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Nadezhdin Nikolai Ivanovich

( Academic and critic)

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Biography Nadezhdin Nikolai Ivanovich
photo Nadezhdin Nikolai Ivanovich
(1804 - 56), son of a priest, a graduate of the Moscow Theological Academy. A teacher in the Ryazan Ecclesiastical Seminary, then a home tutor in Moscow. Already in the Academy N., led by FA. Golubinsky become acquainted with German philosophy, from which, in his own words, borrowed look at the history of mankind as a process to develop ideas, influenced by the conditions, time and place. Joining Kachenovsky (see), H. wrote for The Messenger of Europe "article on the trading settlements of Italians on the northern Black Sea coast, and then, from 1828 to 1830 - a series of critical articles on contemporary literature. In 1830, H. collaborated in the "Moscow Gazette Pogodin, in 1831 founded the magazine" telescope "in which, as an application, published" Rumor ". The thesis of his romantic poetry ( "De poeseos. quae Romantica audit, . origine, . indole et fatis ", . M., . 1830; extract from it - in one issue of The Messenger of Europe "and" Ateneo ", . the same year), . written on a doctorate at the Faculty of verbal, . was in connection with his critical articles in the Journal of Europe ",
. In 1832 - 35 years of NS, with the rank of full professor, read at Moscow University, the theory of fine arts, archeology and the logic. His lectures were brilliant improvisations, made a deep impression on the audience, although some of them and found later in the readings of H. lack of serious content. In 1836, the "telescope" was banned for the "Philosophical Letters" Chaadaeva, and H. exile in Ust-Sysol'sk. That ended his activity as a critic and essayist. Already in his first critical article: "Literary fears for next year", which appeared in? 21 and 22 The Messenger of Europe in 1828, signed: "Ex-student Nicodemus Nadoumko, H. made a sharp rejection of all that time literature, . finding, . that in the famous poems of the time there is no shadow of artistic unity, . no idea, . no persons, . clearly understood by the author, . No strength of will, . no action: all incoherent, . sluggishly, . pale and strained, . despite the apparent brightness and heat,
. Speaking against the then dominant in our literature of Romanticism, H. argued, . that classicism, . Romanticism had major historical significance, . representing the two sides of the human spirit and being at the same time a reflection of two different worlds - the ancient and medieval, is the latest French Romanticism as little resemblance to the romanticism of the Middle Ages, . as psevdoklassicheskaya literature on Greek, . is pathetic counterfeits the true romanticism, . revival which in our time is equally absurd, . as the restoration of Classicism,
. As a follower of Schelling, H. including abstracts of their theses put well-known thesis: "where the life, . there and poetry ", he asserted, . that creative force is nothing, . as Life, . reproducing itself ", said the idea, . as the soul of the artistic work, . of artistic, . as a form of adequacy with the idea, considered the literature, . as one of the particular manifestation of the common people's life demanded, . that it is aware of its purpose - to be not idle play of individual imagination of the poet, . as the mouthpiece of the national identity,
. Poverty is our poetry N. attributed to a lack of serious and strong social life. When asked, does the old Russian poetic material for the renovation of the national spirit in the literature, H. negative response. History of Russia represents a specific period of purely physical expansion, devoid of real life: the latter requires "the beginning of a powerful spirit", which then was. In the Moscow period face the Russian nationality had not yet been established, it is only a preparatory step towards a truly state history, revealed by Peter the Great. As folk literature, the ancient period of Russian history it was not, because the people's language is not subjected to literary adaptation. Sv. writing was brought to us in Church Slavonic language, which arose and we have written, popular for a long time so it could not develop "in the living folk literature". Turning to the present, H. asked: "How to be Russian literature, when there are more Russian language? Improvement of language can contribute to the broader literary life and criticism. Lexical its enrichment should serve as a related Slavic languages, syntactic Advancement - folksong, proverb, byword. In the fables of Krylov and novels Zagoskina H. saw the first and the brilliant experiments of construction vernacular language to the level of literary merit. Started writing in the journal Kachenovsky, who was then in complete disregard of, the patron of all the obsolete and incompetent in the literature, the enemy of all modern and talented, H. Zoilus and gained a reputation as a pedant, became the subject of caustic criticism of the Field and splitting Pushkin's epigrams ( "Parable," "The boy brought Phebe anthem"). Soon, however, Pushkin realized that his worst enemy lies the most faithful friend, and placed in the "Telescope" known polemical an article under the pseudonym Feofilakt Kosichkin. "Telescope" has continued to develop the ideas expressed by H. in his earlier articles, but had limited success: the criticism of him for a long time did not penetrate into the audience. At large value of H. in the history of Russian literature was first pointed out only in the year of his death Chernyshevski ( "Essays on the Gogol Period of Russian Literature", . in "Contemporary" 1855 - 56 years; separately issued, . St.Petersburg, . 1892), . attributing it a value of teachers and educational Belinsky,
. Some deny the continuity between Belinsky and H. The correct solution between the two extremes is the opinion P.N. Milyukova ( "Russian Thought", 1895,? 4), that H. joined the intellectual movement, expressed in shellingizme, but too late to take an active part in formulating the basic ideas of the new world outlook, which has representatives in the middle of 1820 we had Vellanski, Galich, Davydov, MG. Pavlov, Venevitinov, Prince VF. Odoyevski. In any case, one must admit that it was under the influence of H. literary criticism is no longer confined to cursory notes, based on personal impressions rather than on theoretical principles. Even the enemies of H. (eg, "Telegraph" Field) quietly to themselves began to repeat his thoughts and at the same time to distribute them in society, preparing the ground for the assimilation of criticism Belinsky. N. - One of the most talented Russian people. Extensive information, history, theology and literature, combined it with great wit and a strong theoretical mind. Unsympathetic feature was its "mawkish patriotism, . leads him to the display to, . as opoetizirovanie Russian kulak, he repeated the usual phraseology of the then official nationality and developed bureaucratic views of the people, . not always in harmony with their basic outlook,
. In general, it is no different hardness opinion. The reference H. I spent a year, . writing during this time about one hundred articles for "Encyclopedic Dictionary of Plouchard and some great research for" Library for Reading in 1837 ( "On the historical truth and accuracy", . Experience the historical geography of the Russian world "),
. Then he spent several years in Odessa, working on the history of southern Russia in the Odessa Society of Lovers of history and antiquities ". In 1840 - 1841 NS respectively, on behalf of D.M. Knyazhevich, made an extensive tour of the Slavic lands and in Vienna "Jahrbucher fur Litteratur" (1841, t. XCI) posted an article on Russian dialects. In 1843, H. became editor of the Journal of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, which published a number of valuable works on geographical, ethnographic and statistical study of Russia (Kuban Steppe, "" The tribe of Russian Slavs in the general family of "[t. I], "Study of Russian cities" [t. VI - VII], "and the order volume overview of the national wealth" [t. IX], etc.). However H. became the Minister, LA. Perovskoj kind of expert on the historical and religious Welfare Officer. From the works of N., . emanated from the official orders, . published two: "Study on skopcheskoy heresies" (St-Petersburg, . 1845) and "On foreign dissenters" (1846), both reprinted in the "Compendium of government information dissenters" Kelsiev (L., . 1860 - 62),
. Note on foreign dissenters, for the preparation of a H. in 1845 - 1846 he. traveled abroad, gives much valuable information about the situation on the eve of the base Lipovans belokrinitskoy hierarchy. It is entirely permeated by the outlook for the split, which prevailed in the then government circles. The note H. There are hints of how he lived among the dissenters, "in their villages and homes, ferret out what he needed to know, carefully concealing their goal of inquiry. Since the end of 1848 H. was presiding in the department of ethnography Geographic Society, the publications of which he took an active part, as the editor of Izvestia, Geographical and Ethnographic Collection "(1853). In the article "On ethnographic study of the Russian people" ( "Notes of Russian Geographical Society, Prince. 2, St. Petersburg, 1847) H. broadly outlines the volume of the ethnography of science and its ramifications on different sides of people's life (the study of peoples from historical and geographical, on the part of people's psychology, archeology, life, etc.).. He gave a few excellent works on historical geography and made ethnographic program delivery which gave Geographical Society mass of valuable data. Direction H. in this area AN. Pypin ( "History of Russian Ethnography, t. I) describes how ethnographic pragmatism, who wanted to proceed from the immediate, accurate facts, and ascribes to him a large share of improved methods of monitoring and gathering of ethnographic materials. H Works. never been collected were not. In the first 2 - 3 years of his literary activity of H. printed quite a lot of poems in the spirit of Schiller, the weak in terms of artistic. The book "One Hundred Russian writers" (t. II, St. Petersburg, 1841) placed the story N. "Willpower". His autobiography (unfinished) printed with additions P.S. Saveliev and the list of works N., in The Russian Messenger in 1856 (March). - See. Article. S. Trubacheva in the "Historical Messenger (1889," 8 and 9), MM. Filippova in "Russian Wealth" (1894,? 9), H. Cosmin "academic life and scientific and literary activity" (St. Petersburg, 1912, "Notes of History and Philology of St. Petersburg University", CXI).

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