject of his performance have been almost exclusively the case schismatic, very numerous in the Nizhny Novgorod region. With the schismatic lifestyle Melnikov was familiar from childhood on Semenovsk county, where his mother got him a small estate. Through a friend-splitters Melnikov got out early printed and manuscript works of theology and soon could argue with the best schismatic dogmatists. In its official form appear on such differences, as recourse to the commonness of religion, through interviews, several schismatic skits. Reports Melnikova of performance schismatic orders drew it to the attention of the Ministry of the Interior in the last years of the reign of Nicholas I, he became the central administration of the first authority to split. Measures, . which at this time he recommended that the Government, . are harsh, he suggested, . example, . in places, . inhabited by Orthodox and Old Believers, . take recruits only from the splitters, . and children from the marriage, . committed fugitive priests, . take away from their parents and bring cantonists,
. Searches and seizures at the splitters he performed with zeal, even at that time, undue. In 1853, Mr.. it complained to the Senate of the wife of his friend schismatic, Golovastikova, with a sudden night searched the house where he did not spare bed has just given birth to a woman, looking for "prohibited" icon and t. n. items. New reign caught in Moscow, Melnikova producing a series of searches in the homes of splitters in order to catch the schismatic priests Austrian hierarchy. On Melnikov services now demanded a different kind. The newly appointed Minister of Interior, Lanskoy, entrusted him with drawing up official memorandum report for 1855, Mr.. - And Melnikov, following the fashion of the Minister, outlined the major reforms of the reign of Alexander II. In some notes about the split, which Melnikov was at the end of 1850 for the Interior Ministry and the Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich, he stood for a broad tolerance. This sudden turn spawned various unflattering and rumors persisted that found expression in the print edition of Herzen, and in Russia - in "Sketches of home-grown" evil Scherbyna ( "Works" Shcherbina ed. 1873, p.. 355 cf. Leskov and the "Historical Messenger, 1883,? 5). The explanation, however, is much easier. Melnikov was an exceptionally gifted fiction properties: it shrewdly observed and studied, but in the sphere of public life in his self-judgments were not, and he followed the prevailing trend. - In the "Contemporary" series of stories - "Old Years", "Bear's Corner," "Grandma's Tales" and others - to take in the accusatory literature first place after the "Provincial Essays" Shchedrin. Especially good are "Old Years": This painting starobarskogo wilfulness has not lost interest, because it is drawn from the truly artistic truthfulness and beautifully reproduces all the details of long-vanished way of life. Less interesting now "Bear Corner", which draws a virtuosity, which reached up to the engineers in the embezzlement, but at the time the story a noise is extremely alarmed, and all Office of Communications. When Melnikov wanted to collect in one book their incriminating stories, has turned out such an effect that censorship was opposed to their emergence, and the collection was not released until many years later ( "Stories Andrew Crypt, St Petersburg, 1875). In this collection deserves attention, among other things, the story "Krasilnikov, printed back in" Moskovityanine, 1852. and slightly more than the first time, exposure of "the dark kingdom" of Russian merchants. Translated to the service in St. Petersburg in 1859, Mr. Melnikov, with a small grant, began to publish the newspaper "Russian Diary", but the semiofficial organ, moreover, had no foreign affairs department, went and stopped at 141?. Then Melnikov was 3 volumes of valuable secret publication: "Collection of resolutions relating to the split, and was the most active member of the commission on collecting materials for historical study of the dogmatic Russian sects. In 1862, Mr.. out of his "Letters of a split" (from "Northern Bee"). With the appointment of the Minister of Valuev, Melnikova, partly under the influence of the revelations Herzen, steel scour; emerged in 1862, Mr.. official "North Mail", where the Melnikov expected to be an editor, he took a secondary position of director of internal department. In 1863, Mr.. he was instructed to draw up a brochure for the people: "The truth of Russian and Polish falsehood", which sold for a few cents and sold in 40000 copies. In 1866, Mr.. Melnikov moved to Moscow, . ranked among the Moscow governor-general, . and activity began to cooperate in the "Moscow Gazette" and "Russian Messenger, . where to place: "Historical Sketches of clericalism" (1864, . ? 5, 1866, . ? 5 and 9, 1867, . ? 2; part Dep,
. St.Petersburg, . 1864), . "Princess Tarakanova" (Section, . Moscow, . 1868), . Sketches Mordovians "(1876, . ? 6 and 9 - 10), . "Reckoning splitters" (1868, . ? 2), . "Secret sect" (1868, . ? 5), . "From the Past" (1868, . ? 4), . White Doves, . stories about the eunuch and the whip "(1869, . ? 3 - 5) and many others,
. Since 1871. Melnikov published in The Russian Messenger "," Forests "in 1875 - 81 years - for their continued," At the Mountains ". Last 10 - 12 years of life lived Melnikov, a part of his estate near Nizhny, hamlet Lyakhov, a part of the Lower, where he died on Feb. 1, 1883, Mr.. With the advent of "Forests" (M., 1875, St. Petersburg., 1881) Melnikov immediately nominated in the first ranks of literature. He graciously accepted the heir to the throne, the future Emperor Alexander III; few times it was presented to Emperor Alexander II. In 1874,. Moscow Society of Lovers of Russian Literature celebrated 35-year anniversary of his literary activity. "In the woods" and "In the mountains, first became acquainted with the life of Russian society is split - works just as unique as peculiarly their origin. Melnikov absolutely not aware of any properties, nor the size of his talent. All official engrossed by ambition, he had almost no literary ambition and writing, especially in fiction, watching as the occupation "in between times". The motivation to clothe their knowledge of the split in the form belletristic was almost forced upon him, even the very title: "In the woods" does not belong to him. In 1861, Mr.. in the number of persons accompanying the heir of the late Nicholas Alexandrovich in his journey along the Volga, was included and Melnikov. He knew every corner of the Nizhny Novgorod on the Volga and every place he could tell all the legends, beliefs, the details of everyday life and t. d. The Tsarevich was fascinated by the novelty and interest of stories Melnikova, . and when, . about Lyskova, . Melnikov particularly detailed and fascinating spread about the life of the splitters of the Volga, . their monasteries, . forests and fisheries, . He said Melnikov: "What would you, . Pestel, . all this in writing - to portray beliefs, . legends, . Zavolzhsky entire life of the people ",
. Melnikov was shy, pleading "lack of time in service occupations, but Tsesarevich insisted:" No, certainly write. I will take it with you in debt to the story of how living in the forests beyond the Volga ". Melnikov promised, but only after 10 years, when the service classes it completely finished, took up the promise, without any definite plan, and prepare only the first chapter. The increasing success of the work made him fall into the opposite extreme: he was extremely generous with the memories of what he has seen and heard among the people "of old piety" and insert longest episodes, . themselves are very interesting, . but the main plot had nothing to do and cluttered up the story,
. Especially a lot of long and unnecessary parenthesis in "On the mountains, although the editorial board of the Russian Messenger" has done in this work of Melnikov huge reduction. In essence, valuable only the first two parts of "In the Woods. There is quite taken shape nearly all the main types of narrative: the tyrant, . the basis of honest and noble, . "thousands," Chepourin; all in his daughter - a proud and charming Nastya sister Chepourin, . schismatic Superior Manefa, . that all the fire of passion burning, . after it failed to arrange his personal happiness, . sent out, . to exalt and glorify his abode; illegitimate daughter of - fire-girl Flenushka, . desperate posobnitsa any romantic adventures, . but, . unless, . sacrifice his heart, . to please the mother,
. In the first two parts of well defined and negative types: self-interested handsome Alexei Shaggy, . rascal and a counterfeiter Stukolov, . his accomplice - Superior, Michael and, . Finally, . sweet-voiced songster, . jealous of faith and a great pedant Vasily Borisovich, , . with a pious exclamation: "Oh, . temptation,
. A Characterization of all these, the remaining two parts of "In the woods" and "At the Mountains" absolutely nothing is added. In the first two parts of "In the woods" completely outlined and the paintings of everyday life, which Melnikov such an amazing artist: dinners, ceremonies, crafts, carousing, prayer skete life, the debate about faith, further repetition of this very tedious. Especially boring dozens of pages, which devotes Melnikov transcription in conversations schismatic dogmatics. But the first two parts of "In the forests" belong to the most fascinating books of Russian literature. They open up entirely new (and now become part of history), surprisingly colorful world, full of life and movement. Half-savage people beyond the Volga forests in the artistic depiction Crypt excite not only the cold curiosity, but also the most active part. Strengths of the Forests "- the charm of the story. The most common thing - lunch, a walk, the guy in the bath - becomes a Melnikova an exciting epic. Due to long contact with the people of the Volga region, Melnikov before assimilated folk speech, which she uses not only in conversation, but where is the story of the author, in describing the nature and t. d. The main drawback of the last works of Melnikov's the one that took only Melnikov kazovuyu side of life. Before us is a perpetual feast. "Thousands," now and then ask the fabulous feasts with dozens of dishes, like a guy - so handsome as a girl - the so-queen wrote, and as the guy sees the girl - so now they have gone, but love in the next chapter has already parted bushes and followed by a number of points. Monastery Life Melnikov represents only the part sladkoedeniya and gulyanok. Labor life Melnikov hardly touched, and only once a very evil ridiculed Artel orders, which he generally could not stand, along with communal land tenure. Strictly speaking, "Forests" and "At the Mountains" paint only the lives of the rich and dissipated "thousands," and cover up alleged sanctity of their parasitism and corruption Skitnik. Stories Crypt do not give the key to understanding the inner nature of such a huge, deep movement, which is split. Why are these so cheerful people, and just busy eating, drinking and girls, so take hold of the "old faith"? There is in the psychology of people of ancient piety any moral foundations that give them the strength to fight persecution. And now they something Melnikov and overlooked for feasts and revelry, why all the great story it is only important for external acquaintance with the split. Complete Works of Melnikov issued M. O. Wolff in 1897 - 98 years, and given as an annex to Niva 1909. (from before. A. Izmailov). For biographies Melnikova relevant work P.S. Usova, in "Historical Messenger (1884,? 9 - 12, the Census. ed in. 1897) and a collection of "In Memory of Melnikov" (Nizhny Novgorod, 1911) cf. also Leskov, in the "Historical Messenger (1883, No. 5), K. Bestuzhev-Rumin, in the Journal of the Ministry of National Education "(1883,? 3); brochure H. Nevzorov (Kazan, 1883) and a commemorative speech Ilovaisky, in "Russian Archive" (1875, # 1); Vengerov "Sources", t. IV. Analysis of literary activity Melnikova - and then not so much parsing as a paraphrase - gave only one op. Miller (Russian writers after Gogol ", 3rd ed., 1886). S. Vengerov.

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Pavel Ivanovich Melnikov (Andrew Crypt), photo, biography
Pavel Ivanovich Melnikov (Andrew Crypt), photo, biography Pavel Ivanovich Melnikov (Andrew Crypt)  Prominent writer-ethnographer, photo, biography
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