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Ordin-Nashchokin Athanasius Lavrent'evich

( The famous Moscow diplomat)

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Biography Ordin-Nashchokin Athanasius Lavrent'evich
The son of a poor landowner Pskov, Ordin-Nashchokin grew up in an environment that supported living relations with its western neighbors, and through her early felt the influence of the West. Apparently, already in his youth knew Latin and German, and then examined and polish. For the first time his name appears in official documents by 1642, when he shall order on delimitation of lands with Sweden. In 1650, . during the Pskov rebellion, . directed specifically against foreigners and their supporters, . Ordin first had to escape from Pskov, . but then, . returning, . many helped calm the unrest as an intermediary between Moscow and warlord (Khovanskii) and the surrounding population,
. Widely deployed activities Ordin with the beginning of the Polish-Swedish War. Appointed in 1654, Mr.. in Silesia in the city Druyu, . shortly before taken from the Poles, . it during the campaign under Alexei Mikhailovich Riga (1656) becomes known to the king and receives important post - governor in Kokenhausen (Tsarevicheve-Dmitriev), . former center of Russian acquisitions in Livonia,
. With small forces and with the explicit unfriendly governor of Moscow, . Ordin successfully defended against the Swedes conquered territory, . seeks to appease the local population, . protecting it from looting the Cossacks and Moscow servitors, . Finally, . negotiated involves the Duke of Courland, Jacob, on the side of Russia,
. All this gives Ordin Dumnova rank and rank of a nobleman and viceroy Shatsky Livonia land. It starts with the device of the fleet on the Western Dvina, but at this time of the Moscow government, in view of the resumption of war with Poland, is inclined to peace with the Swedes, and Ordin going for peace talks in Veliesar. Veliesarskoe Truce (1658), preserving the Russian, beyond expectation king, all their conquests in Livonia, was undoubtedly a matter of Ordin, although officially the first place among the Commissioners held P.S. Prozorovskii. The relation to Sweden once again stood in front of the Moscow government, when it was discovered rapprochement between Sweden and Poland, and at the same time, Moscow's governor suffered several major setbacks in the war with the Poles. Under these conditions Ordin, . on the main demand of Alexei Mikhailovich, . ties the negotiations with the Swedes on the "perpetual peace", . but soon asked the king to replace him by another person, . as pretension Swedes, , . convinces him, . that Russia would be advantageous peace with Poland, . even though the refusal of the Poles captured cities (Polotsk and Vitebsk),
. Peace with the Swedes were, however, concluded (in Kardise, in 1661), but after Ordin leaves no thought of resuming the war with them for the Baltic coast. Taking part in the open very soon the negotiations with the Poles, he insists on the need for compliance and for an alliance with Poland. He was willing to give the Poles, even Little Russia, in view of reliability, "Cherkas, and only met with rebuff from the king, was to follow the negotiations" stand firmly for the preservation, at least, left-bank Ukraine to Russia. With a break in the negotiations in 1665, Ordin, erected in Okolnichy, appointed by the voivod in Pskov. In early 1666, Mr.. he was again at the Congress of the Polish commissioners at this time - in the rank of "great and Plenipotentiary Ambassador". The result of the negotiations was Andrusovo peace (1667), which caused a loud Ordin popularity in Europe and is the most important act in the history of Russian-Polish relations during the XVII century. Ordin complained to the nobles and receives management Ambassadorial order, . with the title "royal big press and public affairs of the great embassy protector"; obey him and several other orders: Malorossiysky and Smolensky, . Novgorod, . Galitskaya and Vladimir Cheti, . and also - Vyazemskaya Customs, . kruzhechny yard, . iron factories,
. Andrusovo peace has not allowed it is Russian-Polish question: Alexei Mikhailovich did not admit the possibility of returning Kiev Poles, . the assigned them only two years, . and Ordin was to further relations with Poland's desire to take the king of the guiding principle,
. Acting against the conviction and not seeing the opportunities to achieve the goal through direct, . He tries to create a pretext for the occupation of Kiev solid: calculated to cause confusion in the remainder of the Polish bank Ukraine Turns secret negotiations with the hetman Doroshenko its allegiance to Moscow and at the same time trying to organize, . with the assistance of unrecognized Moscow Metropolitan Joseph Tukalskogo, . among the clergy malorossiyskogo movement in favor of the subordination of the Kiev Metropolitan of Moscow Patriarch, . which would make impossible the transfer of Kiev Poles,
. And there and here he fails: the negotiations with Doroshenko, . misinterpreted with the assistance of the Polish campaign, . resulted in the excitement of all the Moscow Ukraine, . and by the official representatives of the clergy malorossiyskogo was lodged protest, . addition Ordin,
. Politics Ordin, reputed and earlier among the Ukrainian population supporter of union with Poland and the enemy of Little Russia, the Ukraine is a general irritation against him. At the same time so there is a strong opponent emerged in 1668, Mr.. and occupied the very project of Alexis Tsarevich Aleksei Alekseevich election to the Polish throne: in spite of the double sovereign's decree from Moscow, Ordin did not go to the polling Sejm in Warsaw, responding that the decree "higher forces and thought massacre carried out". Situation Ordin shaken; begins nominated to replace him as the representative of another direction, A.S. Matveev. Latest diplomatic success Ordin - confirmation, in 1670, Andrusovo armistice suspended the transfer of Kiev for an indefinite time - success is not valued in Moscow, where he would now join the whole of Ukraine. However, Ordin was granted in the nearby nobles and appointed plenipotentiary ambassador to Warsaw, but from the superintendence Ambassadorial order he was removed (1671). Question of Kiev and caused the final rupture between the king and the famous diplomat: Ordin insisted on strict implementation Andrusovo (second) contract, . pointing, . with his usual perspicacity, . that Moscow is more important to get right to the protection of the Orthodox faith in the Ukraine, . that will interfere in the affairs of Poland, and eventually will get not only Kiev, . and western Ukraine, meanwhile, in prepared for it, . already Matveyev, . Instructions were held completely opposite views,
. Ordin decided to leave the monastery. He cuts his hair (1671) under the name of Anthony, in Krynetskii desert, near Pskov, and gave himself for charity from the proceeds from his Poreckij granted by parish. However, and Alexei Mikhailovich, and his successor at times turned to him for advice, in 1679, Mr.. He was summoned to Moscow for talks about the new evidence Andrusovo truce. In 1680, Mr.. died. - Ordin-Nashchokin was a first-rate diplomat. An astute and resourceful, he was quite inflexible techniques and was able to skillfully use the blunders of the enemy. Considering the important function of state diplomacy, itself incorruptible and straight, he demanded that representatives of its high moral character: "Ambassador's order - he wrote to Tsar Alexis, - is the eye of the great Russia. It must be, sire, mental tops in state affairs ustremlyati blameless and elected people ". Languages facilitate his acquaintance with the western way of life, and the thoughtfulness and experience helped him gain a clear conception of international relations. It was said in Moscow that he "knows the German business and German customs knows the same". And in understanding the needs of Russia, whose satisfaction was unchanged to his diplomatic activities, Ordin-Nashchokin is a true statesman - to assess V.O. Kliuchevskoi, the first public figures in Russia, worthy of the name "Russian Richelieu," as called by his contemporaries-foreigners. In half of the XVII century, Russia has been so involved in the overall economy of the Europe that the issues of economic policy became "first a state matter, and in recognition of this fact - the starting point of policy Ordin. Its main objective - the acquisition of the Baltic coast, which was to open a direct route to Russia to Europe. Hence the desire to use Ordin conjuncture which created hostile relations of Denmark, Brandenburg and Poland to Sweden, and threw in Russia for joint action with the first three against the common enemy. Parallel to this are activities designed to develop the internal trade of the country, mainly - to simplify the system of trade tariffs and government support for Russian merchant capital in its competition with foreign. More complete expression of ideas Ordin-Nashchokin in this area has been produced by him in 1665,. Public Administration Reform in Pskov, on "articles" that have been developed with the participation of a "general council of the popular" Pskov "with the example of third-party foreign lands". This small "malomochnye" traders, . conducting direct relations with Western merchants, . frequently performed operations on the money, . taken from the past, . thus, . turning in their commissioners, . harmed the interests of Russian merchants, with the new we build all of them were "painted", . "on the property and acquaintances", . between large capitalists and Pskov were obliged, . receiving loans from Zemskaya hut, . treasury to submit their products "the best people, . who they will be in the note ",
. At the same time, economic management of the city and the civil court passed Zemsky elected people who have formed themselves Zemstvo hut. The same aim is pursued in fact composed in 1667, Mr.. with the close participation Ordin-Nashchokin New Commercial Code, . introducing a high protective tariff, and wherewith the activities of foreigners in the domestic market, . and for the protection and council "merchant people" of the entire state by projecting a special institution - the Order merchant Affairs,
. Wanting to make more use of the geographical position of Russia, . as intermediary between Europe and Asia, . Ordin-Nashchokin seeks to strengthen the Russian trade with Persia, . Turns relations with Central Asia, . Khiva and Bukhara, . sends embassy to India, . thinking about the colonization of the Amur Region,
. Part of the same reasons it was concluded in 1667, Mr.. agreement with the Armenian campaign, according to which all the silk from Persia, was exported to Russia. Ordin-Nashchokin values and purely cultural ties with Europe: he says, . "good not ashamed navykat and from, . with strangers, . even his enemies, "but borrowing someone else's culture is acceptable to him only within certain limits:" What do we care, . - He argued, . - To foreign customs? Their dress is not for us, . and ours is not on them ",
. He has his own views and general management practices. He is the enemy of extreme centralization, established in Moscow, and requires initiative for artists, especially in military and diplomatic affairs: not at all "to wait for the sovereign's decree, everywhere must Voivodship consideration ... Half of ratification to sell, but the industrialist to buy - and it will be more profitable ". - Alexei Mikhailovich attracted in Ordino and his moral qualities, . among other things - his humane treatment of subordinates: giving, . example, . him to the rank of Dumnova nobleman, . king of special merit makes it, . that "it feeds the greed, . eager to water them, . naked dress, . to military men affectionate, . but the thieves did not take ",
. Ordin-Nashchokin was granted the right to treat all sorts of reports to the secret order - a sign of exceptional trust Emperor. But the famous diplomat constantly faced with the hostility of the court aristocracy, which irritated the rise inconspicuous gentleman, and opposition from the Ambassadors order clerks, who resent his exacting. For its part, sharp and pertinacious, he has further aggravated relations caustic criticism of his opponents. "Before all the people - he wrote to the king, - for thy sovereign's cause no one could hate, as I". In this struggle the king has consistently supported "Lavrent'evich", . assuring him, . that his office Nikole oblivious will not ", . and only occasionally put on the kind of excessive to kick, . receiving from Ordin-Nashchokin explanation, . that he had "on the sovereign's heart aches to be silent and not give", . or request "tilt of the affairs of his omerzelogo slave",
. Ordin-Nashchokin resignation became inevitable only when between him and the king revealed the complete difference in understanding problems of the foreign policy of Russia. We Ordin-Nashokin had a son, warrior, well-known fact that, dissatisfied with Moscow's orders, ran (in 1660) abroad, but went to Germany, France, Holland and Denmark, he returned (in 1665) to Russia. Offspring did not leave.

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Ordin-Nashchokin Athanasius Lavrent'evich, photo, biography
Ordin-Nashchokin Athanasius Lavrent'evich, photo, biography Ordin-Nashchokin Athanasius Lavrent'evich  The famous Moscow diplomat, photo, biography
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