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Basil Narezhny Trofimovich

( Russian writer)

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Biography Basil Narezhny Trofimovich
(1780 - 1826), founder of the realist school, the forerunner of Gogol. Place of the petty gentry Mirgorodskaya hundreds Gadyach the district. Initial training school was in all probability, in the Chernigov seminary, which gave him a number of impressions, then sent in his novels, then studied at the aristocratic school of Moscow University and in the university. Served in Georgia, then in St. Petersburg, the ministries of Interior and the military. Despite considerable success in the contemporary literature, Narezhny lived all his life away from the literary world, without taking part in the fight Karamzinians with Shishkov and his friends. The petty officer, who had no access to the higher circles of society, where then was concentrated mainly literary life, Narezhny wrote, not pleasing to the present, but could not help reflect the most characteristic features of his era. Another student, he puts the stories and poems, written under the strong influence of Derzhavin in the "pleasant and useful pastime" Podshivalova and Sokhatsky (1798) and "Ipokrene" Sokhatsky (1799 - 1800). Relating to the same about of time, the tragedy of it: "Bloody Night, or the Final Fall of the House Kadmova" does not stand out from a number of her current. Premises clashes with new people gave Narezhny opportunity to see a lot and many resent: the abuse of officials, . powerlessness, . general ignorance, . greed for profit - all this is depicted them in his satirical novel "The Black Year, . or Mountain princes, . filled, . modeled on the then-fashionable romans d'aventures, . mass of the most incredible adventure, but these adventures are only background, . which depicted a number of types of Caucasian administrators,
. The novel appeared in print only in 1829, according to the author's death, at which time the Georgian affairs were forgotten, and the tastes of the public and the critics are so developed that the novel was outdated. In 1804, Mr.. Narezhny published a tragedy, "Dmitri the Pretender" - unsuccessful skolok with "The Robbers" by Schiller. Opening of "The Lay of Igor", translation lyrics Ossian, in general revival of interest in native traditions and ethnic groups was reflected in Narezhny; it produces light in the first part of "Slavenskih Evenings" (1809). Chronicle, included here, no higher than many other tales of those days, but the critics reacted to it very favorably. In 1810, Mr.. Narezhny prints in the "Flower Garden" are two stories, somewhat more readable. In 1814, Mr.. appeared the first three parts of the novel Narezhny: "Russia Zhilblaz, or The Adventures of Prince Gavril Simonovich Chistyakov". Here, in outline, taken from Lesage, Narezhny gave a few pictures of Russian life. Roman, imp, was, however, selected and destroyed by order of the Minister of Education, Count Razumovsky, for immorality, and for the "reprehensible and alluring places". The real reason for the prohibition was rebuking Masons, . Narezhny depicted in an extremely unattractive, . caricature (which at that time enjoyed the patronage of the authorities) was raised and the question of the normality of serfdom, . examples of flagrant abuse of power of the landlords,
. This is - this Russian domestic affair, . reflecting the most outstanding features of Russian literature and social life of that era: Slavophilism shishkovistov, . predation officials, . paucity of intellectual interests-class, . spineless representatives of the educated society,
. All this, despite the longueurs, disheveled style and awkward structure of the novel, vividly outlines, characteristic convex. Much weaker than moralizing tale Narezhny: "Aristion, or re-education" (1822). Ably charted only the type of miser - Pan Tarah, the predecessor Gogol Elijah. In 1824, Mr.. Narezhny issued a "new story", part of a sentimental sort ( "Maria"), part of the east, it is instructive ( "Turkish court"), mostly the same way in that direction, which he followed in Zhilblaze ". Tale of "rich poor", "Zaporozhets", "foreign prince" are purely real, nravoopisatelnymi: the last, rather, a comedy and has some similarities with the "Auditors". The most famous and still read the works Narezhny, "seminarian," was published in 1824. It's completely on their own as in the plot, and details. Types not overact, and drawn directly from nature, differ vitality. Hero, Neon, passing the thorny path of seminary education - very lively person, his adventures are quite possible, and follow one another, due to the nature of the hero's situation in his life. Only at the end of the novel's apparent improbability in the action and concessions to the sentimental school. Tale of Two Ivan, or passion for lawsuits "was published two weeks after the death of the author. Here shown Litigiousness Ukrainians, two neighbors give birth to a lawsuit, which was ruining both of them (plot, later served as Gogol for his "Tale of How Ivan Ivanovich quarreled with Ivan Nikiforovichem"). Criticism often reproached Narezhny for the lack of "cultured tastes" for the crudity of language, a desire to portray the negative, dirty side of life, drunkenness, vulgarity and gray dirt of everyday life. Contemporaries called Narezhny "Teniers Russian literature," but recognized him and dignity, for example, the ability to preserve the character in the story "areas and nationalities". According to Prince P.A. Vyazemsky, Narezhny "first and only one" of contemporary writers managed to overcome the greatest challenge - to grasp the details of Russian life, for the preparation of the Russian novel. Narezhny great historical significance, he may be called a forerunner of Gogol. He gave the first samples of the Russian novel, free from imitation sentimental, moralistic, abstract transferable novels, which are read Russian public late last and early this century. - See. N.A. Belozerskaya "Vasily Trofimovich Narezhny" (2 nd ed., 1896); academic KN. Bestuzhev-Rumin, in "Report on the 35 th award-winning Count Uvarov (1895). Novels and stories Narezhny Smirdin published in 1835 - 1836 years; later separately published A. Suvorin "seminarian". V. Peretz.

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