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Michael Nicholas

( Distinguished journalist, sociologist and critic)

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Biography Michael Nicholas
Born November 15, 1842, Mr.. Meshchovsk in the city of Kaluga province, a poor noble family. He studied at the Alpine Corps, which came to special classes. 18 years of age made a literary career, in the critical section "Dawn", Kremnina. Collaborated in the "Bulletin of the Book", "vowel Court", "Week", "Nevsky Collection", "Contemporary Review", translated "French Democracy" Proudhon (St. Petersburg, 1867). The memory of that pore openings, when he led a life of literary Bohemia, Michael has devoted a considerable part of his book "Literature and Life" and, in fictional form, essays: "Interspersed". In particular he recalled the warmth of the early dead, almost completely unknown, but very gifted scholar and writer - Nozhin, which many spiritually obliged. Since 1869. Michael becomes a constant and of the staff referred to Nekrasov Fatherland Notes', and the death of Nekrasov (1877) - one of three editors of the journal (with Saltykov and Eliseev). In "Notes of the Fatherland" in 1869 - 84 years, placed important sociological and critical articles of his: "What is Progress", . "Darwin's theory and social science", . "Suzdal Suzdal and criticism", . "Voltaire is a man and the thinker Voltaire-", . "Authority, . indivisible, . whole ", . "What is happiness", . "The struggle for individuality", . "Wolnica and ascetics", . "Heroes and the crowd", . "The right hand and left hand graph L,
. Tolstoy, "" cruel talent ", etc.. In addition, he led the department monthly "Literary and journal notes, sometimes under the title:" Notes by the layman, "" Letters to the truth and falsehood, "" Letters to the learned people, "" Letters to the ignorant ". After closing in 1884. Fatherland Notes Michael for several years was an employee and member of the editorial board of the Northern Herald, wrote in Russian Thought "(polemic with L.Z. Slonimsky, a series of articles under the title "Literature and Life"), and in the early 1890's, headed "Russian Wealth", where he had a monthly literary notes under the title: "Literature and Life". Died Jan. 27, 1904, Mr.. The first collection of his essays published in 1879, 3rd at 10 large volumes, in 1909 - 13 years, under the editorship of E.E. Kolosova. Michael's literary work expresses that build it during a recent history of Russian progressive thought, which replaced the combat period "storm and stress", the overthrow of the old foundations of the social outlook. In this sense, Michael was a direct reaction against the excesses and errors Pisarev, a place which he took as "the first critic" and "ruler of the minds" of the younger generation 60-ies. Chronologically, the successor Pisarev, he was essentially a follower Chernyshevskogo, and in its sociological works - Lavrov. Main merit of his that he understood the danger, which was to promote Pisarevskii utilitarian egoism, individualism and "thinking of realism", which in its logical development led to the neglect of public interests. As in their theoretical work on the sociology, . so even more in the literary and critical articles of its Michael again highlighted the ideal of public service and sacrifice for the good of the general, . and his teaching on the role of personality encouraged to begin this ministry immediately,
. Michael - a journalist par excellence, he sought not so much to the coherence and logical perfection, as to the direct impact on the reader. That is why the purely scientific arguments against the "subjective method" did not slip values, which at one time had Sociological Studies Michael, as a phenomenon nonfiction. Michael's appeal against the organic theory of Spencer and his desire to show that in the historical life of an ideal, a desirable element, were of great significance, creating a mood in the readers, hostile historical fatalism and quietism. Generation of 70-ies, deeply imbued with the ideas of altruism, has grown at Michael's articles, and considered him among the top leaders of their mental. - Value, . Michael has acquired after the first sociological articles in "Notes of the Fatherland", . prompted the editors to give him the role of "first criticism"; from the early 70's, he became primarily a literary columnist, . only occasionally giving only sketches the scientific content,
. Possessing an outstanding erudition in philosophy and social sciences, and together with the great literary insight, though not aesthetic properties, Michael has created a special kind of criticism that is difficult to bring under its established types. It's - response to all that worried Russian society, both in the sphere of scientific thought, and in the sphere of practical life and current literary phenomena. Sam Michael, certainly a man to whom no one would make such an epithet, most readily calls himself a "layman", the most important part of his literary notes - Notes layman ". This self-determination, he wanted to separate themselves from the guild scientist who does not care about life, and which seeks only to the formal truth. "Ignoramus", . contrary, . interested only in life, . to any phenomenon approached with the question: that it provides for understanding the meaning of human life, . contributes to the fulfillment of human happiness? Mockery of Michael's craft learning, gave rise to accuse him of ridicule science in general, but in fact none of the Russian writers of modern times has not helped to a degree promotion of scientific thinking, . as Michael,
. He fully realized plan Valerian Maikova, who saw in his criticism of "the only way to lure the public interest in network science". A brilliant literary talent Michael, . pungency of style and the very manner of writing - to mix seriousness and depth of evidence of different "polemical beauties", . - All this makes an extraordinary recovery in the most abstract and "boring" subjects, with an average audience mostly because of the Mikhailovsky acquainted with all the scientific and philosophical topic of the day the last third of the XIX and the first years of the twentieth century,
. Most Mikhailovsky has always been a place of drafting a worldview. Combating cold complacency narrow positivism, and his desire to free themselves from the "accursed questions"; protest against Pisarev's views on art (Pisarev's attitude toward Pushkin Michael called vandalism, . as meaningless, . as the destruction of the Vendome Column Communards); clarify the foundations of social altruism and their resulting moral responsibilities; finding dangerous side of excessive reverence for the people and the unilateral Populism and the fight against the ideas of Count Tolstoy to resist evil, . because they are conducive to public indifference, in the 1890's hot, . systematic struggle against the excesses of "economic materialism and Marxism - these are the main points of transit tireless, . from month to month, . journal of Michael,
. Some literary phenomena Mikhailovsky given the opportunity to express a lot of original ideas and insights to create several characteristics. "Repentant nobleman" whose type is clarified Mikhailovsky, has long been a winged word, as both Michael's remark that the 60-ies in literature and life "came raznochinets". The definition of "repentant nobleman" captured the essence of the liberation movement of the 40's and 60's: "The passionate desire to make amends for its historic guilt before the enslaved people. This desire is not a Western democracy, created a class struggle. Leo Tolstoy (article "The right hand and left hand graph L. Tolstoy's "written in 1875) Michael realized very early, having before it only teaching his articles, which were the subject of horror for many journalists" liberal "camp. Michael opened the first of those spiritual personality of the great artist-philosopher, . have witnessed all only in the 80's and 90-ies, . after a number of works, . absolutely stunned old friends Tolstoy their apparent surprise,
. Similarly critical was a revelation, and Michael's article: "A Cruel Talent", elucidate one of the most characteristic sides of the genius of Dostoevsky. Great torment Dostoevsky combines with an equally great enlightenment, he is at one and the same time, Ahriman and Ormuzd. "A Cruel Talent", by surprise, yet irresistible persuasiveness of conclusions can be mapped in our critical literature only with the "darkness" Dobrolubova, where he passed a critical analysis of a purely creative synthesis. - An extensive literature on Michael cm. at MцLziц¬res "Russian Word", Vladislavlev "Russian writers," Vengerov "Sources", t. IV. Some books and pamphlets on the Mikhailovsky: Ranskogo (1901), H. Berdyaev (1901), Krasnoselski (1900), Gardenin-Chernoff (1906), E. Kolosov (1912 - the most extensive work on St Michael's). In 1901, Mr.. on the occasion of the 40-year anniversary of Michael's left on his book "The Post of Honor" (2-e additional. ed., 1905). S. Vengerov.

Michael, as a sociologist, is adjacent to the Russian direction of positivism, which is characterized by the so-called (not quite correctly), the subjective method. First major work was devoted to Michael's progress ( "What is progress?"), . allowing you, . He argued the need to assess the development in terms of certain ideals, . whereas obektivisticheskie sociologists look at the progress just as indifferent to the evolution of,
. In the end, the ideal of Michael - personal development. In a number of Michael's work exposes a very thorough criticism of sociological theory (Spencer), . identifies the company with the body and degrade the human personality at the level of simple cells of the social organism ( "the Authority, . indivisible, . Society, etc.),
. The problem of the human person in society in general is a very important subject of sociological research Michael and all his sympathy - on the side of individual development ( "The struggle for individuality"). At the same time Michael is interested in the relation between the individual and the masses ( "Heroes and the crowd," Pathological magic "), which leads him to the very important findings in the field of collective psychology. A special category of sociological views of St Michael are those criticisms that were caused by the application of Darwinism to Sociology (Sociology and Darwinism, etc.). At the end of the life of Michael led the debate with the economic materialism. - See. N. Kareev "Michael, as a sociologist" ( "Russian Gazette", 1900, "318); his own" In Memory of Michael, as a sociologist "(" Russian Wealth ", 1904); H. Berdyaev "Subjectivism and Individualism in the social philosophy of Michael" (1912); P. Mokievskii "Michael and Western science" ( "Russian Wealth", 1904); C. Ransky Sociology Michael (1901); C. Yuzhakov "Sociological Michael doctrine" (in the book "The Post of Honor", 1901). More detailed guidance in the X t. "Michael's Complete Works" (1913). N. K.

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