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Ants Mikhail

( Graf - statesman)

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Biography Ants Mikhail
(1796 - 1866)
Graduate of Moscow University. He served on the Quartermaster part; was wounded at Borodino, in 1813, took part in the Battle of Dresden. It belonged to the circle of young men who formed in 1816, the first secret political society, and took an active part in the drafting of the statute of the Union of Welfare. In 1820, after riots in the Life Guards regiment Semyonov, left the service. During the investigation of the Decembrists M. was arrested, but managed to justify. In 1826 he was appointed vice-governor in Vitebsk. C 1828 M. was the civil governor of Mogilev. In 1830 came with the idea of lifting the statute of Lithuania and the imposition of the judicial process and management of the Russian language, which was carried out for Belarus law on Jan. 1, 1831. During the Polish rebellion M. was at the headquarters of the army and successfully acted against small bands in the provinces of Vitebsk, Minsk and Vilna. In 1830 he presented to Emperor Nicholas I note on the need to transform education in the Western Region, . immediate introduction of them Russian language and eliminate the Latin clergy from participating in the education and upbringing of youth, in 1831 he insisted on the closure of the Vilna University, . as a nursery of rebellion,
. In the same 1831 M. appointed governor of Grodno, in 1835 - the military governor of Kursk, then director of the department of taxes and fees. In 1812 he was appointed a senator and director of boundary case, in 1850 - a member of the State Council, in 1856 - Minister of State Property. Entry M. this post brought with it a sharp turn in the Ministry of State Property. Instead of caring for the welfare of the state peasants to the fore the desire to increase revenue of the treasury. Decrees 11 and 23 February 1859 has been raised total taxes selection round in each of okadastrovannyh provinces, in proportion to the profit registered males, since the adaptations in the column Kiseleva taxes with a shower on the ground. Another way to increase revenue from the state peasants were the new inventory rules imposed by the instruction 1859. In his role as Minister of State, M. stubbornly opposed the liberation of the peasants and was one of the most prominent leaders of the party of the feudal. At the end of 1861, when an issue was the extension of the 19 February state peasants, M. resigned as minister, and a year later was dismissed, and from the department of housing portions, and a boundary. When the Polish insurrection broke out, Moscow, May 1, 1863, was appointed Governor-General of 6 north-western provinces, with extraordinary powers, then followed him and was subject to Avgustovskaya Province. During his troops were pursuing insurgents troops until their extermination. Performed many executions, among other things - on a number of priests. In their repressive measures against the rebels M. resorted to the measure, which he himself describes in his memoirs, coming out of the ordinary level ": the burning of entire villages and the nobility and the outskirts of exile in Siberia for settlement of their residents, all of them, with wives and children. Enormous indemnities levied as individual landowners and the village, in which the rebels appeared, were established fines for wearing mourning, Polish conversation and t. n. political rallies, a census of all classes, and the remaining on-site exacted significant fines for anyone else without passports absence without leave. Finding that the local population itself must pay for extraordinary expenses for subduing the region, M. overlaid with all the landed estates to collect 10% of their income, for persons of German descent, this fee was lowered to 3%, and for persons of Russian origin - to 1 1 / 2%. The entire collection was in the first year to 2 600 000 rubles. From the Catholic clergy to recover costs of expulsion from the province of persons belonging to its composition (up to 68 000 rubles). The Polish nobility paid for all damages, . caused by the rebels as a government property, . and private (Orthodox priests, . peasants), it is taxed was a special collection for the maintenance of armed village guards, . exceeded the 800,000 rubles,
. In the types of harassment gangs, cut down to 50 yards from the centuries-old forest roads and felled trees were given to the peasants, their rubivshim. Since the end of 1863 M. taken some measures to pacify the region and the Russification. These include: the closure of Catholic monasteries, . restriction of the rights of the Latin clergy, . assist individuals to Russian, . and sometimes also of German origin to acquire sequestered estates (which had been allocated 5 million rubles), returns to employees in the province officials confiscated estates on preferential basis, improvement of life of the Orthodox clergy benefit of clergy by state land plots from 150 to 300 acres, the building of Orthodox churches, . device is Russian Orthodox and Old Believer settlements on public lands (as free, . and selected from the tenants of Polish origin), . as well as on the ground evicted in Siberia Gentry outskirts,
. In the land organization and welfare of the local peasantry M. was the only foreign performer's purposes: the direction of peasant affairs in the north-western region was determined for two months before the appointment of M., . Decree of 1 March 1863 to terminate the 5 north-western provinces of formal relations of peasants to the landlords, . an appeal to the category of peasant proprietors, . 9 April, . almost a month before the appointment of M., . place an order on the device to verify the commissions charters,
. For M. These measures were only available at the Mogilev province and counties Belarusian Vitebsk province, and took a decree on allotment of land and landless laborers, shortly before the liberation of the peasants. May 1, 1865 M. was dismissed from the post of governor-general of the North-Western Territory, and, elevated to the dignity of the Count's. In April 1866 M. was appointed chairman of the supreme committee in the case Karakozov. 31 August the same year he died. In 1898 he erected a monument in Vilnius. - Wed. kn. P. Dolgorukov M. N. M. (L., 1864); D. Kropotov Life Count. M. N. M. (1874 - increased to 1831 inclusive); P. Sorokin M. in Lithuania in 1831 "(" Russian Antiquities ", 1873, t. VII); N. Sieve "As M. exacted in Kursk arrears "(" Russian Archive ", 1885, t. II); "Notes" M. the rebellion in 1863 ( "Russian Antiquities", 1882, "11 and 12, 1883,? 1 - 5, 1884, No 6);" Four notes gr. M. on the north-western region in 1830 - 65 years "(" Russian Archive ", 1885, t. II); A. Mosolov "Wilno Essays" ( "Russian Antiquities", 1883, "10 - 12, 1884, No. 1, and separately 1898)," Letter M. N. M. to AA. Green 1863 - 64 years "(" Voice of the past ", 1913).

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