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Nikitin Ivan Savich

( Famous Poet)

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Biography Nikitin Ivan Savich
Born on 21 September 1824. in Voronezh, in the family of the tradesman, the merchant candles. In 1839, Mr.. Nikitin went to Voronezh Seminar. While it Nikitina business affairs of his father shattered, and he began to drink and show your cool character. Under the influence of his alcoholism and despotism began drinking and mother Nikitina. The house has created a very heavy atmosphere, and Nikitin completely abandoned classes. In 1843, Mr.. he was fired "for little success, due nehozhdeniya in class". But, paying little attention to training, Nikitin Seminary passionately devoted himself to reading. Fell in love with literature, driven by Belinsky, filled with high aspirations and poetic dreams, Nikitin had immediately after leaving the seminary, a dip in the heaviest worldly prose and sit down behind the counter at his father's candle shop. At this time he began to drink more. His home, a candle factory and shop were sold. With the money father Nikitina started inn. Nikitin was there to run them himself performing all the duties of the caretaker. Despite the difficult living situation, Nikitin down spiritually. Surrounded by the environment, which could not understand him, he kept to himself. In November 1853, Mr.. Nikitin sent three poems in the "Voronezh Provincial Gazette. One of them - the patriotic "Rus" - delivered so popular in Voronezh. Who then stood at the head of Voronezh province news "NI. The second and K.O. Alexandrov-Dolnik, took an active part in Nikitin and put it in grouped around them a circle of local intellectuals. From 1854, Mr.. Nikitin's poems began to appear in "Moskvityanin", "Notes of the Fatherland", "Library for Reading". Print reacted to the poet very sympathetically. The success, plenty of new impressions, warm, friendly attitude Vtorov and members of his circle, encouraging affected the Nikitin, alienation and unsociable disappeared, he was set up briskly, a lot of work. But the upbeat mood overshadowed the health disorder. In 1856, Mr.. started a collection of poems Nikitina, to which critics were cold or adversely. The most negative comments about the collection Chernyshevski in The Contemporary. Speaking at a literary career, Nikitin did not change the conditions of life, continuing after 1853, Mr.. contain inn. His father continued to drink, but family relations in 1854 - 56 years have improved somewhat, the situation of the inn, now not so oppressed by the poet, spinning in a circle of sincere regard for him intelligent people. In 1854 - 56 years Nikitin seriously working on his self-education, read a lot, he began studying the French language. After his departure in 1857. from Voronezh Vtorov, . which was the closest friend Nikitina, . and after the disintegration Vtorovskogo circle poet with the utmost urgency felt again the gravity of life and family environment, . pessimistic mood with greater force captured it, . creative ferment was replaced by a sharp decline of the creative forces, . doubt in his talent,
. In 1858, Mr.. published a long poem Nikitina - "Fist". Criticism met "Fist" is very sympathetic, very highly regarded the poem incidentally Dob; the same success "Fist" and had the audience: less than a year after his release he had already sold, bringing Nikitin fairly substantial income. Despite the depressed mood and painful condition Nikitin in 1857 - 58 years, still continued to follow the Russian literature, . acquainted with foreign, . reading Cooper, . Shakespeare, . Hugo, . Goethe, . Chenier, . began to study German language, . translating Schiller and Heine,
. In 1857 - 58 years the poet worked in "Notes of the Fatherland" and "Russian Conversation". With the assistance of VA. Kokorev, who gave a loan Nikitin p. 3000. He opened in 1859, Mr.. bookstore and library for reading. In 1859, Mr.. Nikitin has released a new collection of poems, was met by criticism of much colder than the "Fist". All 1859 g. the poet was sick, a small improvement of health alternated with deteriorating. First 1860. his health began to improve, the mood became more cheerful, literary performance has risen, interest in public life again increased. In the summer of 1860. so he traveled to Moscow and Petrograd. Bookselling Nikitin was quite successful. In the second half of 1860. Nikitin felt good, worked hard, wrote a long prose work "The Diary seminarian," published in "Conversation in Voronezh in 1861" and caused the sympathetic critics. Annoyed by the end of 1861,. Health Nikitina the beginning of 1861,. improved again, come again lift forces. He takes an active part in meetings bunched around M.F. De Pul circle in the local cultural work in the organization of society in Voronezh, literacy and the establishment of Sunday schools. In 1859 - 1861 years Nikitin placed their works in "Notes of the Fatherland", "Reading People", "Russian Word" and "Voronezh Conversation". In May 1861,. Nikitin caught a bad cold. This cold, aggravated tuberculous process was fatal. For all the time long illness the poet experienced the worst physical suffering. These were added moral, caused by his father, who had continued, despite serious illness his son, to your former way of life. Nikitin died Oct. 16, 1861, Mr.. The earliest of extant works Nikitina, refer to 1849. Isolation and concentration, developed severe living conditions, have left their mark on creativity Nikitina 1849 - 1853 period. His poetic scope was limited, he mostly moved in the area of personal experiences surrounding the life attracted little attention. Ignoring her, so sometimes drew something never seen, for example, sea ( "Night on the beach," "In the west the sun is burning," "When the Neva River, granite-bound ..."). In poetry, Nikitin during this period was an obvious effort to understand life, . frustration it, . suffering from non-compliance with its dreams and aspirations, given the nature of comfort to the poet and Religion, . are reconciled at the time of his life ( "Field", . "Evening", . "When the parting rays of the sunset ...", . "When one, . in moments of reflection ... ", . "New Testament", etc.),
. But Nikitin still in 1849 - 1853 years are not being closed entirely in the sphere of personal feelings and experiences, . in his work this time, already seen the beginnings of interest in life around, . people, . have sound social reasons ( "Quiet Nights", . "Leave your sad story", . "Singers, . "Vengeance", . "Need"),
. Nikitin has never understood at that time in public issues, . was bureaucratic and patriotically adjusted (Rus), . but had seen evil in public life, . angry at him, . indignant, . already called for a poet to deal with him ( "Leave your sad story ...", . "Singers"),
. In 1849 - 1853 years Nikitin was entirely in the power of literary influences. The most powerful was the influence of Koltsov, especially in the form ( "Spring in the Steppe", "Rus", "Life and Death", "Consolation," "Song," "The Inheritance", etc.). Nikitin perfectly mastered Koltsovskaya form and verse, and some of his poems in this regard is not inferior Koltsov ( "Spring in the Steppe", "Rus"). Along with the influence of Koltsov, . poetry Nikitina 1849 - 1853 period reveals the influence of Lermontov ( "Key", . "When the parting rays of the sunset ...", . South and North, . "Dried birch", . "I remember the happy years ...", . "Tired of the luxury of brilliant fun ..." etc.), . Pushkin ( "Forest", . "The war for the faith", etc.), etc.,
. Poetry. The impact of literary sources strongly manifested in thoughts and ideas expressed by Nikitin in the poems with philosophical elements that occupied a fairly prominent place in his poetry 1849 - 1853 period. In these poems a lot of artificiality, rhetoric ( "Duma", "Ruins," "Cemetery", "tired of the luxury of brilliant fun ..." etc.). Individual experiences play a prominent role in the work of Nikitin and after 1853, but along with them, found great interest in the poet's life around, to folk and petty-bourgeois way of life and psychology. Since 1853, Mr.. poetry Nikitin also became apparent to some extent, local color, ethnographic element, the interest in the history of the local edge. Treasury patriotic mood that seized Nikitina before 1854, appears and after ( "new struggle", "Donets", "Once it was a young man ..."," On the capture of Kars "), but by 1856. leaves poet. Religious feeling, to be seen in the work of Nikitin 1849 - 1953 period, is quite apparent in 1854, Mr.. ( "Agony in the Garden," "The sweetness of the prayer", "SV. Chistyakova "), but then disappeared. In poetry Nikitin in 1854 - 1856 пЁ., . as, . as before, . shows the influence of other poets: Koltsov ( "Treason", . "There is wide my yard ...", . "Bobyl", . "Once it was a lad ...", . "Lay off, . anguish ... ", . "Who does not have thoughts ..."), . Lermontov ( "Friend"), . Pushkin ( "Fist", . "A new struggle"), etc., . but to a much lesser extent, . than previously, . increasingly found desire to go his own way,
. The study of manuscripts Nikitina, surviving on the materials it establishes beyond doubt that in his work 1854 - 1856 years has played a big role influence Vtorov and members of his circle. By 1857. Nikitin already fully formed as a poet. In his poetry after this year's social motives figured prominently, but do not exhaust all of its contents, he has continued to pay considerable attention to the personal experiences and the nature, the public art element is not suppressed. Develops gradually poetic force Nikitina to 1861,. began to bloom splendidly, but death interrupted this prosperity, they have not had time to show up quite. Nikitin did not reveal all taivshihsya it features. The most significant place in the poetry Nikitin took the poem dedicated to the depiction of folk life. They clearly expressed the most sincere and profound love for the people, a warm sympathy for his plight, a passionate desire to improve his position. But at the same Nikitin sober look at the people, not idealized him, painted him truthfully, not glossing over the darker sides, of the negative traits of national character, such as rudeness, marital despotism ( "Stubborn Father," "Damage," "The division", etc. ). Nikitin was in every sense of the word city residents, and while he was in the vicinity of Voronezh, but stayed on the estates of the landlords, in this village, among the peasants in their everyday life, he never lived. Material for the delineation of a national life and psychology gave Nikitin, mostly cab drivers, to stop at his inn, and all visitors to Voronezh farmers. The limited field of observation has affected people's life in poetry Nikitina, . he drew a broad, . comprehensive picture of the life of the people, . not identified in all its fullness and diversity of folk psychology, . but gave a number of disparate and even, . fragmentary, . but tableaux, . which truthfully outlined the socio-economic situation of the people, . people's sorrow and grief, . some aspects of folk life, . correctly been noted characteristic features of folk psychology and mores ( "Vengeance", . "The old drugozhenets", . "Quarrel", . "Wife coachman", . "Stubborn Father", . "The merchant at the apiary", . Burlak, . "Damage" ( "Disease"), . "Story of a Peasant", . "The division", . "Going coachman", . "Elder", . "Midnight", . "Deep in Grigorenko ...", . "Beggar", . "Rural poor", . "Spinner", . "I traveled from fair Ukhar merchant ...", . "Dead body", . "The old servant", . "For a woman spinning wheel sits ponyave ..."),
. Along with the peasantry, Nikitin devoted considerable attention to the bourgeoisie, dedicating his poem "Fist". It is too stretched, some types outlined pale, but the hero of the poem - a tradesman-fist, well delineated, given a faithful and vivid description of philistinism, his psychology. In the development of the social element in the work of Nikitin's known role played by Nekrasov, but its influence is not the chief force that gave direction of poetry Nikitina, identified it, and in general was not very significant. Despite the similarity of motives and moods, it is almost no such features Nekrasovskaya muse, as satire and irony. (An enthusiastic worship Nekrasov, his passion for poetry in 1857. replaced in Nikitin in 1960. sharply negative attitude, . manifested in the poem "The Poet-Tale.") Poet in social work, . Nikitin, gave a few poems, . who are high on the sincerity, . depth of public feeling, . the strength of civil grief, . creative recovery ( "Conversations", . "Again the familiar vision! ..", . "Scandalous die today !.."),
. In the depiction of subjective experiences Nikitin was able to achieve great prochuvstvovannosti, . strength and beauty, . as, . example, . in the famous poem "spade Dug deep pit ...", . which not only is the best creation of the poet, ,
. Nikitin from childhood to love nature, . able to merge with it, . feel her soul, . distinguish between shades of color and gave a number of beautiful and bright her paintings, . which proved to be a talented landscape artist ( "The evening after the rain", . Storm, . "Morning", . "October 19", . "Scattered stars, . tremble and burn ... ", . "It's getting dark day,
. In the forest darkens ...", "In the dark more often silent nightingale ..."," Do you remember? - With red edges ... "etc.). Diary seminarian "remains the only attempt Nikitina try its strength in prose, shows that in this area it could occupy a prominent place among contemporary realists bytopisateley. Diary seminarian, printed before the famous "Essays in the seminary" Pomyalovsky, had their time of great public importance: Nikitin lit then still almost untouched area. Creativity Nikitina is closely linked to his life and personality, there are many autobiographical elements. Weightlifting, . grim, . with only minor and a few openings, . Life Nikitina, . often exacerbated and tormented his illness left a deep imprint on his work: it is dominated by the sad tone, . permeate deep sadness and sorrow ( "Another day, extinct ...", . "I remember the happy years ...", . "I share the harsh early friendship ...", . "In the Forest", . "In the Garden", . "Lamp", . "Indispensable, . priceless loss! .. ", . "Childhood gay, . children's dreams ... ", . "Poor youth, . sad day ... ", . "Dug a deep hole spade ..." etc.),
. The source of grief Nikitin was not only the personal living conditions, but also all surrounding life with its implacable social contrasts, with its evil, horror and human suffering. Along with the grief and sorrow, and other characteristics of poetry Nikitina are: simplicity, sincerity, prochuvstvovannost, humanity and drama. According to its artistic merit works Nikitina very unequal: among his poems, . especially before 1854, . is a lot of weak, . are more prose, . expressed in verse, . than poetry, . but, . along with this, . it has a number of poems, . clothed in an elegant art form, . full of poetic feeling, . beautiful music written in verse,
. In general, Nikitin for his artistic talent was not a very large quantity, but his poetry is highly pervasive in its humanity, in deep sincerity, prochuvstvovannosti and height of mind. This side of poetry Nikitina brought him to public sympathy, has created a very popular: his works have stood many editions, were sold in the vast number

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