Nadson Semen Yakovlevich( Famous Poet)
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Biography Nadson Semen Yakovlevich
Born in St. Petersburg on Dec. 14, 1862. His mother came from a Russian noble family Mamontov and his father, of Jewish origin, was an official man of talent and very musical, he died, when H. was 2 years. Stony with two children, his widow first governess lived in Kiev, then she married a second time. This marriage was very unhappy. In memory of the poet left an indelible impression on heavy family scenes ended stepfather's suicide, after which the mother NV, together with children, settled in St. Petersburg with her brother, but died soon. Left in the care of his uncle, with whom little hit it off, H. in 1872 given to a boarder in the 2 nd Military High School (now 2 Cadet Corps), where he graduated from the course. Once, in the Pavlovsk Military School, he caught cold on the teaching. Doctors noted the beginning of consumption, and at government expense was sent to Tiflis, where he spent a year. In 1882, H. released a second lieutenant in the Caspian regiment, located in Kronstadt. It was the best period of his life, his bright mood was reflected in one of the few, not poisoned by heavy meditation poem:
Come true, everything for the school walls
I dreamed I was young, in spite of imminent.
The rapidly growing literary fame, lively character, wit, kind heart - all this to friends and acquaintances NV; his lavish care and custody. Military service is nonetheless very burdened N., and at the first opportunity he resigned (1884). Several months later, he was secretary of the editorial board of the Week ", but soon the disease took such a turn of the breast that friends of the poet, with the help of the Literary Fund, sent it first in Wiesbaden, then in Nice. Not a warm climate or two painful operations tuberculous fistula legs, which was made in Bern, did not lead to anything, and in the summer of 1885 friends decided to take him back to Russia. Slowly extinguished, he lived for about 1 1 / 2 years, first in Podolia, and then, near Kiev, and finally, in Yalta, where he died January 19, 1887. During this time, his popularity grew all, . which appeared in 1885 collection of poems quickly sold, . took second and third, . Academy of Sciences awarded him the Pushkin Prize, . picture books placed his portrait, . He received many letters of sympathy,
. When he was in Kiev to arrange an evening in favor of the Literary Fund, he was greeted with standing ovation, and after reading carried on hands. Living near Kiev and looking for earnings that do not need the help of friends and the Literary Fund, H. began to write literary satires in the Kiev newspaper "Dawn". This involved him in controversy with the critic, "New Times, VP. Burenin, which is a broad hint cocked on H. accusation that his illness was feigned and serves as a pretext for begging benefits. Dying poet, deeply affected by this charge, he was going to Petersburg and to arrange a court of honor, but was not admitted to friends. After some time, the attacks resumed with renewed strength, the latter directed against the H. feuilleton "New Time" came to Yalta after his death. The body of the poet was transported to St. Petersburg and buried in the Volkov Cemetery. A few years later, the collected money by subscription, over the grave of H. monument. - H. began writing very early, already in 1878 one of his poems was published in "Light" NP. Wagner, then he placed the poems in "Word", "common sense", "Thoughts". In 1882 he met him AN. Pleshcheyev extremely warm otnesshiysya to the boy and opened his way to the Fatherland Notes. Placed here poems N. drew public attention to it. Interest in poetry, H. not weaken still. Ownership of the works of AN, according to his will, belongs to the Literary Fund, which he thus paid a hundredfold for the support. Educated by selling poems N. "nadsonovsky Capital Fund is currently about 200 thousand rubles. During the 28 years since his death, his poems survived 28 editions (for 6000 copies, but in recent years to 12,000 copies). This unprecedented success, many attributed the first sympathy for the unfortunate fate of prematurely deceased poet and as a protest against the slander, he has poisoned the last days of life. It has, however, for many years, troubles are forgotten, and the success of poems N. remains unchanged. We must, therefore, to seek its explanation in the most verses H. In H. reflected a transitional mood that characterizes the work and a better representative of the literary generation of the late 1870's and early 80-ies - Garshina. N. - Personification Ryabinin, in a story Garshina: "Artists". Like Ryabinin, he exclaims: "But to remain silent when around sobbing sound, and when so eagerly rveshsya to soothe, under a storm of struggle and suffering in the face ... Brother, I do not want, I can not keep silent ". There was a time when "poetry was carrying with him a sense of the unknown, the harmony of heaven and devotion to the dream, and it was the law - art for art, and it was a covenant - the service of beauty". But the first steps with her forehead tore and trampled in the dust of luxurious flowers - and the dark cloud of doubt and sorrow were covered with virgin beautiful features ". Abandoning poetry for enjoyment and serene contemplation, N., like garshinskomu Ryabinin, did not find their destination and in the fight against evil. He is very well aware of this: "and in the middle of the soldiers I rough fighter, but only moaning, tired disabled, looking with envy at their crown of thorns". So far does not correspond to the general character of the poetic H. idea of him as a poet "civilian" primarily. "Civil" mood N., . Like all of his general mood, . was deeply sincere, . but it is - only part of his creative impulses and is a kind of performance that, . that he considered moral obligation of every loving home of man and citizen,
. In purely literary qualities of his talent, he gravitated to the lyrical impulses, alien trends. This is evident from many places in his critical notes, and the dominant tone poems, which he left in his portfolio, and which are printed only after his death. Especially good in the art for precisely those poems in which he is more poet than a citizen: "In the cemetery," "In the wilderness," charming "Excerpt from a letter to M.V. Watson, . graceful afterpiece "crept into the corner, my secret", . "All come true", . "Again, moonlit night", . "I looked to her", . "No, . muse, . not call ", . "Spring", . "My muse is dead" (the last poem - one of the touching pieces of Russian poetry, . could become the next poem Nikitin: "Dug spade deep pit),
. Already in one of his early poems, "The Poet" H. simultaneously worships two ideals of poetry - the civilian and purely artistic. In later poems, . next to the call to fight, . his soul is "a painful dispute" with doubt of the need to fight ( "Just be left alone"); next to faith in the ultimate triumph of good ( "My friend, . my brother ", . "Springtime tale") composed bitter conclusion, . "that in the struggle and turmoil the universe is only one goal - peace of nothingness" ( "The Coming"), . reigns "in the darkness of despair tormented breast" ( "The veil is dropped) and is growing consciousness of nothingness efforts" before pouring a century of suffering, the blood, . before the eternal human evil and eternal enmity "(" I did not spare himself "),
. Sometimes the poet's soul there is a conflict with the desire for personal happiness. In one of the most popular poems N. said that he was "yesterday was glad to renounce happiness" - but "this spring, all in color, and looked in his window," and "madly, desperately want happiness, a woman's caresses and tears, and love without end ". In the absence of a H. straightness not, however, nothing to do with instability, and its fluctuations, like Garshin, united by a humane mood, not far-fetched, but deep. Ideal H. - Christ: "My God - the God of suffering, God, stained with blood, God - a man and a brother with a heavenly soul, and before the suffering and pure love, I bow to my ardent prayer". Defining his poetry itself H. given in the poem "Dreams": "I weep with weeping, afflicted with suffering and weary, I shook hands". These words and definition is the place occupied by H. in the history of Russian poetry. His own daughter muses Nekrasov, muse N. has its own individual features. She is more inclined to complain than to protest, but less severe. Not belong to strong and brilliant artists, H. has nevertheless of great poetic merit. He has a very musical, sometimes shaped verse, soulful tone, and most importantly - he owns a big concise. Favorite quote of his was a rule: "to say it was close, thoughts of room". He managed to create some very apt poetic formulas, formed a memory. Lyrics: how little lived, how many experienced, "" let the harp is broken - chord still crying, "" flew over the flowers, burned out lamps "- began with cruise and came into use in speech. The strength of H. Critical experiments N., collected in the book "Literary Essays" (St. Petersburg, 1888), are not anything outstanding. In 1912 published a collection of Literary Fund: "Prose, diaries, letters" H. (with biographical instructions, NK. Piksanova). - Wed. N. biography, with poems (composed M.V. Watson); Arseniev "Critical studies"; NK. Michael's Works. t. VI; Or. Miller, in "Russian Antiquities" (1888), "Collection of articles dedicated to the memory of N." (St. Petersburg, 1887); N.A. Kotlyarevsky "Poems of anger and grief" (Moscow, 1890); A. Tsarevskii "H. and its poetry of thought and sorrow "(Kazan, 1890); P. Grinevich (P.F. Yakubovich) "Essays on Russian Poetry" (St. Petersburg, 1904); M. Protopopov "critical articles" (Moscow, 1902); M. Menshikov "Critical Essays" (St. Petersburg, 1899). S. Vengerov.