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Novikov, Nikolai Ivanovich

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Biography Novikov, Nikolai Ivanovich
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Born April 26, 1744, Mr.. village Avdotino (Bronnitsy district, Moscow province), in the family sufficient landowner, was educated in Moscow in the university gymnasium, but in 1760, Mr.. "for laziness and nehozhdenie in the class" was excluded from the "French Class". In early 1762, Mr.. joined the Izmailovsky Regiment and as the sentry at the barracks in Izmailovskiy day reign of Catherine II, was promoted to noncommissioned officers. Already during his service in the regiment Novikov showed "a taste for philology, and the tendency to the book-case; published two translations of the French novel and the sonnet (1769). In 1767, Mr.. Novikov was among young people, . that the commission members for a new Code has been charged with keeping minutes; order that the Empress was a matter of high importance and ordered "to holding a protocol to determine especially the nobility of talent",
. Novikov worked in a small commission on the average kind of people and a great commission. Participation in the Commission informed him with many important issues in Russian life and the conditions of Russian activities, and made him personally known to Catherine. In 1768, Mr.. Novikov retired and soon became a weekly satirical magazine "Drone" (1769 - 70), 3rd ed. P.A. Ephraim, St. Petersburg, 1865). He joined the fight against the then dominant in Russian society Francophile, which of the entire French educational philosophy of the XVIII century. learned only one Voltairean laughter, turning it into indiscriminate banter. Journals Novikova provide vivid images of lions and lionesses of the then high society, fashionable men and women, and petimetrov coquettes. "Drone" arming against landlord abuses of power, against injustice and corruption, acted with denunciations against the very influential (eg, court) spheres. On the content of satire "Drone" entered into polemics with "all kinds of things, the very body of the Empress in the controversy that attended and other journals, divided into two camps. "Miscellaneous" preached moderation, forbearance for weakness, condemning "any persons graze". "Drone" stood for brave, open rebuke. The struggle was unequal, "Drone" was to moderate the tone, to abandon the discussion of the peasant question, and then completely stopped, not by the will of the publisher. In 1772, Mr.. Novikov made a new satirical magazine - "a painter", the best periodical of XVIII century (eight publications, including three in the XIX century. Such success of the magazine itself Novikov, explained that he came to taste the middle class, because "we are only books the fourth and fifth editions are printed, that these simple-hearted people out of ignorance of their outlandish language, like". "Painter" spent the same ideas as the "Drone": in a number of articles, some of whom belonged п≤.п÷. Turgenev, others attributed Radishchev, he ardently advocated against serfdom. Soon "painter" had to replace a living satire on contemporary mores serious articles of abstract content, and then completely stopped (1773). A new attempt in the same direction was made by Novikov narrower program: in 1774, Mr.. He began publishing a "Trick" (reissued AN. Afanasyev 1856) - Magazine, specifically directed against the Francophile. His attacks against the mores of secular society aroused strong dissatisfaction in court circles, and the magazine stopped at the ninth issue, and the publisher, according to tradition, was subjected to harassment and personal. Counterweight fashionable French education Novikov was trying to find in the virtues of the ancestors, in the moral height and strength of the old Russian began. He released a number of historical books, which were to strengthen national identity and give a "mark of the manners and customs of our ancestors, that we may know the" great spirit in their decorated with simplicity ". These are: "Ancient Russia Vivliofika" (published monthly, 1773 - 75; 2-ed. 1788 - 91; new. ed. 1894); "Ancient Russia Idrografiya" 9 t. I, 1773; description of the Moscow State, drawn up at Theodora Alekseevich); "The narrator of the Russian antiquities, or memorable collection of notes on the History and Geography of Russia" (h. 1, 1776; material from it and then entered into 2-ed. "Vivliofiki"); "stories of innocent imprisoned nobleman A.S. Matveeva "(M., . 1776; 2-ed., . 1795); "Scythian history of various foreign historians, . even more so from the Russian faithful stories and novellas, . by Andrew Lyzlov hard work composed and written by the summer of 1692 "(1776, 2 ed., . M., . 1787; as "Idrografiya", . published in order to "denounce the unjust views of those people, . who think and write, . that until the time of Peter Russia did not have any books, . except church),
. Novikov understood the need for the publication of historical monuments palaeographical of accuracy, a set of difference of opinion, compiling indexes and t. n., sometimes to pursue these methods when using multiple lists, but his publication of acts and chronicles, published in "Vivliofike, and at one time recognized by the defective. This, however, does not diminish the historical significance "Vivliofiki, still of considerable scientific interest. The material for their publications monuments Novikov drew from the Archive of private and church, as well as public access to certain permitted Novikov empress in 1773, Mr.. He himself has made collection of manuscripts of historical content. Many materials delivered to him Miller, Prince Shcherbatov Bantysh-Kamensky and others, as well, and Catherine II, which supported the publication "Vivliofiki" generous subsidies. The relationship of the Empress to Novikov for this period of his activity is generally distinguished favors. According to AI. Nezelenova, Novikova acted on the idea "all sorts of things, it is better to correct the image of good examples of manners than satire, hence his historical publications. The Empress, in turn, in his comedies began flagellate (although weaker "Drone"), Francophile and cruel treatment of serfs and, to a certain extent, imbued with love for the Russian past. In his views on the Russian past Novikov not always be sustainable. Ancient Russia's rulers, . he said, . "Thou sensed would, . that the introduction in Russia of Sciences and Arts naidragotsenneyshee Russia's treasure - manners ruin forever, "but at the same time he - an ardent supporter of education, . admirer of Peter the Great and the people, . whose work for the benefit of Russian enlightenment he lovingly puts in his "Experience Historical Dictionary of Russian Writers", . appeared in 1772,
. (cm. Bibliography, VI, 492). The outcome of the fluctuations and contradictions Novikov found in Freemasonry. Novikov's first connection with freemasonry began in St. Petersburg. Friends back in 1775, Mr.. invite him to Freemasonry, Novikov but hesitated, not wishing to be bound by an oath, the subject of which he was unknown. The Masons are very proud of entry Novikova, contrary to their rules, they told him of the first three "degrees" before its entry into the box. Novikov was not satisfied Yelagin system, in which he entered, and only later he found the "true" Freemasonry in the Reichel, in which "everything was drawn to the morality and self-knowledge". In 1777, Mr.. Novikov released 22 rooms of St. Petersburg scientists Vedomosti (2-ed. AN. Neustroeva, St. Petersburg, 1873) coming out weekly and is affiliated to the first period of its activity. It was a magazine scientist and literary critic, set out to, on the one hand, to bring together Russian literature and science to the learned world of the West, on the other - to put the domestic services of writers, especially the historical. Didactic element in the "Gazette" very weak. It becomes dominant in the morning light "(1777 - 80), a monthly magazine, which Novikov, stopping the" Vedomosti ", began to publish in September 1777, in St. Petersburg, and from April 1779, Mr.. - Moscow. There were "Noschi" Jung, "Opinions" Pascal translations of German writers, moralists, pietistov and mystics. "Morning Light" was published with the assistance of Novikov circle of associates, among whom were MN. Ants and п≤.п÷. Turgenev, and charitable purposes: all the income from publications intended for the device and content in the initial public schools in St. Petersburg. This impact has two main features of the later Novikov: ability to organize a public initiative and desire to work for the benefit of education. Message to the subscribers of the journal, with an invitation to promote the education of schools, led to an abundant inflow of donations. Already in November 1777, Mr.. Novikov had been opened at the Church College of Vladimir Mother of God, 30 and 40, with boarders and day-boy, pay and gifts, then called Catherine. The following year was opened the second school (Aleksandrovskoe, at the Church of the Annunciation on Vasilevsky Island). In 1779, Mr.. KHERASKOV - curator of the Moscow University, and Mason, suggested Novikov rent university press and the publication of the Moscow Gazette. Novikov moved to Moscow, and here begins the third and most brilliant period of its activity. In Moscow, Novikov found a circle of Masons, of people dedicated to the same interests of morality and self-knowledge (I.V. Lopukhin, SI. Gamaleya, I.E. Schwartz, kn. Trubetskoy and Cherkassky, I.V. Turgenev, several university professors, the princess VA. Trubetskaya). In this group theoretical thought Novikova finally stepped into the lodge, do not hesitate to make Rosicrucianism, with its alchemical ravings. But that mystique did not prevent the outreach Novikova, which found greater support in I.E. Schwartz, with whom Novikov, "made for life, until his death, Schwartz, inseparable". Rapidly put in order and significantly expanding the university press, Novikov less than three years, it published more books than what came out of it before at 24 years. Novikov raised and the importance of the Moscow Gazette, which began to make the addition of diverse content, the number of subscribers has increased sevenfold (from 600 to 4000). In 1781, Mr.. Novikov published a sequel to "morning light", called "Moscow monthly publication, then followed in 1782 by Mr.. "The Evening Dawn" in 1784 - 1785 he. - "Resting Trudolyubets", in which Novikov resumed his struggle with serfdom. His publishing activities he wanted to create an abundant and affordable supply of useful and entertaining reading for a broad range of readers, not limited to the promotion of their mystical beliefs. 448 titles of books published Novikov, there were 290 books of secular content, as well as a large number of books of spiritual content, not related to Freemasonry. Considering printing "naivelichayshim of all inventions", public initiative - the most reliable tool for the dissemination of education, Novikov still in "Painter" 1773 g. suggested the establishment of the Society, sought the printing of books. This idea, fill the idea of the Schwarz-trained, through force of university, reliable teachers, was implemented in the "Friendly Learned Society, which later merged with the typographic company, established in 1784, Mr.. from contributed capital to 57 500 p. and received from Novikova stock of books in 320 000 p. on selling price. Annual revenue exceeds 40 000 rub., . reaching in some years 80 000 rub.; after the closure of the company in 1791, . despite extensive marketing of its published books, . they were still nearly 700 000 rub., . not counting the 16 856 books burned (as malicious), . 7 158 books and, . transferred to the University and Zaikonospassky Academy,
. In order to reduce the cost of books Novikov entered into relations with all the then bookshops, . winding Commissioners, . let booksellers concessional goods on credit, . sometimes tens of thousands of copies, . arranged the book trade not only in provincial cities, . but in villages,
. In Moscow, which until then existed only two bookstores, with a turnover of 10 000 pp., With Novikov and under the influence of their number had risen to 20, and books are sold annually two hundred thousand. He also established the first library in Moscow for reading. People close to the time and to the very Novikov, claimed that he not only distributed, but also created in us a love for learning and desire for reading. Through caused them to intensify the work of translators, writers, publishing houses, bookshops, excited he published books and magazines, gossip, has, by Remark V.O. Kliuchevskoi, then push through with what was still unknown Russian educated society: public opinion. Along with the book-publishing enterprises was Novikova and teacher-charitable activities of his circle. The latter reached the greatest development in a famine in 1787, when Novikov on a large scale famine relief provided. Funds delivered to the Guards officer Gregory Maximovich Pohodyashin, . son Ural gornozavodchika, . who gave to the Novikov all his great state and, . dying in poverty, . indulged his last moments by, . that emotion stared at the portrait Novikov, . showed him the true way of life,
. Activities Novikov was in full bloom, when going over it already storm. First of all, said to him the claim (in 1784) the commission of public schools for reprinting some of the textbooks, it published. Novikov did so on the orders of the commander in chief of the Moscow Chernyshev, and not for profit but for the fact that the sale was enough textbooks at a cheap price, but Chernyshev meanwhile died, and Novikov had to issue a commission fee. Printed Novikov "dirty" history of the Jesuits, who patronized the Empress, was banned. In 1785, Mr.. was commanded to draw up an inventory of publications Novikov and transmit them to the Archbishop Platon of Moscow, who was also to test the faith of the Novikov. In his report (January 1786), Archbishop Platon section of the Novikov into three categories: those he regarded as very useful in the poverty of our literature, other, . mystical, . he, . he said, . did not understand the third, . compiled by the French Encyclopaedists, . He considered noxious,
. On Faith Novikov Plato wrote: "vseschedrogo pray to God that the world were Christians such as Novikov". In March 1786, Mr.. Novikov was again permitted to trade books, but some of them were sealed. Review of Plato dispel mistrust Catherine to Novikov. Long before the expiry of the contract for rental Novikov university press Empress more than once an order that the printing press more Novikov did not give. Loss of university press (1789) was very sensitive to Novikov, though in his possession and were printing company. In 1790, Mr.. Moscow was appointed commander of the Prince Prozorovskii, an ignorant man, cruel. He sent at Novikov denunciations that led to a business trip to Moscow, Count Bezborodko for the production of secret inquiry. Bezborodko found no grounds for prosecution Novikova. In 1791, Mr.. Novikov, was compelled, however, cease to exist typographic Company. In April 1792, Mr.. Prozorovsky decree was sent to investigate, does not print if Novikov, contrary to the law, books, church press. Prozorovskii sent to the arrest of Novikov, who is seriously ill lived in his manor Avdotino, Gusarskij team was so frightened children Novikova, that they whole life after suffering nervous fits. Finding no evidence against Novikova, Prozorovsky requested the dispatch of the famous investigator of the time, Sheshkovskogo, and represented the inconvenience referral Novikov ordinary court. Even before the investigation was the decree of Empress May 10, 1792, Mr.. ordered to secretly transport Novikov Schlusselburg fortress, where his new interrogations conducted Sheshkovsky. August 1, 1792, Mr.. Empress has signed a decree on the conclusion Novikov Schlusselburg stronghold for 15 years. e. death), where he was due to the strength of laws for their "and actually found them recognized the crime," although he did not open another secret of his designs ". From printed in II T. "Collection of the Historical Society of questionnaires items, . which were placed Novikov, . and his answers can be seen, . that Novikov was accused of "disgraceful schism", . self-serving deceptions, . in the Masonic (which was not prohibited either before, . or after), . in relations with the Duke of Brunswick, and others,
. foreigners, in relations with the Grand Duke Paul Petrovich. All these accusations decree on August 1 applies not only to Novikov, and all his accomplices-Masons; suffered the same one only Novikov, although it is not considered the head of the Moscow Masons. Actually Novikov put up against one was an allegation of violation given to them in 1786, Mr.. subscriptions are not selling books recognized by noxious, but there was no "public" crimes. Even the prince was struck Prozorovskii Novikova outcome of the case: "I do not understand the end of this case - he wrote Sheshkovskomu: how the next few accomplices, if he was a criminal, then those criminals". Karamzin, . expressing sympathy for the fate of the Novikov in his ode to Grace, . I was searching for reasons for condemnation Novikova not officially put up against him and, . incidentally, . in the first place put Novikov distributing bread to the starving, . which seemed suspicious, . because they do not know the source of spent them with funds,
. Four and a half years spent in the fortress Novikov, suffering extreme poverty in the fundamentals, even in medicine, although the conclusion of his dedication shared Dr. Bagryanskaya. Emperor Paul I on the first day of his reign, freed Novikova. Novikov was taken to the fortress still in full development of his strength and energy, and came out "a decrepit old sogben". He was forced to give up all social activities, and until his death (31 July 1818) has lived almost continuously in Avdotino, taking care of the needs of their farmers and their education.

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