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Menshikov Alexander Danilovich

( Favorite Peter I and Catherine I)

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Biography Menshikov Alexander Danilovich
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Favorite Peter I and Catherine I, opens a number of Russian timeservers XVIII century. Year of his birth is not known exactly: by Bergholz he was born in 1673, according to Golikov - in 1670, Mr.. Not fully explained and the origin of it: according to some, his father was a court groom, according to others - Corporal Peter Guard and there is also news (later) that Menshikov in his youth selling cakes on the streets of Moscow. Discover Petra with Menshikov, as commonly accepted, took place through Lefort, who took to the Menshikov himself at the service. There is no doubt that Menshikov had served in the Transfiguration of the regiment since its establishment several years served as orderly for Peter and acquired his position, soon transformed into a close friendship. Since 1697, Mr.. Menshikov inseparable from Peter: with him makes Azov campaign together going abroad, participates in Streltsi wanted, perform the important assignment, and his influence begins to outweigh even the impact Lefort. After the battle of Narva Menshikov, together with the king was involved in the actions of the Russian army in Ingria, and showed great courage and remarkable military talents. After the capture, in 1702, Noteburg he was appointed commandant of the fortress, then governor of the conquered regions, and in his conduct, in the so-called Izhorskaya Office, were transferred to many state income. Talented and energetic, . Menshikov did not stop at nothing in order to meet emerging, . because of war, . needs, and its rapid, . resolute action is consistent with the seething energy of the king, deprived of any, . even elementary education (he could barely sign his name), . He supplemented this lack of natural wit,
. In 1705, Mr.. Menshikov was summoned to Lithuania, where the concentrated military action, and here the act first as Assistant Marshal Ogilvie, nachalstvuya of cavalry, and then in 1706 as an independent commander. In the same year he defeated the Swedish general Mardefeldom in Kalisz. This was the first Russian victory in a regular battle, and Menshikov was generously endowed for it. Even earlier, in 1702, he received a diploma on the dignity of Count of the Roman Empire, and now he was elevated to the rank of prince of the Roman Empire, and in 1707, Mr.. Peter lifted him to the dignity of His Serene Highness Prince Izhorskogo. Receiving news of treason Mazepa, Menshikov attacked Baturin, took him by storm and brutally destroyed, after killing almost all the inhabitants. During the battle of Poltava Menshikov was field-marshal dignity. Until 1714, he participated in the campaign abroad, . in Kurland, . Pomerania and Holstein, . and then his work has focused on issues of internal device, . referring, . thanks to its proximity to the king, . almost all major state needs,
. The most zealous officer Peter Menshikov, however, is not so much because of the consciousness of those principles, what guided the work of the converter, as in force on selfish motives, and the latter gave his whole figure of a particular color. "Poluderzhavny lord", . in the words of Pushkin, . "child of heart" Peter, . as he called his last in his letters to him, . was a terrible itching and embezzlers and, . despite awards, , . increased its state of all sorts of unfair ways,
. Not satisfied with bribes asylum, he robbed abroad behalf of the Polish gentry, imprisons itself Little Russia Cossacks, took away land from adjacent landowners to his name, finally, robbing the treasury of all sorts Subseries. In 1711, Mr.. Peter first learned of abuse Menshikov, and three years later was appointed, by denunciations Kurbatova, a special commission of inquiry. From then until the end of the reign of Peter I Menshikov almost did not come out from under court. Numerous commissions of inquiry revealed his misuse of grandiose, but they expose only shaken the confidence of Peter and the location of Menshikov, not depriving the latter strongly influence and power. In addition to still remain a favorite of Peter's attachment to, . addition intercession for him Catherine, . through him acquainted with Peter, . there could be other considerations: in the face of Menshikov Peter treasured one of the most talented and loyal employees,
. As devotion to the king, and the personal interests of Menshikov, closely associated with the reforms made him an enemy of the party followers of antiquity. In this role he stepped out, among other things, and in a collision with his son Peter. Many of his contemporaries, is unlikely, however, thoroughly considered the main culprit, even Menshikov death of Alexei Petrovich. In any case, the abuse of Menshikov went well with his hands, as they shift with the disclosure of fines, he successfully drowned their enemies, among whom there were at times very powerful people, such as Shafirov. With the establishment of boards Menshikov was appointed in 1719, the president of the military collegium. Only at the end of the reign of Peter the, . after, . a known Monsova history undermined the confidence of the king to Catherine, . Menshikov, . again caught in abuse, . serious danger, . but soon afterwards followed the death of Peter opened the way for him to even greater power,
. The main culprit of the enthronement of Catherine I, he became at this weak and incapable of true ruler of the Sovereign State. The Supreme Council, established in part because of the desire of other princes put an end to autocracy Menshikov, soon became a mere tool in his hands. To consolidate his position, he tried to achieve with the help of Russian bayonets, then the election to fill the vacant throne of the Duchy of Courland, but the attempt was unsuccessful. Then Menshikov took other steps to safeguard themselves in case of death of Catherine. Not looking forward to the opportunity to remove from the throne of his son Alexei Petrovich, , . He switched sides in advance of the candidate, at the request of Menshikov, . Catherine has given its consent to the marriage of a minor, the daughter of Peter Alekseevich Menshikov,
. The found the death of Catherine's will (later proved false) declared heir to the throne of 12-year-old Peter and established before the age of both regency tsesareven, Duke of Holstein and the Supreme Privy Council. But the Duke, at the insistence of Menshikov, went to Holstein, together with Anna Petrovna, the real ruler of the state remained Menshikov, betrothed to the emperor with his daughter, Mary, and received the title of generalissimo. Despotism Menshikov cleared now in the open, sometimes turning to the emperor himself, and this is his undoing. Trying to reconcile with the old birth, he approached Peter II Dolgoroukys, who seized the opportunity to restore the emperor against Menshikov. September 8, 1727, Mr.. Menshikov was arrested, and the next day followed by a decree of exile him Ranenburg. Immediately after all of his enormous wealth were confiscated, and after it was found in Moscow anonymous letter in favor of Menshikov, he and his wife, son and daughters had been exiled in Bereza, where he died Nov. 12, 1729, Mr.. - Literature: Yesipov Life of aq. Menshikov "(" Russian Archive ", 1875); his" Link Menshikov in Birches "(Fatherland Notes, 1860," 8, and 1861, # 1 and 3); Kostomarov "History of Russia in the biographies of its leaders" (t. II); Karpovich, "Russian intervention policy in the election of Moritz of Saxony, Duke of Courland" ( "Old and New Russia", 1875, "9 and 10); Lazarevsky" Description of the old Little Russia "(t. I). - Wed. Catherine (XVII, 392). V. M-N.

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Menshikov Alexander Danilovich, photo, biography
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