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Nicholas I

( All-Russia Emperor, third son of Emperor Paul I and Empress Maria Feodorovna)

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Biography Nicholas I
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Born June 25, 1796, Mr.. After 1 1 / 2 years after Nicholas was born on his younger brother Michael, with whom Nicholas and brought together. At the age of early childhood special influence on Nicholas had his nurse, Miss Scot Lion, direct and courageous woman, who was fond of his pet. Russian grammar dealt with him on duty cavaliers, t. e. consisted in its governors, in turn, learned the French language at first gave him the mother herself. In 1802. teaching of the language was invited emigre du Puget, who then taught him well as geography and world history, seeking, among other things, develop in him a hatred of the figures of the French Revolution. German language teaching him the academician Adelung. The main teacher was appointed to his death shortly before Paul director of the I-th Cadet Corps, General MI. Lamzdorf, honest, but rough and tough German, sometimes resorted to corporal punishment. Nicholas soon began to show a tendency to despotism, arrogance and haughtiness, poorly studied, absorbed only one drawing, and later the military sciences and in particular the art of engineering. Alexander I left the main assigned a raising younger brothers entirely in the hands of the mother, and Lamzdorf retained his position. Despite the effort of Empress Maria Feodorovna to overcome in their younger sons in childhood find in them a passion for military games, this passion with the years they only take root. Meanwhile, since 1808, when she died the second daughter of Alexander I, were considered probable that neither he nor the Crown Prince Constantine, whose wife was living abroad, will not have children and, thus, Nicholas will sooner or later come to throne. Empress Maria wanted to send the young Grand Duke to complete his education at University of Leipzig, but it opposed the Emperor Alexander, . the brothers who decided to create a new institution (the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum), . where they could receive higher education, together with selected peers,
. This intention has not been the implementation, even though high school and was opened in 1811, Mr.. To the great princes were invited to the various professors who have read them several courses from the field of legal, political, economic, and military specific disciplines (Storch, Balugyansky, Opperman and others). These items, except the military, according to the testimony of the Emperor Nicholas, were poorly internalized audience. In 1812, Mr.. sixteen Nicholas fervently asked the Emperor Alexander to permit him to participate in the campaign against Napoleon. But Alexander, hinting to him here for the first time that it is waiting for another, higher field, denied his request. Only in 1814, Mr.. Nikolai and Mikhail Pavlovich received permission to come to the army, which at that time had fought on French territory, but before they arrived, Paris was captured, and hostilities ceased. Grand Dukes, having visited a number of Germanic yards, returned to Russia. In 1815, Mr.. Nicholas was betrothed to the daughter of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm III, Princess Charlotte, who later, along with Orthodoxy, the name of Alexandra Feodorovna. In 1816, Mr.. Grand Duke Nikolai spent about three months in England. June 20, 1817, Mr.. wedding took place on the Grand Duke Nicholas. From this marriage were born sons: Alexander, the future Emperor of All-Russia, Constantine, Nicholas and Michael and daughters: Maria, Olga and Alexander. Commanding, first Guard brigade, then division, Nicholas, at the same time held the post of Chief Inspector of engineering. As a combatant he was remarkable for his great head of rigor, wanting to harsh measures to support the crank, as it seemed during foreign trips discipline. In the military-engineering department, he sought to form a specially trained officers, for which he was a special initiative of the Open Engineering College. Despite the likelihood of entry of Nicholas to the throne, Emperor Alexander I of public affairs did not interest him, only once took him with me to the Congress at Laibach in order to familiarize him with the affairs of European foreign policy. In 1820, Mr.. announced the dissolution of the marriage of Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich with the Grand Duchess Anna Feodorovna, at the same time, the establishment of the imperial family "has been completed the decision about, . that if a person from the royal family to enter into a marriage alliance with a person, . not belonging to a royal or reigning house, . the children, . born of such marriage, . have no right to inherit the throne of Russia,
. Being married to a Polish noblewoman John Grudzinskii, Grand Duke Konstantin, in a letter to the Emperor from January 14, 1822, waived his right to the throne. Drafted on the matter on Aug. 16, 1823, Mr.. manifest has not been disclosed, and given to the Moscow Metropolitan Filaret of deposit in a sealed envelope, in the Moscow Cathedral of the Dormition. Copies of the manifesto have been deposited in the same envelope to the State Council, the Senate and Synod. The envelopes hand the Emperor was the inscription: "Keep my demand, but in the case of my death to open before any other act". This act was apparently aware of the Empress Maria Feodorovna, Nicholas but this was not communicated. When 27 November 1825, . in St. Petersburg, came a report about the death of Alexander, . Konstantin Pavlovich was in Warsaw, . and the Grand Duke Nicholas, . not knowing about the formal orders, . appointed him heir to the throne, . decided to immediately swear allegiance to the Emperor Constantine I, and ordered to lead the inauguration of the St. Petersburg garrison troops,
. In this decision, he remained, despite the message to him about Golitsyn contained in sealed envelopes orders of the late emperor, and sent a report about the inauguration of the Emperor Constantine in Warsaw. Moscow Filaret decided not to enforce the will of the late emperor, and, upon receipt of tidings from St. Petersburg, also took an oath to Constantine. In Warsaw, the news of Alexander's death was received on November 25. Constantine who was immediately sent his brother Michael with a letter to his mother and his brother Nicholas his refusal to abdicate. Nicholas, . which the St. Petersburg military governor-general Earl Miloradovich reported dislike him Guard troops, . recognized, . What is a private alert enough, . and requested a new letter of Constantine or come in person, . or issue a denial of a special manifesto,
. Constantine refused to do this and said that "if everything is not settled according to the will of our late Emperor", he "removed even further". Upon receipt of this notification, December 12, 1825, Nicholas admitted that he had no choice over how to announce his accession to the throne. The manifesto, drafted with the participation of Karamzin and Speransky, it was decided to publish on December 14. Occurred interregnum decided to use members of secret societies in St. Petersburg (XV, 767). They tried to persuade the soldiers of the Guards regiments do not swear allegiance to Nicholas and to demand that the Emperor Constantine was left, which they swore, and that was with the given constitution. At the Senate Square, where it was decided to move the mutinous army units, was almost at full strength Moscow regiment and several companies of Grenadier Guards and Marine Guard crew and several platoons of mounted artillery. At their head were members of the secret society of the north ", but they have chosen to dictators Colonel, Prince S.P. Troubetzkoy the square did not appear. Driven up to the insurgents with exhortations Count Miloradovitch was mortally wounded by a lieutenant Kakhovsky; same fate threatened and Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich, who tried to make a speech to the insurgent forces. Were not successful and exhortations metropolitans. Attack of the Horse Guards and konnogvardeytsev failed, due to icy conditions. Finally, at 3 o'clock, when it became dark, Nicholas, has been staying in the area and personally, which controlled the actions of troops ordered to press the canister. A second volley of grapeshot, ran straight into the crowd, made it great devastation, and then the crowd rushed across the bridge, and partly on the ice, across the Neva. In view of attempts to collect and build running, according to him was done a few more shots, which they finally dispersed. Mass arrests began. In the south, where the cash received by the plot to the Emperor Alexander was detected earlier denunciations, arrests began among members of the Southern society "by order of General Dibicha, Chief of Staff. Attempt armed resistance Chernigov Infantry Regiment, after the first collision at the White Church with a detachment of General Geismar, was suppressed. Investigation of the case led the Emperor. Negative attitudes from childhood inspired him to all kinds of revolutionaries and liberals, was strengthened by the events which accompanied his accession to the throne. Determining government programs, because the full, he himself recognized the unpreparedness to govern, he had no. Develop something like the program he helped Karamzin (cm. XXI, 901) which was every day at the palace during the interregnum, and in the hot rhetoric expounded before Nicholas and outspoken criticism of the last reign, and their own views on the challenges of governance in Russia. These speeches Karamzin's been recorded, but the essence of the concept of give him the note submitted to Alexander I in 1811 and 1819 years, as well as fragmentary recollections, he left his children. Karamzin was a supporter of autocracy and to support its need for Russia proceeded, . like Catherine II, . the impossibility in any other form of government to preserve the unity of the Russian state, . because of its vastness and fragmentation of its population,
. At the same time, the role of the autocratic monarch, he watched as a service to the fatherland, . not releasing the monarch of his duties and strictly condemns such acts of sovereigns, . that, . no corresponding benefit and interests of Russia, . based on personal caprice, . caprice, or even ideological dreams (as in Alexander I),
. The role of the citizen in an autocratic state pictured Karamzin not as dumb slavery, as well as the role of the citizen obliged unconditional obedience to the monarch, but is meant to freely and sincerely declare him their views. This, in essence a utopian theory Karamzin, gave a wide scope autocracy, to which Nicholas was inclined by nature. Terminally ill, living out its last months, Karamzin was unable to take any public post, but recommended in staff Nikolai their like-minded young Arzamastsev (cm. III, 473) and Bludova Dashkova. They later joined by another arzamasets - Uvarov, who gave the final wording of the system of "official nationalism," the father of which was Karamzin. The views, inspired by Karamzin, not exclude, however, correct the excesses and confusion of Russian life, which clearly revealed to Nicholas in his dealings with the Decembrists during the six-month investigation on them. He ordered up a special set of relevant evidence of the Decembrists and the body of this, according to the prince VP. Kochubey, then repeatedly used. At the end of the investigation and trial of the Decembrists, Nikolai issued July 13, 1826, Mr.. Manifesto, . which, . calling on "all states" connect "in the government's credibility", . pointed, . "It's not from the stout dreams, . always destructive, . but gradually over usovershayutsya domestic setting, . complemented deficiencies, . corrected abuse,
. In this and all manner of gradual usoversheniya modest wish for the better, . every thought to the adoption of force laws, . to expand the true education and industry, . reaching us by way of legitimate, . for all openings, . always be taken by us with favor ",
. Earlier, . number of individual orders and actions, . including special attention paid to a retirement Arakcheeva, . expulsion Magnitsky, . returns to court in St. Petersburg trustee Runich, . Photius reference to the monastery, . return from exile, Pushkin,
. Nicholas testified that he did not wish to continue the regime of extreme obscurantism and oppression that marked the last years of the reign of Alexander. In foreign policy, he soon as grading of the system and traditions of the Holy Alliance. In an effort to unite the government's activities in their own hands, . Nick initially focusing its beginnings not in the ministries and not in the highest government statutes, . that he is not trusted, . in particular, . ad hoc formed, . offices of their own office or in secret committees, . composed of persons, . using a special trust him and working under the direct supervision of his, . secret not only from the public, . but sometimes from ministers,
. The second branch of His Majesty's own office was established in April 1826. instead of the previously existing laws of the commission - for the preparation and publication of the Laws, with the head of this office was made a teacher Nicholas Balugyansky a professor, and his de facto leader MM. Speransky. As confidence in the last Nick was initially hesitated, . because of rumors about its connection with some of the Decembrists, . but then quickly ascertained such unfounded rumors and realized the tremendous benefit, . that can be drawn from the labor and creativity Speransky,
. After that it was formed the 3rd Branch of His Majesty's own office, instead of a special Ministry of Police, a draft of which was presented by General Benckendorff. Benckendorf was placed at the head of the gendarmerie and converted Emperor's headquarters, and he was given the same assigned a newly created 3-m separation His Majesty's own Office. This new institution was not only managed the business of national security, . but also look after the welfare of citizens and the most intimate their interest, . as well as the maintenance of order and good conduct in all other state and public institutions,
. One of the points of instruction gendarmerie officers stated that they should "try to get the respect and confidence of all classes and to instill confidence that through the new position of the voice of every citizen can come to the throne". Subsequently, the competence of the 3rd department has grown substantially, and it became one of the most feared and hated guns police detective. At the beginning of the reign of Nicholas was completed in the Ministry of Education, which was headed from 1824 g. Admiral Shishkov, a new censorship regulations, issued June 10, 1826, Mr.. Charter this, surpassing even the strict censorship orders second half of the reactionary reign of Alexander, soon caused many complaints, and the dismissal Shishkov, it was decided to revise its relatively moderate spirit. December 6, 1826, Mr.. was formed a secret committee of 7 persons, to develop an overall plan needed state reforms. At the head of the Committee was placed Earl VP. Kochubey; the main labor force in it became MM. Speransky. In a handwritten instructions, . This Kochubei monarch, . This committee was to consider first the paper from the cabinet of the late Emperor, . falling into the transformation of public institutions, . and find, . what has been done and what remains to do,
. Progress of Committee Nikolai ordered a weekly report, and all the magazines Committee came to its attention. Sperdnski a plan of conversion higher state statutes, based on the peculiar idea of separation of powers to the autocratic system. It was proposed to determine accurately the competence of the State Council, . as the highest zakonosoveschatelnogo agencies under an absolute monarchy; completely destroy the Ministerial Committee, . transferring its functions to the Government's Senate, . consisting of the Ministers and other specially appointed to his people; separately from that of the Senate to form a Senate trial, . as the highest judicial body under the monarch's power,
. Reviewed were the establishment of ministries. Detail, but formal, processing and Catherine was subjected to "the establishment of the provinces". In 1827, Mr.. the committee was made Supreme Order of considering banning the sale of serfs without land. The command is caused, on the one hand, a remarkable note Speranskii of serfdom and measures to gradually limit it (see. XXIII, . 273) with, . incidentally, . was indicated, . that an important means to influence the advancement of serfs is to streamline the treasury of the peasants on the other hand, . decree that gave rise to Kochubei notice, . that the issue of improving the situation of the peasants must unite with the issue of streamlining regulations and other estates,
. Excitation of the peasant problem was caused by the large peasant unrest that erupted in different parts of the empire. The question of the limitation of serfdom attachment of peasants to the land and the difficulty to own servants outside built estates had been developed in some detail by the Committee on December 6, . but outlined the measures it did not receive the practical implementation, . despite the approval of their sovereign,
. Sperdnski raised the question of the advancement of state peasants was a practical solution until much later. Committee engineered measures to streamline and systematization of the rights and privileges of other classes have been developed in some detail, . in connection with the rights of public service; anticipated, . incidentally, . create a special class "eminent citizens" - a kind of nobility of the second category, . and better define the rights and the organization of the nobility and other caste societies,
. All these measures, . although it received the approval of Nicholas, . eventually, . also not been enforced, . as against them very strongly supported (with the conservative point of view), Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich and the Minister of Interior Zakrewsky,
. In the field of education from the very beginning strongly affected by conservative tendencies emperor, fearing the spread of revolutionary ideas, especially among the lower classes, where the development of knowledge could further antagonize his position. This idea was clearly expressed in the rescript August 19, 1827, Mr.. Shishkov, indicating that the serfs and household servants should be trained only in the parish and county schools, then the same idea has been posited as the basis of the Charter of the middle and lower schools, issued December 28, 1828, Mr.. Statutes that sharply divided the county and parochial schools from grammar schools, which school they previously were like prep stage. Gymnasium, complemented by the lower classes, now earmarked exclusively for the children of nobles and officials, and they had been established aristocratic boarding school. Great internal struggle between the sense of duty and the tendency to autocracy emperor had to be postponed as a constitutional king of the Kingdom of Poland. Cash constitution in Poland affected mainly the case of detected here, after December 14, 1825, secret societies. Members of the Polish secret societies, not in time, however, to actively demonstrate its revolutionary ideas, were brought under the laws of the Kingdom of Poland, the Warsaw Court of the Senate, which some of them were acquitted and awarded to a small part of the punishment. Nicholas was extremely impressed by the disparity between this sentence and the massacre, which was inflicted on the Russian revolutionaries, but he decided not to cancel the decision of the Senate, and only expressed his displeasure. While the court case, Nicholas did not want to go to Warsaw, where he was to take the oath of the Polish constitution and Polish coronation crown and then, in 1828, a trip to Warsaw, interrupted by the war with Turkey. He arrived there only in 1829. and there was crowned Polish crown, prisyagnuv constitution, and after convening, contrary to the opinion of Constantine Pavlovich, IV Polish Sejm, to which behaved quite correctly. In foreign policy, Nicholas had to take very important decisions in the first months of his reign, the Greek question. Five-year fight against the Turks and the Greeks, . perturbing public opinion of the Christian world and affects a significant trade interests of Britain and France, . prompted the British government, . soul which was then known Canning, . offer Russia a joint pressure on Turkey,
. Such an intervention directed against the sovereign rights of the Sultan, contrary to the traditions of the Holy Alliance, the main representative of which served as Metternich. Nicholas, however, accepted the offer, and March 23, 1826. in St. Petersburg was signed by representatives of Russia and Britain protocol that defines the conditions for appeasement of the Greeks, which Britain and Russia have jointly pledged to offer Sultan. Regardless of this Nicholas demanded special ultimatum accurately perform Porte commitments to Russia on Moldavia, Wallachia and Serbia. Port made concessions and Akkerman Convention September 25, 1826, Mr.. pledged to restore the strength of previous treaties with Russia. Between Russia, . Britain and France was signed in London treatise June 24, 1827, . on the basis of which it was made with the joint submission to the Sultan and to the shores of Greece sent combined fleet of Russian, . French and British ships, . under the overall command of British Admiral Codrington,
. In October 1827, because of default by the Turks against them claims admirals decided to enter the occupied by the Turkish fleet Navarino Harbor. Battle ensued, during which the Turkish fleet was destroyed. Porta Russia recognized the main culprit of the disaster and began to prepare for war with her. Just before it was successfully completed which began in 1826. war with Persia. The Persians, taking advantage of the small number of Russian troops in Transcaucasia, entered the Russian possessions and took Lankaran and Karabach. Commander of the Caucasian Corps, A.P. Ermolov, demanded reinforcements. Nicholas Ermolova suspecting of having links with the Decembrists, sent to the Caucasus, his trusted general Paskevich, which was soon handed over command of the troops. Paskevich managed to defeat the Persians, to take Erivan, Tabriz and Arbed and move closer to Tehran. In Turkmanchae peace treaty was concluded, . which Persia ceded to Russia Khanate of Erevan and Nakhichevan and part of the Caspian coast to the river Astara, . Russia has provided a number of trade benefits, . right to have their consular, . exclusive right to keep the navy in the Caspian Sea and to pay an indemnity of 20 million rubles,
. April 14, 1828, Mr.. Nicholas declared war on Turkey, confirming the absence of any aggressive plans for Russia. Chief of the Army, was appointed to the old Prince Wittgenstein, but Nicholas and myself went to the army, accompanied by Chief of Staff Dibichem. What happened here duality and numerical insufficiency of the army that crossed the Danube, led to a series of setbacks, the campaign could not be completed in 1828, had to abandon the earlier of the plan of military action. On his return Nicholas to St. Petersburg is one of the distinguished generals of Alexander's reign, IL. V. Vasilchikov (cm. IX, 682), introduced to Nicholas note in which he exposed the strong criticism of the entire course of military action and directly pointed to the harmful aspects of the intervention of the Emperor in order of the commander in chief. In the discussion of this note in a special council, was appointed chief Dibich, granting him complete freedom of action. Dibichu failed, owing largely to the unrest prevalent in Turkey, successfully finish the campaign in 1829. Russian army, not wasting effort on the capture of fortresses between the Danube and the Balkans went unexpectedly to the Turks and the Balkans, taking Adrianople, went to Constantinople, than forced the Sultan to ask the world. Declination Turks contributed to assignments and sent to Constantinople, at the request of Nicholas Myuffling Prussian general, was greatly affected and the victories over the Turks in the Caucasus, where they were taken further in 1828, Mr.. - Kars, Ahaltsyh, Bayazet, Ardahan, and in 1829. - Erzurum. At Adrianople treaty April 2, 1829, Mr.. the border between Russia and Turkey was on the Prut river, but south of this boundary was carried out on the right bank of the southern mouth of the Danube (George), so that all the mouth of the Danube became part of Russian territory. In the Caucasus, Russia has received the Black Sea coast from the Kuban to the pier of St. Nicholas to the south of Poti and Ahaltsyhsky pashalic. Straits (Dardanelles and Constantinople) declared free for the passage of merchant ships both Russian and other nations. Moldavia and Wallachia were a number of new privileges, and Russia assumed a protectorate over the two kingdoms. The autonomy of Serbia was confirmed. Turkey had to pay tribute to 11 1 / 2 million ducats, and to the payment of its principalities remained under Russian control. Regarding Greece, Turkey has taken all decisions of the London Treaty June 24, 1827, which was attended by Austria and Prussia. The first years of reign of Nicholas (1826 - 1830) in Russian society, . tormented in the last years of the reign of Alexander and stunned the events of December 14, . caused a conciliatory mood, . strengthened as a foreign policy success of Nicholas, . and its willingness to reform,
. Began attempts to laying new ways of independent thought, with the help of such new journals as "Moscow Journal", founded in 1826. circle Moscow young Schelling, "The Moscow Telegraph Field, founded with the participation of Prince P.A. Vyazemsky, "Athenaeum" Professor Pavlov, "Telescope" NI. Nadezhdin, and anthologies that have been issued by Baron Delwig, by Maxim and others. Soon, however, the mood of the Government has drastically changed in the reaction side. Nicholas was very impressed by the July Revolution of 1830. and the behavior of Louis Philippe, who remained forever in his eyes, the usurper of the throne of others. At first, Nicholas thought about the coalition of European powers, which would restore the legal order in France, but then he was forced to accept the new dynasty, when it recognized all the other powers. Even closer to the heart of Nicholas took the Belgian revolution, zadevshuyu interests of his sister Anna Pavlovna, the former wife of Crown Prince of the Netherlands. Upon receiving news of the secession of Belgium from the Netherlands, Nicholas brought on a war footing a large part of his army, despite the objections of the Minister of Finance Kankrin and Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich. Army that did not have, however, speak to hike to the banks of the Rhine, as November 17, 1830, Mr.. rebellion broke out in Warsaw, enlarged, due to indecisiveness of Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich, and then Marshal Dibicha, in the long 9-month war, which had already finish summon from the Caucasus Paskevich. Provisional Polish government initially tried to negotiate with Nicholas, and to demand adherence to the Kingdom of Poland the rest of the former Polish State, annexed to Russia during the first three sections of his. When Nicholas refused to negotiate and invited the rebels to voluntarily put guns to their terms, promising amnesty for it, the Diet, assembled in Warsaw, has announced the Romanov dynasty deprived the Polish throne. By taming the uprising, Nicholas thought, despite objections from British and French governments, the constitution in 1815, Mr.. stopped and replaced it with "Organic Statute" of 1832, which was added the Kingdom of Poland to Russia as a conquered province, but retain some administrative autonomy and local agencies, non-existing in the empire. This statute has not received action due to open in 1832. conspiracy Zalivskogo; in the Polish kingdom was put under martial law, and Paskevich, made governor of province, was invested with dictatorial powers. In an outburst of indignation at the Poles Nicholas thought at one time to make a new partition of Polish territory, . giving the northern part of Poland, . on the Vistula and the Western Bug, . Prussia, . and south - Austria, . what he wanted from a Prussian fortress of Thorn and the city of Memel from the mouth of the Neman, . and from Austria Tarnopolsky Region, . belonging to Russia in 1809 - 1815 years,
. This plan have not been achieved, but negotiations between Russia, Austria and Prussia on the future of Polish territory ended only in 1835, with the secret article of the treaty, signed on 2 October 1835, Mr.. in Berlin, it was decided to attach region of the free city of Cracow to Austria. After the events in 1830 - 1831 period in the mind of Nicholas ripe firm decision to admit the main objective of its foreign policy struggle with the revolutionary aspirations and to rebuild this destroyed in 1826. holy alliance. The main focus of revolutionary ideas was, in the eyes of Nicholas, France. Hostility to France and cooling to get close to her was caused by England and the new turn of affairs in the East. In Turkey, has fallen after Adrianople treaty in dependence on Russia, quickly followed a process of internal expansion. The revolt of the Egyptian ruler Mehmet Ali Pasha threatened the Turkish Empire ultimate loss. Nick sent a squadron of the Bosphorus, under the command of Stamp. Lazarev, and the land of ten thousand detachment under the command of NN. Muravyova, landed near Constantinople. Kiselev was ordered to move the Danube from the 20 thousandth army. England and France, have not had time to simultaneously hold their fleets through the Dardanelles, was persuaded Mehmet Ali conclude a peace treaty with the Sultan. This did not prevent the Sultan to recognize Nicolae its main deliverer and conclude with an agreement signed June 26, 1833, Mr.. in Unkiar-Skelessi, . which Russia promised in case of need to supply Turkey so many land and naval forces, . which both sides recognize it necessary, . and Turkey undertook, . at the request of Russia, . not to allow foreign warships to enter, under whatever pretext in the Dardanelles Strait, . passing through it at any time, Russian,
. France and Britain said they believed the treaty invalid, but Nicholas did not pay any attention to it. Prussia and Austria recognized unkiar-skelessiysky contract without any reservations. After his meeting with Nicholas Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm III in Schwedt (24 - 28 August 1833) and the Austrian Emperor Franz in Myunhengretse (August 29 - September 8, 1833), . between Russia, . Austria and Prussia concluded a number of conventions, . ended with a treaty in Berlin (October 3, 1833), . which each of the three agreements powers could demand assistance from the other two, . as in the case of internal unrest, ,
. However, they are mutually guaranteed each other preserve the existing order in Europe. Austria took over the protection of security and status-quo in Italy, . Switzerland, . Spain and Portugal, . Prussia - the protection of northern Germany and the Netherlands, Austria and Prussia jointly undertook to monitor the preservation of peace in the other Germanic countries, . Russia took over the supervision of the Polish lands, . Hungary and the Balkan Peninsula,
. In a union that clearly belonged to Nicholas primary role. In domestic policy, after the revolutionary years 1830 and 1831, the main concern of Nicholas focused on strengthening and Russian began in the western provinces of Russia and the suppression of all movement in Poland. Been completed, however, some legislative work begun in the early years of the reign. In 1832, Mr.. completed was the printing of the first full meeting of the laws of Russia Empire, beginning with the Code of 1649, Mr.. before the beginning of the reign of Nicholas, then printed volumes were 6 "2-nd complete collection of the laws" of the new reign, and by the end of 1832. been completed and publication of existing laws, in the form of 15 volumes of a systematic "USC". The publication "Laws" was undoubtedly a major step in fostering the rule of law in governance and to streamline the proceedings, but further steps along this path could be made only when an heir of Nicholas, . in an era of great reforms, . after the fall of serfdom,
. In the Polish kingdom while a separate management and has been retained, and after 1832, but without the government began to set the Organic Statute. For the consideration of bills and budget of the Kingdom of Poland were established: the Council of State, . special board of management and, . instead of the former ministries, . three governmental commissions - Interior and Religious Affairs (she is in charge, and education), . Justice and Finance,
. Warsaw University was closed in 1831, yet Mr.. In 1833, travel abroad, Nicholas did not want to stay in Warsaw and on the road looked only located in Poland troops. In 1835, Mr.. He visited Warsaw and received a deputation from the city, which is not allowed to speak, and he told her harsh speech, while pointing to the build according to his command of the citadel, had threatened to destroy at the slightest perturbation of the Warsaw. In 1837, Mr.. Province, which was divided Kingdom of Poland, were converted into the province on the Russian model, in 1839, Mr.. all educational institutions of the Kingdom were subject to the Russian Ministry of Education, and for the management of their on-site was founded in Warsaw with a Russian school district trustee, headed. In 1841, Mr.. State Council abolished the Kingdom, in 1846, Mr.. introduced a new Penal Code is almost literal translation of the Russian of the Penal Code. Of the estates confiscated from the Polish landowners involved in the uprising, were formed majorats distributed to Russian officials and generals. In 1846, . when the neighboring Galicia massacre peasants, landowners, . was issued a decree on May 5, . sharply limited the right of landowners to dispose of the population of their estates and turned the peasants, . sitting on these lands, . in hereditary tenants, . serving once certain duties,
. In the western province fighting polonizmom began under Nicholas, in part even before 1830. In 1831, Mr.. was formed a special Committee of the West, whose task was to equalize the western region in all respects with the inner provinces. In 1832, Mr.. Vilna University was closed, in 1833, Mr.. - Kremenets Lyceum, which are the breeding grounds of the Polish culture, in their place was opened in Kiev, University of St. Vladimir, won, especially after 1838, russifikatorskuyu mission. In 1834, Mr.. formed a Belarusian school district, received the same mission. February 12, 1839, Mr.. held in Polotsk "collective action" on the complete reunification of the Uniate Church with the Orthodox. In connection with the fight against polonizma developed in the Western Region and the peasants' cause in the direction of systematic protection of the peasants from the Polish landlords. Since 1848, Mr.. South-West province, and then in Belarus, have been introduced in all estates inventories pinpointed as the size of peasant holdings, and the peasants who had been serving duties. The peasant question in the rest of Russia in these years continued to hold Nicholas, and with the conservative point of view, and as a result of the consciousness of the injustice of serfdom (cm. XXIII, 274 - 283). At first it was decided in the inner Russian provinces to put the advancement of state peasants, respectively thoughts expressed Sperdnski still in Committee on 6 December 1826. Chief Officer Nicholas came here Count P.D. Kiselev. In 1836, Mr.. under the command Kiselyov V branch was formed His Majesty's own office, a year later became the Ministry of State Property, headed by Kiselev remained until the end of the reign. The device state peasants (the Land, economic and administrative), he managed to make substantial changes. Over the issue of improving the life of the landed peasants worked in the 30's and 40's of the number of secret committees, . protagonist which was the same Kiselev, but, . despite the fact that much pioneering work of these committees was Nicholas himself, . eventually, . exercise has very little,
. In 1832, Mr.. Speranski introduced a set of laws all the minor, in fact, limit the arbitrariness of landlords, who were installed in the reign of Paul and Alexander I and the beginning of the reign of Nicholas. The committee in 1839, Mr.. was placed on waiting lists, according to Kiselyov, the question of making the serfs and peasants obliged attached to a name, rather than to face the landlord, and a certain allotment of certain duties. Kiselev was unable to hold this thought, despite her sympathy for Nicholas'. Under the influence of the opposition, . led by another close associate of Nicholas, . Prince Menshikov, . It was decided to abandon compulsory for all implementation of this idea, . and was allowed to landlords, . voluntarily, . enter into contracts with farmers, . which they were transferred to the category of "must" (Act 2 April 1842),
. When, in considering this issue in the State Council in the presence of Nicholas, who supported the Prince Kiselev VD. Golitsyn said, . that this provision should be introduced, . as a mandatory rule for landlords, . and that otherwise nothing will come of it, . Nicholas replied that Golitsyn, . although he, . sure, . "autocratic and autocratic", . but the measure never be solved, . if not solved, and the fact, . to order the landowners to enter into treaties, . and that "only experience will show, . to what extent can move from a voluntary to a mandatory ",
. In practice, this measure is almost no value. In 40-ies between the landowners (Tula, . Ryazan, . then and Smolensk provinces) and the government, the secret negotiations that, . what conditions it would be possible to proceed to the elimination of serfdom, . but those negotiations did not lead to any practical results,
. The old idea of Nicholas on the phasing of personal serfdom, . the destruction of the discharge and servants the right to sell the peasants without land, . Nor was the implementation, . although she was again subjected to review in secret committees 40-ies,
. Protective direction, finally prevailing view since 1831, most notably reflected in the Government's attitude to literature and education. Although censorship statute in 1828, considered a liberal, has not been changed, but the position of the press was in the early 30-ies a very constrained. In 1832, Mr.. the third book was closed, without any apparent reason, a wonderful magazine Kireevskoe "A European"; in 1833, Mr.. closed the Moscow Telegraph Field, in the same year, the government strictly dealt with a young circle of Herzen and Ogarev, although except for the liberal mindset, they in fact anything can be blamed, in 1836, Mr.. for having printed "philosophical letter" Chaadaeva was not only closed "telescope", but the editor of its Nadezhdin exiled to Vologda, a censor (Rector of Moscow University) retired from service, and author of the article declared insane. Resolution of new magazines have been extremely difficult. In St. Petersburg, succeeded only bodies Buе┌haryn and buckwheat, but unprincipled "Library for Reading" Senkovsky. However, the government does not become another way of obscurantism. At the head of the Ministry of Education since 1833, Mr.. SS was. Uvarov. He tried to put the existing training institutions, . especially universities, . the height of modern European science, . yet so beat the teaching of scientific subjects and the education of youth, . to ensure the preparations being obedient instruments of supreme power, . animate loyal and patriotic aspirations, . Uvarov expressed in the triple formula: "Orthodoxy, . Autocracy, and Nationality ",
. Strictly consistent with the conservative-estate point of view, as expressed in the rescript is Nikolai Shishkov August 19, 1827, Uvarov created a harmonious system of educational institutions and public education in Russia. The report, . submitted to the emperor, after 10 years of management by the Ministry of, . Uvarov emphasized, . he always tried to go through the middle, . fighting against the political liberalism and against the "dreamy mysticism", . but does not tilt toward obscurantism,
. In 1835, Mr.. tested was the reform of school districts and universities. University Council was authorized to have oversight responsibilities for the training task in the lower and middle schools the district entirely concentrated in the hands of Trustees. On the other hand, the university councils were deprived of the broad autonomy, which they have been given by statute in 1804, Mr.. Trustee of the school district was made the same "master" in the university and in the district, which was at that time, each governor in his province. While councils may elect the rector, the faculties - Deans and their choice to replace the vacant chair, but the minister could not approve the selected and instead nominate their candidates. Production of teaching in universities, . which were divided into 3 faculties: Philosophy (with two departments - History and Philology and physical and mathematical), . Legal and Medical, . was clearly increased and means universities have been significantly increased,
. Trustee Moscow District was appointed in 1835 by Mr.. Count S.G. Stroganov, which university was then indebted. To prepare for a professorship a number of talented young people were sent abroad (Granovsky, Kryukov, Redkino, Bodyansky, etc.). Wishing to encourage the nobility to raise their children in state schools, . Uvarov sought not only to increase the number of high schools and improve the setting in which teaching, . but open as if they, . so even with some county schools special nobility hostels, . under the supervision of noble societies, and partly on their money dispensed,
. Measures were adopted to the subordination of government oversight of private schools and to reduce their number; established control over the activities of private tutors, for whom it was given the requirement of government approval to teach. In 1828, Mr.. St. Petersburg was re-opened the main Pedagogical Institute. Founded been a number of higher technical and professional schools: in 1828, Mr.. Technological Institute in St. Petersburg in 1832. College of Civil Engineers, in 1835, Mr.. Law School (on the plan, which participated in the development Speransky), in 1840, Mr.. Gory-Gorki agricultural college in 1844. Constantine landmark Institute in Moscow, in 1830. Veterinary School in Kharkov, in 1848. - In Dorpat. A religious policy, particularly sharp impact on the status of schismatics and sectarians. In 40-ies Dukhobors, Molokans and other sectarians masses evicted in the Caucasus and in Eastern Siberia, some of them surrendered to the soldiers. In the prosecution of dissenters and sectarian rivalry among three departments: 3rd Department's own Office of His Majesty's, . Office of the Orthodox faith, . with the chief procurator of the Holy Synod, headed by Count Protassovs, . and the Ministry of Internal Affairs,
. Local authorities - the police and priests, considered schismatics and sectarians, one of its main revenue items. The systematic nature of the proceedings taken in 1837, . when all kinds of divisions and sects were divided into 3 categories: less harmful, . which reckoned among the splitters, . which receive the priesthood, . harmful, . which reckoned among bespopovtsy, . recognize the marriage, and praying for the king, . and most harmful, . which reckoned among the splitters, . not recognize the marriage and not praying for the king, . as well as all sects, . from Dukhobors and Molokans, . and ending, . whips and eunuchs,
. Number of schismatics and sectarians, . As it turned out the official investigation, . produced in 40-ies under the leadership Nadezhdin, . constantly increased, and 10 times higher than in reality, the number of, . which appears on paper, . despite, . that the children of dissenters and sectarians, . not recognize the marriage, . considered illegitimate and deprives parents, . while boys recorded in cantonists, . the girls were placed in the care of the orders of public charity,
. Y splitters, . which receive the priesthood, . subjected to persecution of their clergy, . consisted largely of runaway Orthodox priests, . and since the late 40-ies - a dedicated schismatic bishops, . obtained their office by the Austrian bishops belokrinitskih,
. In the 30's and 40's were completed some of the reforms outlined in more Committee on 6 December 1826. This was a new Council of State April 15, 1842, . far, . however, . not changed his position: in fact the value of the State Council of Nicholas was a very insignificant and did not change for the better, . despite the attempts of one of the chairmen of its, . Prince Vasilchikov, . defend his role as a serious zakonosoveschatelnogo assembly,
. In 1836, Mr.. the assumptions on the military unit were removed from the jurisdiction of the State Council. Critical issues that interested directly Nicholas, was still regarded in his own Office of His Majesty, whose growth continued after 1826. In 1828, . after the death of Empress Maria Feodorovna, . IV Division was formed by His Majesty's own office for the management of institutions of Empress Maria (including the Women's Institute, . whose number of Nicholas has been significantly increased) in 1836, Mr.,
. V branch was formed, not closed, and the establishment of the Ministry of State Property (it lasted until 1856), in 1843. VI Department was formed His Majesty's own office on the device of the Transcaucasian region. In the field of local governance to the forefront was the question put forward on strengthening the governor's power, in connection with the rejection of the idea of establishing universal general-governor, abandoned only in the outskirts. By Mandate governor June 3, 1837, the Governor acknowledged were the rulers of provinces, with the subordination of all local agencies. Situation 2 January 1845, issued by the Minister of Internal Affairs of thought, LA. Perovsky, sought release from the governor's consideration of minor and trivial cases, so as to give him time "for the most important lessons". Near the new regulations were ordered assigned a field, serving zemstvo duties, maintenance and construction of roads and bridges, food, population, health and fire. In 1851, Mr.. issued a charter on zemstvo duties with the division of their state, provincial and private (Class). Even during the reign of Alexander I Government of the trouble in the decline of the urban economy and sluggishness in effect under the laws of Catherine's city government. After unsuccessful bills Balugyanskogo (in 1827) and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (in 1828), . Ministry tried in 30-ies to streamline urban landscaping through circulars, . being worked out there were special rules for drawing, . approval and execution of municipal budgets, . and then on the review of urban doom by special deputies from the townsfolk,
. These rules were converted in 1831, Mr.. the law, but the significance in practice have not been. In 40-ies, LA. Perovskii commissioned the development of the issue of an urban setting, then a young clerk, later known figure in the era of reform N.A. Miliutin. Milutin, including employees who were IS. Aksakov and YU.F. Samarin, thoroughly investigated the situation in the cities, then was drafted in the form of experience design of a new city regulations for St. Petersburg, approved in 1846, Mr. Nicholas. As part of City Council were introduced by the representatives of the nobility, . in the city owned the property; urban economy but little benefit from this, . as neither sufficient independence, . nor the right to self-taxation reformed urban management was not given,
. - Financial Management until 1844. in the hands of Count E.F. Kankrin (cm. XX, . 725), . which Nicholas for all his autocracy considered necessary, . especially in the early years of the reign, . often yield, . no feeling for a sufficient training for independent decision difficult and neglected in the preceding reign of questions,
. The main objective of monetary policy under Nicholas thought the appreciation of the paper ruble, which fell almost 1 / 4 of its nominal price, due to excessive production of banknotes and unfavorable trade balance. Kankrin, contrary to his predecessor, Guriev, ceased to strive for redemption of banknotes with unfavorable loans and decided to improve finances through savings in costs and the gradual expansion of the productive forces of the country. To this end, he thought it necessary, refusing to protect landlords' interests, seek to protectional policy in the spirit of which was drawn up with his participation is in 1822, Mr.. customs tariff, it is constantly reviewed and administered as to promote the individual branches of Russian industry, as well as an increase in the types of customs revenue. Despite the frequent wars in the beginning of the reign of Nicholas, he was able to raise loans abroad, and Russia strongly reduce deficits. From 1822, Mr.. there was a special customs tariff between Russia and the Kingdom of Poland, profitable for Poland, but disadvantageous for Russia. In 1826, Mr.. Minister of Finance of the Kingdom of Poland, Prince Drucki-Lyubetskii, fussing about the complete phasing out of customs line between Russia and Poland; Kankrin opposed this. Benefits Polish industrialists strongly hesitated after the uprising in 1831, Russian merchants have done even a complete ban on the import into Russia of Polish manufactured goods and transport them in transit to the East, . but the interests of industrialists strongly defended the kingdom Paskevich, . and Kankrin barely managed to insist on carrying out a compromise solution,
. In 1826, Mr.. Kankrin spent lifting set when Guryev liquor monopoly, as the system is, creating a major abuse of officials is extremely lowered state revenue from the exploitation of pity. Recognizing, . because of lack of culture that society and not having an honest bureaucratic personnel, . impossible to move to a system of free trade pityami, . taxable, . Kankrin returned to the system of leases, . where the income from the exploitation of pity grew rapidly,
. This system also led to great abuses, to almost all the bribing of tax-farmers of the local bureaucracy, but by the end Control Kankrin it deems most advantageous. Kankrin tried to deter thrill-farmers at the auction, not giving them too far, because it is threatened with frequent bankruptcies of large-farmers arrears and losses to the state. The overall dimensions of the state budget cancrinite, despite his reserve, growing rapidly. By the end of the 30-ies Nicholas began to think that he got something from Kankrin time to learn, and he decided to try to pursue their own monetary policies, more bold and enterprising. In 1839, Mr.. Kankrin, . Wishing to put an end to fluctuations in the so-called common people aware of banknotes, . has a law on mandatory commission of all sales transactions and the supply of silver, . with a fixed rate paper ruble definition, . that 1 silver ruble is equal to 350 kopeks,
. banknotes. In the types of seizures from the turnover of foreign various silver coins (efimki and lobanchikov), . released were "depozitki", . under which the Treasury accepted all sorts of metal values, . and sizes are produced nonstop, . ensuring that all metal Fund, . for them made,
. These measures, . of which the first, . essentially, . was as if a partial state bankruptcy, . Nicholas gave the idea to go ahead and, . introduction of new fractional paper money, . replace the banknotes, . which he offered to buy out gradually according to the established law of 1839, Mr.,
. price. Kankrin long resisted the implementation of this measure, . fear, . that the newly issued, . thoughtful Nicholas, . credit notes can, . eventually, . become fiat, but Nicholas, . subjecting its draft discussion at several meetings, . insisted on its implementation,
. Banknotes were within 5 years, bought for a price and replaced by banknotes. As a result, issued nominally worth 596 million banknotes have been paid only 170 million rubles in silver, . but as this immediately issued new credit notes, . ensures the preservation of the metal stock in the amount of 1 / 6 of their value, . then to perform the entire operation took only 28 million rubles metal, . whereas stock, . had in our treasury, . greatly exceeded this amount,
. Thus the operation was fully successful, ended after the resignation and death Kankrin. After this, Nick, feeling himself an experienced financier, became operational in financial management is much more boldly, ignoring the views maloavtoritetnyh Kankrin successor, Count Vronchenko and Brock. In the 30's and 40's of the highly developed work on the construction of roads and obstroyke Petersburg, and partly of other cities and ports. In the reign of Nicholas was built almost half of the currently existing roads in Russia (more than 8000 miles) on his own initiative, . contrary to the opinion of almost all the ministers, . started and the construction of railways, . almost simultaneously with Prussia and Austria,
. In 1837, Mr.. built Tsarskoselskaya Railway, in 1839, Mr.. commenced construction of the Warsaw-Vienna Railway, in 1843. (means of the treasury) - St. Petersburg - Moscow, opened in late 1851. The main builder of it was Kleinmichel, a onetime assistant Arakcheeva and appointed in 1842, after the death of Toll, the chief superintendent transport system, as it is one of the few behind the construction of railways. Since 1851. it would proceed to the construction of the Warsaw-Petersburg road, but in 1853, Mr.. construction to a halt because of the war with Turkey. Nicholas penchant for art was expressed in the device magnificent art museum in the Hermitage, a significant strengthening of the Academy of Arts and the support of Russian artists abroad. Individual tastes and Nicholas in the field are, however, with great despotism and tyranny that sometimes, especially in the last years of his reign, was reflected on the fate of unprofitable art collections. The construction of fortresses, especially in the western border, spent enormous sums. The most permanent structure of this sort was Modlin fortress at the confluence of the Bug-Narew in the Vistula. Military unit and the scope of military administration Nikolay considered his natural element. Acquisition and maintenance of a standing army was at the time burden on the population. With a population of Russia in the thirties in 3 1 / 2 times less than the present, the size of standing army of more than 1 million. Annual collections averaged about 80 thousand. man. The service life was 25 years; rookie expelled from his class and becomes a serf of the military department. Treatment of soldiers was extremely harsh and cruel. Training consisted of incessant drill and turned the man in the car. By recruiting the statute, revised in 1831, recruiting duties subject only to the person taxed estates in age from 20 to 34 years. Landlords, and the government itself often gave soldiers a form of punishment, is almost as heavy as a reference to hard labor. From recruiting duties could pay off the purchase of a test submission of a receipt or "hunter", which was bought for cash. Preparations were officers in the cadet corps, private secondary schools with the harsh discipline of the children of the nobility. Despite the fact that when Nicholas was opened 9 new buildings, their number was not enough and more than half of the officer vacancies in the army to replace the lower ranks of the cavalry, not receiving education. For special forces existed artillery and engineering school, an officer classes, given large education than the cadet corps. School for kolonnovozhatyh, formed in 1819, Mr.. NN. Muravyov in Moscow and then translated to St. Petersburg, was in 1826. closed, and only in 1832. instead, get ready for the officers of the General Staff Military Academy was founded, according to the plan of General Jomini, narrowed amended Neydgarda, Chernysheva and Dibicha. After the death of Dibicha, in 1831, chief military authority until the end of his reign was considered Paskevich, although he was unable to maintain their reputation in the past during the height of the Hungarian march 1849. Most grown old he was during the Crimean War 1853 - 56 years. At the head of military administration was from 1828 to 1853, Mr.. very clever, but very unpopular figure, Count (later Prince), AI. Chernyshov, according to the plan which in 1832 - 36 years, was reorganized higher military administration, in the sense of concentrating all power in the War Department in the hands of the Minister of War. In connection with the riot that occurred in the military settlements in the cholera 1831-th year, have been reorganized and military settlements, partly converted into arable district of soldiers, and was destroyed by the old system Arakcheyev. At the head of the naval department for almost the entire reign of Nicholas was the head of the Naval Staff, Adjutant General, Prince Menshikov, an intelligent and influential, but never a former sailor. Zaveduya navy, . He, however, was at one time Governor-General of the Finnish, . repeatedly received critical diplomatic assignments and participated in numerous secret committees on a variety of public and administrative matters, . where he was a staunch supporter uzkopomeschichih views,
. The strength and size of the fleet under Nicholas maintained at the same level with the maritime powers until, . yet everywhere there was only a sailing fleet, but as the beginning of 40-ies in England, . France and America began to go to steam and screw vessels, . Russia has become markedly from them behind,
. Considerable work has been produced by the Office to strengthen maritime ports, in particular Kronstadt, and coastlines (the east bank of the Black Sea). Of great importance hydrographic work in different seas adjacent to Russian territory, and research in the Nordic countries, made a number of expeditions, and a study of the Amur River. After the pacification of the Polish uprising in 1831, Mr.. and to the Hungarian march 1849. Russia has not waged a major war, but during all this time, continued with varying success protracted "small" war in the Caucasus. The purpose of this war is the conquest and pacification of the Caucasian mountain tribes who had occupied a few oases in the eastern and western parts of the Caucasus mountain range and the Black Sea coast and stubbornly fought for their independence (see. XX, 279). Large setbacks Russian arms had experienced in 1843. After 1845, when viceroy Prince ms. Vorontsov our business significantly recovered: but in 1853 - 54 years during the Russian-Turkish war Shamil went on the offensive, and the final conquest of the Caucasus have taken place in the next reign. In foreign policy, new complications have occurred in the late 30's in connection with a new uprising against Megemed Ali Sultan. Britain and France managed to prevent the sole intervention of Nicholas and bring to a joint discussion of Austria and Prussia. Contrary to the intentions of Nicholas decided to make the port a collective submission on behalf of the five powers. Forced to come to terms with this provision, then, Nicholas decided to try to separate England and France, and to thus isolate the Louis-Philippe. That he succeeded because France supported the interests of Megemed-Ali, and England tried to guarantee the existence and integrity of the empire of the Sultan. In 1840, Mr.. four powers without the consent of France signed a convention with Turkey, which pledged to work together to make Megemed Ali to come to terms with the Sultan on the conditions offered to him. In the abolition unkiar-skelessiyskogo contract, it was found that the Straits should be closed to warships of all nations, except for light ambassadorial ships that will be missed each time special firman of the Sultan. The danger of war in Europe was eliminated only tractability of Louis-Philippe. In 1841, Mr.. in London the new Convention on the Straits, which confirmed the previous ruling and signed by representatives of all the great powers, including France and. Palmerston, not without reason to believe the conclusion of these conventions, a major victory over the diplomacy of Nicholas. Equally poorly formed, . because of persistent aspiration Nicholas everywhere to uphold the principles of legitimacy, . Russia's relations with Greece, . Moldova, . Wallachia and Serbia, the population of all these countries, . freed with the assistance of Russia, . was, . eventually, . strongly against it restored,
. Many complained of Emperor Nicholas caused by inconsistent and unbalanced policy of the new King of Prussia, . Frederick William IV, . which not only embarked on the path of concessions to international requirements, . but he showed the desire to unite northern Germany under the leadership of Prussia,
. In Austria, the brewing clash of national trends, in Hungary, developed the desire for national unity in the Italian possessions, was anxious mood in Galicia and in Cracow Republic. Austrian government to cope with Galicia rebellion, incited to attack the insurgent Poles oppressed peasant population; Krakow, despite objections from Western powers, was annexed to Austria. When the end of 1847, Mr.. Austria was in serious danger from the King of Sardinia Charles Albert, . relying on the support of England, . Nicholas had Austrian support material, . in the form of cash grant of 6 million rubles, . and moral, . in a very strong note at the British Government,
. When the news was received on the February Revolution in France, . Nicholas immediately tried to create a coalition bulwark against the spread of the revolutionary movement, but before, . than his proposals came to Berlin and Vienna, . There has also been a revolutionary explosions,
. March 14, 1848, . Nicholas issued a manifesto, . full of threats against the revolutionaries, and ends with the words: "God with us, . understand; tongues and obey, . Thou, God with us "On the western border was concentrated 400 thousandth army, . and when the first news of the revolutionary movement in the Danubian principalities of Moldavia were occupied by Russian and Turkish troops, led by management was placed Russian general Duhamel,
. With great indignation treated Nicholas to the formation of the Frankfurt Parliament and dramatically demanded by Austria and Prussia, the suppression of violent actions of the revolutionary movement in Galicia and Posen, . figures which very defiant attitude to Russia (in Russian part of Poland, . under the military regime Paskievich, . inside and tranquility),
. When the Austrian Emperor Ferdinand, in December 1848, abdicated in favor of his young nephew Franz Joseph, Nicholas immediately promised last military aid in 1849. sent first to a small building, and then 100-strong army, had been transferred through the Carpathian Mountains, under the command Paskievich. Despite several unsuccessful actions of the latter, the main Hungarian army under the command of Gergeya, was forced to capitulate to the Russian troops. At the same time, the intervention Nicholas stopped conquest of Schleswig Prussians. When in 1850. between Austria and Prussia came a sharp conflict, which nearly led to war between them (see. XIII, 231), Nicholas took over the role of mediator, insisting that their starting point in deciding whether the acts were adopted by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Mr.. That he immediately became, in essence, on the side of Austria. King of Prussia did not dare to break with Nicholas, and the treaty very favorable to Austria, was held in Olmutz November 18, 1850, with the participation of representatives of Russia. Russia's intervention has caused resentment against her throughout Germany. The French Republic Nikolai became somewhat less hostile attitude of restraint after the June uprising in Paris. The election of the president of Louis-Napoleon Nicholas reacted not with sympathy, . only because, . that he preferred Cavaignac, but, . Napoleon made his coup d'etat on December 2, . Nicholas saw this pledge to strengthen power and curb the revolution

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