Mannerheim, Carl( President of Finland in 1944-46 gg.)
Comments for Mannerheim, Carl
Biography Mannerheim, Carl
Swedish Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim was born on June 4, 1867, Mr.. Louhisaari the estate, in south-western Finland, near Turku. Mannerheim (originally Margeymy) were originally from Holland, but in the XVII century. moved to Sweden and then partly in its province of Finland and in 1693, Mr.. were referred to as the nobility.
Carl Gustaf Emil largely been left to itself, and together with their peers amused by the fact that the stones hit the window, for which he was a year removed from school. Relatives had to think about his special education, which would not require a lot of money. The choice fell on a military school in Hamina, founded by Nicholas I, though a strong preference for military service, the boy did not feel. Nevertheless, Carl Gustaf Emil studied with enthusiasm, but because of the capricious nature of his dislike school leadership. Night quitting the young baron in the city just before the release was too much for the authorities, and the hapless cadet was expelled from school. Vain and self-assured young man, parting with their odnokaschnikami, promised that he would finish the formation of a privileged Nicholas Cavalry School and become an officer in the Guards.
And he kept his word: enrolled in college in 1887, spending a year to improve their Russian language with relatives who lived near Kharkov, education in the University of Helsingfors, and the search for patrons in St. Petersburg. Although Mannerheim graduated Nikolaev Cavalry School in 1889, Mr.. among the best, get into the regiment, and thus serve at court and receive a large salary, that was for the poor Baron's important, not immediately able. First, had two years to pull the strap army in Poland in the 15 th Alexandria Dragoon Regiment.
Excellent service, communication and patrons helped Mannerheim in 1891. return to St. Petersburg and get into the Life Guards regiment, chief of which was the Queen Alexandra. The officers of the regiment served in the Empress's apartment. Finnish Baron plunged into the social life: new friends among politicians, diplomats, military. However, to maintain communications in high society, needed a lot of money. Mannerheim into debt. A brilliant officer of the Guards, he could count on favorable marriage. He married in 1892. on Anastasia Arapova rich, but ugly and temperamental daughter of a Russian general, Carl Gustaf Emil improve their financial situation: he not only paid tsolgi, but also bought an estate in Latvia Apprinen. After about a year for married daughter was born, which was named in honor of his mother Anastasia (d. 1978), and in 1895. - Sophia (died 1963).
A marriage of convenience was not happy, and the birth of a dead son has further complicated relations between the spouses. Anastasia in 1901. went to Khabarovsk nurse, leaving the children to father. When she returned a year later, family life Mannerheims not go smoothly. The couple decided to leave. Anastasia, taking the daughters to go abroad. After much wandering, she and her youngest daughter finally settled in Paris, . and the oldest - moved to England, . Official Mannerheims divorce took place only in 1919, . when the press interested in the personal life of a presidential candidate Finlyantsii,
A passion for horses - the Baron has successfully performed several times at the races - has helped Mannerheim in the next year to become a high official in the administration of royal stables, and receive a salary of colonel: He selected for the purchase of thoroughbred horses. Frequent business trips abroad, new acquaintances broadened horizons 30-year-old cavalry officer, he began to show interest in political affairs. Even germanskomu Kaiser Wilhelm II, he was presented because of the case with the horse. During a regular visit to Berlin, where Mannerheim personally checked selected for the royal stables of horses, one of them badly damaged his knee. He was forced to two months of treatment in hospital. Wilhelm II, a great connoisseur and lover of thoroughbred horses, intrigued by the incident, before going to Russia, Mannerheim took him in his palace.
In 1903, moving up the career ladder, Mannerheim became commander of the model in a cavalry squadron officer school. This honorable position he assumed on the recommendation of General AA. Brusilov and Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich.
At the outbreak of the Russian-Japanese war of 1904 - 1905 gg. Mannerheim volunteered to go volunteer for the front. He wanted to support his further career military officer experience.
Thus Petersburg Guards captain was a lieutenant colonel 52-ro Nezhinsky Dragoon Regiment. He received the command of two squadrons, and showed himself a brave and competent officer. In early 1905. Mannerheim conducted intelligence operations in the vicinity of Mukden, who gave the supreme command of valuable information about the plans of the Japanese, and their singer - the rank of colonel. At the end of the war he conducted similar operations in Mongolia.
Intelligence capacity Mannerheim spotted in St. Petersburg in 1906. General shgab offered him a secret mission: to find out the military-political situation in the Chinese territory adjacent to the borders of Russia.
Mannerheim believed these two years, the most interesting in his life, loved to tell about the adventures in China. In his "Memoirs" chapter "on horseback through Asia" - one of the longest and vividly written. His adventure also interested Nicholas II. In October 1908. Mannerheim audience of the king instead of the planned 20 lasted 80 minutes and would last longer if the Baron, as he writes, not looked at the clock.
In 1912, Mr.. he was appointed commander of the zlitarnogo Guards of His Majesty's Lancers, stationed in Warsaw. The new appointment Mannerheim received the next rank of Major General and free access to the king, because this post made him a court. Immediately before the First World War was followed by a new increase: Major General Mannerheim was appointed commander of the special life-guards of His Majesty the Warsaw Cavalry Brigade, . which, . but his regiment, . includes more Grodno Hussars and an artillery battery,
In March, 1915. Army Commander General Brusilov, former head of the Mannerheim with the St. Petersburg times, handed in his submission of 12 th Cavalry Division. In 1915 - 1916 he. he as commander of the division - and in fact the case, as he usually been subordinated to other parts of up to 40 thousand. people - participated, with varying success in many operations. Troops under the command of the Mannerheim in 1916. liberated Romania from the invading Austro-Hungarian troops.
For a successful operation at the beginning Mannerheim, 1917. received and spent his vacation in Finland. Returning to his division in Petrograd during the February Revolution, the Baron almost became a victim of the crowd. When the Commissioner of the army, contrary to the agreement, refused to authorize the punishment of soldiers, the arresting officer's statement promonarhicheskoe, Mannerheim realized that continue to command the corps pointless. At this time he just got a slight foot injury. On this occasion, he went for treatment in Odessa. After unsuccessful attempts to induce the officers were in town to take anything against the expansion of the army, General actually withdrew from the command of the troops.
September 9, 1917, Mr.. Mannerheim was officially relieved of his duties as commander of the corps and enlisted in the reserve.
After the Bolsheviks seized power, Mannerheim decided to return home. December 6, 1917, Mr.. Finland was declared an independent state, which was considered the head of the Soviet Government VI. Lenin December 31.
The young Finnish state was engaged in the formation of its structures, it was necessary to think about his defense - so there was a Defense Committee. Upon arriving in Helsinki, the baron became a member. The Committee consisted largely of the same, as Mannerheim, Finnish officers and generals who served in the tsarist army and after its collapse found themselves unemployed and were returning from German captivity.
In Finland, has formed self-defense corps - shyutskor - armed organization of affluent people, including officers, have received during World War II military training in the 20 th Jaeger Battalion in Germany. Building self-defense was weakly associated with the committee, who had a very uncertain function.
But the political situation more tense. In contrast schyutskoru was formed Red Guards, began skirmishes between them, there have been terrorist attacks. Red Guard received arms and support from parts of the Russian army, stationed in Finland and to a large extent Bolshevise. Red Guards supported the industrially developed southern part of Finland. They were opposed by peasant Yuzhnoseverny flax (province).
January 14, 1918, Mr.. at the end of the third meeting of the Committee of Defense, held in the manner of salon conversation, Mannerheim stated that depressed inactivity Committee and comes out of it. At a reasonable question about his proposals in this situation, Mannerheim put forward the idea that same night away from Helsinki to the north and to create a future army headquarters. This plan was approved by the Prime Minister P.E. Svinhufvud.
The next day, Mannerheim became chairman of the committee, it meant that Mannerheim, commander of the army will, which has not yet been.
Mannerheim took care of that from shyutskorovskih teams to create an efficient army. He regroup, reformed based kvargiru, moving it from slightly east of Vaasa in Seynayski, replenished the officers and noncommissioned officers are. The troops were constantly teaching, went to organize communications and logistics, was declared a general mobilization - a risky move, because the poorer segments of the north also sympathized with the red.
In March 1918. between Germany and Russia had signed the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty, which contained an item on the withdrawal of Russian troops from Finland. In early March, Mannerheim was opposed to the Government of Finland has requested Germany for military assistance. However, this request was held.
To strengthen its influence and prestige of the army, Mannerheim May 16 - just a month after the arrival of the Germans - paraded the army entered the capital. Ahead of the troops rode the cavalry, General Mannerheim - this rank government conferred upon him in February. In greeting the general chairman of the parliament said in the Finnish language, which have not yet mastered enough free. and even gave "instructions" indecisive government. It would seem that the triumph of full. But s0 May 1918. Mannerheim resigned as commander in chief, and the next day left Finland. Whats up, . why double, . 20 and 27 May, . Chief handed their resignations? Historians have almost unanimously in, . that the main motive of conduct Mannerheim set out in its vospominayiyah: he could not accept the government's plans to reorganize in the wake of progermanizma Finnish armed forces germanskomu model, and thus doom themselves to be the "wedding general",
. But in military circles Mannerheim valued. I followed him to Sweden, where he went a retired commander in chief, it was reported that General K. Enkel, who in 1887, Mr.. haminaskogo excluded him from military school, being the head of the Club graduate school, awarded him an honorary member of the club.
After the departure of the Finnish Mannerheim some time he lived in Sweden, has established friendly relations with the ambassadors of countries of the Entente in the country, sometimes traveled to Finland. When success in World War II was accompanied by the Entente, the general consent as a semi-official representative of the Finnish Government to go to England and France. In Eberdin (Scotland), he arrived on Nov. 11, 1918, the day of the signing of the Armistice.
Mannerheim so successfully conducted the affairs, that at the end of his tour has officially represented the highest authority in Finland. December 22, 1918, Mr.. Baron returned to.
In March 1919, was elected a new Parliament of Finland. The elections gave the preponderance of centrists and moderate left. The Social Democrats regained their position: they have 80 mandates in the parliament out of 200. Although radikalyoe wing separated from its representatives in exile in August - September 1918. formed the Communist Party of Finland, which was immediately banned and was in opposition with the Social Democrats, the moderate Social Democrats also did not get along with white General. In the left-wing circles winners called butchers (lahtari) for the subsequent terror: mass shootings, most deaths of prisoners in the camps due to malnutrition, torture, epidemics. Although the wine in this Mannerheim, who left the post of commander in chief shortly after the war, has been controversial, it is also hated.
Conservative Mannerheim was a supporter of the monarchy and a strong government. However, after some doubt, he not only approved a new constitution, but agreed to become a candidate for presidency. Under the Constitution, the President of Finland elect electors. But the first president elected by the Parliament. Mannerheim gathered only 50 votes. 143 votes centrists and leftists first president of Finland was elected centrist - a prominent lawyer, one of the drafters of the republican constitution K.YU. Stolberg. Mannerheim was able to take revenge, only in 1944, at a difficult time for Finland, and it will be a burden rather than a victory.
Small consolation Mannerheim was that the end of May 1919. He received the title of Honorary Doctor of Philosophy, University of Helsinki. A great consolation for the general were collected in his fund money - 7.5 million. marks after he was dismissed from the post of regent. That was enough for many years a prosperous life in the fashionable district of Helsinki.
In the summer of 1919. he was asked to become ambassador in Paris. Mannerheim considered that post for himself too little: he did not intend to leave the political arena in Finland. During August 1919. was negotiated on his appointment as commander of the army of Finland that did not, however, a positive result, as Mannerheim, according to the president, demanded too much. Appointment eniya in the armed forces, the imposition of martial law, the proclamation of a state of war between Finland and Soviet Russia - all this was to be administered by the Commander.
From France Mannerheim went to Poland. General of Finland was given a magnificent reception, he met with Prime Minister of J. Pilsudski. Representatives of both the former grand duchy of Russia Empire were unanimous in saying that the Bolsheviks in Russia to overthrow. Mannerheim and Pilsudski came to the conclusion that they should cooperate with Russia's liberal circles who are willing not only to recognize the independence of Finland and Poland, but Russia to build a new democratic and federal basis.
Pilsudski was going to start in 1920. anti-Bolshevik campaign and tried to involve him in other. Mannerheim liked the idea, and he promoted it on the way back home in England and France. But the offensive of the Polish troops in 1920. against Soviet Russia has not found a response in Finland. Yes, and Mannerheim not shown to be actively.
Note that the white general who held senior positions in the political and military hierarchy of the country in the early years of independent Finland, up to 1931. had no public office. Interestingly, when in 1921. leadership shyutskora elected its honorary head of Mannerheim's acting chairman, president Stolberg did not approve this decision. This is not like the influential right-wing forces in the country. During a special strained relations between Stolbergom and Mannerheim fans last even offered him a military coup, Mannerheim refused. He thought it possible to assert their views only by constitutional methods.
Freed from the public service, the general did not lead an idle life. He was invited to various military ceremonies, he presented reports. Mannerheim was elected chairman of the Management Council of the Bank - at first the United Bank, after the merger - the Helsinki Joint Stock Bank. But the financial affairs of his little interest, and in 1936. he finally resigned head of one of the most influential banks in the country.
Particular attention is paid Mannerheim activities, as a rule, not typical of the military - charity and medicine. In 1920, Mr.. He founded the "Save the Children" to promote the physical and spiritual development of the younger generation. In seeking national reconciliation, this union is particularly concerned about the children of the poor in Finland, in particular the children of former Red Guards. Not believing in the sincerity of the general, the Social Democratic Party refused to cooperate with the "Save the Children".
The world economic crisis of 1929 - 1933 gg. That in Finland, made itself felt already in 1928 brought to power in the country more right-wing forces: as a result of the first head of the Finnish state in 1917 - 1918. became prime minister in February 1931. was elected president of Finland. The next day, after coming to this post - March 2, 1931. - He suggested Mannerheim post commander of the armed forces and Chief of confidence in case of war. Commander of the Constitution of Finland was the president. From the post of commander of the Mannerheim refused - too much routine work - but agreed to become chairman of the Defense Committee. This 64-year-old general is once again in the public service. In 1933. in connection with the 15 th anniversary of the Civil War he was given the rank of Marshal.
Revived political activity Marshal. The policy of national reconciliation, expressed in the actions of the Union to protect children, found a clear political expression in a speech May 16, 1933, Mr.. in celebration of the 15 th anniversary of the entry of the White Army in Helsinki. Gradually improve relations with the leader of the Social Democrats in. Tanner. This was all the more important that in 1936, Mr.. Social Democratic Party came to power, forming together with the farmers' red-green "office.
Mannerheim showed great activity and in the foreign policy area. Soviet rapprochement with France and its entry into the League of Nations puzzled Finnish leaders. In their view, the League of Nations could no longer be a guarantor against the Soviet Union. They alerted the statement in 1935. Soviet ambassador E.A. Asmus that if Germany would start a war, the Red Army entered the territory of Finland. These warnings are repeated by Soviet leaders in 1936 - 1937 he. As a result, on the initiative of the marshal and his associates Finland ceased to focus on the League of Nations and became priverzhenitsey proskandinavskogo neutrality, as was announced in Parliament on Dec. 5, 1935, Mr..
Mannerheim welcomed the arrival in 1933. Nazis to power in Germany, believing that they will vigorously fight against communism than sluggish Western Democrats. But by 1939. his views have changed: the aggressive behavior of the lumpen Hitler in domestic and foreign policy sickened aristocrat Mannerheim. But he believed that Finland should not quarrel with Berlin. Marshall believed the real threat voyyy with the Soviet Union and was preparing for her. And at the same time advised to conduct a cautious policy towards the Soviet Union, especially after the signing in 1939. Molotov - Ribbentrop.
Mannerheim was in a hurry with the rearmament of the army, fortifications, persistently demanded for the money. Not having enough of them, he twice in 1939. - 16 June and 27 November - filed a statement of resignation. At the same time insisted that the negotiations with Moscow, the leaders of Finland yroyavlyali greater flexibility. He advised the government to meet Moscow's proposal to transfer to the Soviet Union demilitarized Finnish islands in the Gulf of Finland, . that, . he said, . had no special significance for Finland, . but were important for the security of Leningrad and Kronstadt,
. Even in the matter of the main opposition in the negotiations - Soviet demands for the transfer of lease the Hanko Peninsula to build a military base there - Mannerheim was searching for a compromise. He recommended to give the Soviet Union Island Yussare at the Hanko Peninsula.
The majority of Finnish politicians underestimated the military-strategic and political intentions of the then Soviet leadership. Realist Mannerheim was aware of the seriousness of the situation, as a former tsarist general knew the strategic interests of Russia, was politically flexible, and in military matters, the strongest. In addition, in early November Mannerheim received a letter from Goring that Germany at that time Finland will not be able to support. The majority of the leaders of Finland, in particular the Minister of Foreign Affairs E. Erkki, continued to count on Germany.
Marshall was not surprised by the outbreak of war with the USSR 30 November 1939, Mr.. Encountering the same day with President Kallio, Mannerheim said that under new circumstances, considers it his duty to take back just tendered his resignation and was ready to take the post of Chief of the Armed Forces of Finland.
Already October 17, 1939, Mr.. Mannerheim became commander of the armed forces of Finland, and occupied this post before the general X. Estermann was appointed commander of the Karelian Army. November 30, President Kallio delegated Mannerheim post of Supreme Commander, the constitution belongs to the President.
With the active participation of the Mannerheim December 1, 1939, Mr.. new Government was formed in order to remove from power those responsible for pursuing a foreign policy, eliminate barriers to the political solution to the conflict with the Soviet Union. Their portfolios lost Foreign Minister Erkki - he was assigned to Stockholm as a temporary charge d'affaires - and Prime Minister Cajander, but the government's political base remains the same. Many ministers retained their posts
. Marshall depressed, . mobilized in advance that the Finnish army easily passed the position before the line of fortifications on the Karelian Isthmus, and that Soviet troops continue the offensive north of Lake Ladoga in the direction of finlyandskoshvedskoy border,
. In the Finnish military plans, given the lack of roads, it is not in sight. But the Soviet builders were able to pave new roads. Mannerheim orient quickly, sent an inferior Soviet troops in number and armament, but surpasses the mobility (ski) additional parts, using their tactics on the environment and the crushing of the enemy forces. The Finnish troops stopped the Soviet divisions. The initial successes of the army Mannerheim was achieved in mid-December, the north-west of Lake Ladoga in the neighborhood Tolvayarvi and in the north in the area Suomussalmi, then at some other areas. The Soviet offensive was halted in the north, as well as in the first line of fortifications on the Karelian Isthmus. This situation prevailed until mid-February 1940.
After excluding 14 December 1939, Mr.. The Soviet Union from the League of Nations, the Allied Supreme Council on December 21 adopted a rather vague form of a decision on aid to Finland. In late December, France and Britain, Sweden and Norway have sent a note demanding to miss their troops and weapons through the territory of the latter to help Finland. But in Sweden and Norway plan unraveled allies, about which the Prime Minister of England H. Chamberlain said: one stroke to kill two birds with one stone - namely, to help Finland, but on the way there and occupy the northern Sweden, where iron ore through the Norwegian port of Narvik was exported to Germany. The latter, of course, would have intervened, and the entire Scandinavia would become an arena of military action. On the note of England and France had been answered in the negative.
In late January 1940. Moscow informed the leadership of Finland in Tallinn and Stockholm, that is ready to negotiate with the Government of the Helsinki under the conditions put forward by the Soviet Union in autumn 1939. Without consulting with Mannerheim, the Finnish Government has prepared a negative response, but, on the advice of Sweden, he was transferred to the USSR in a restrained form. Relations with Moscow have become even tougher when the Helsinki learned about the decision of the Supreme Allied Council, ie. political and military leaders of Britain and France, on February 5, 1940. send to Finland an expeditionary force. But to convince the Swedish government to let it failed.
February 10, Prime Minister P. Ryti and Minister of Foreign Affairs in. Tanner arrived at the meeting in the headquarters of the commander in chief. Mannerheim, in consultation with the generals chose to conclude peace, but especially not a categorical. At least in the position of Minister of Foreign Affairs Tanner, he is not influenced - he published the next day an official statement in the press about, . that Finland had a successful operation, . assistance from the West arrives and talks about peace with the Soviet Union abandoned.,
. After regrouping the Red Army resumed its offensive, 13 February 1940
. wedged in the first line of "Mannerheim Line" near the village Lyahte and in subsequent days it has expanded the bridgehead. To avoid encirclement Finnish military leadership decided to retreat. The battle for the city Viypuri (Vyborg). Reserves Mannerheim melted.
Still, 6 March 1940, Mr.. The Finnish delegation is headed by Ryti went to Moscow for talks. It turned out that the Soviet leadership once again increased its territorial claims to Finland through northern lands. The head of the Soviet Government and the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, VM. Molotov spoke very harshly. The political leadership of Finland, sought the opinion Chief. March 9 Mannerheim, who conferred with the generals, replied to sign a peace, as the weary army could hold the front against superior enemy forces, not more than a week. March 13, 1940, Mr.. Moscow signed a peace treaty on terms dictated by the Soviet side.
Both sides were not satisfied with a temporary compromise, and the Moscow Peace Treaty. The leaders of the Soviet Union wanted to rule Finland, Finland's ruling circles - to destroy Bolshevism, and create a Greater Finland. After the Winter War 1939 - 1940 he. Mannerheim's popularity in the country has increased. Receded into the background hatred of the poor, has emerged during the civil war and years. This was facilitated by the proposal to abolish the Mannerheim "White Festival" May 16 - on this day 1918. victorious White Army Mannerheim joined in Helsinki - and rename it the day of remembrance of all the Finns, who died in wars.
Amplified, and political influence in the country Mannerheim. In a reformed after the war the government R. Ryti Minister of War was a trusted man Mannerheim - General Walden. He himself Mannerheim went into so-called "inner ring", which included even the Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs. "Inner circle" to solve important problems of the country, there is little consultation with other ministers and parliament.
Summer 1940. political situation in the country deteriorated: the Wehrmacht defeat of France and the Soviet Union had annexed the Baltic countries. In Helsinki were conflicting information about the concentration of Soviet troops on the border with Finland. At the same time, the Soviet Union presented a number of additional requirements of Finland, . in Helsinki, which was interpreted as threatening the independence, transit traffic by rail between CCCP and Soviet base at Hanko, . of a joint Soviet-Finnish company to operate the Finnish nickel mines,
Since it began Germany and the Finnish military cooperation in preparation for an attack on the USSR. Later, specific agreements were reached during the mutual visits of senior officers: in th January 1941, Chief of General Staff of Finland E. Heinrich in Germany, in February oberkvartirmeystera of Staff of the Air Forces of Germany Hans-G. Seidel and Chief of Staff "Norway" E. Buschenhagen in Finland, in March, Chief of the Finnish military intelligence L. Melander in Germany and chief of the "Foreign armies of the East" E. Kintcel in Finland, as well as a military attache - X. Resinga in Finland,. Horn in Germany. Both sides were cautious, saying the coordination of action in the event of a new threat from the east, in confidential conversations discussing the attack on the USSR. In late May - early June 1941. as a result of a new round of mutual visits was agreed on the deployment of ground troops in the Germanic north of Finland and the transition is where the Finnish troops under the command of the Germanic, . of basing Germanic air and naval forces in the south,
Nevertheless Marshal remain cautious. He, like the political leadership sgrany avoided signing any written agreement with Germany. In Helsinki, did not exclude the possibility, . that the winner in World War will be Anglo-French coalition, . and tried both the foreign -, . and for domestic political reasons to create the impression, . that Finland would be dragged into war on the side of Germany against their will,
. June 14, 1941, . the day of publication of statements by the Soviet news agency TACC of, . that Germany supposedly has no aggressive intentions toward the USSR, . Mannerheim received a telegram from Berlin, signed by Keitel on, . on June 22 will Germany and the Soviet war,
. June 17, a day later than planned, Mannerheim declared a general mobilization.
In the armed forces of Finland, including auxiliary units, there were 648 - b60 thousand. people, representing 16% of the total population and 33% of men. This was in percentage terms more than in any other country. The firepower of the army was in the 2,5 - 3 times more than in the "Winter War". Chief Mannerheim, . Judging by his warlike orders at the beginning of the war, . intended "to participate in world-historical crusade against Bolshevism", . forever eliminate the "Russian threat to the North of Europe", . create a "Greater Finland and include there the Soviet Karelia,
. Government considered it necessary to dissociate themselves from certain provisions of these orders, especially the creation of Greater Finland.
The first military-political crisis came in late August - early September 1941, when Finnish troops had reached the old border not only to the north of Lake Ladoga, and on the Karelian Isthmus, Vyborg mastered. Keitel asked if Mannerheim wrote a letter in which he proposed in addition to the initial plan for a joint environment of Leningrad and the meeting on the river Svir, go on the offensive on the Karelian Isthmus in Leningrad. At the same time, the Soviet Union through the U.S. suggested that Finnish peace within the borders of 1939. It was something to think about.
End fluctuations Mannerheim put the Soviet counteroffensive at Tikhvinskaia-Volkhov Front in November - December 1941. When the troops of Finland in December came to Maselgsky isthmus between the Onega and Segozero in the north of the Lithuanian SSR, Mannerheim had ordered them to stop and go on the defensive. Discussion with Germany's command of the issue of a hike to the White Sea continued. If at first Mannerheim was very interested in this operation, in February 1942. he changed his opinion: "I will not attack," - said he. The Soviet-Finnish front froze up in early spring 1944. Sometimes Germanic commanders have been proposals to enhance the fighting, . but usually Mannerheim rejected them under the pretext, . that the Finns do not have enough strength, . because the Germans had failed to capture Leningrad and thus have no reserves of Finland, . because it must also keep its troops in Leningrad,
1942. was relatively quiet for the Mannerheim. At the front, fighting almost never took place and the Commander was not occupied by long-term planning for military operations. But it was not in his character. He, as always, worked hard, tightened with their subordinates, tried to keep this word to them and dislike those who do not behave. He led almost home way of life: favorite horse riding, swimming, dinner - funny stories from his life for the generals.
June 4, 1942, Mr.. Mannerheim turned 75 years old. His anniversaries in Finland occurred Lavish. But in wartime place celebration was kept a secret. The invitation was little. Ryti who became president in 1940, awarded the Chief of the military rank of "Marshal of Finland" instead of "simple" Marshal. The sensation was the arrival of Hitler and his retinue. In a conversation one on one, both commanders have stated that the stubborn resistance of the troops was their surprise, further monologue Hitler apologized that he could not help Finland in the Winter War.
A month later, followed by a return visit to Germany courtesy of Mannerheim. Hitler and his generals were talking about their military plans in the world. At the Mannerheim is an effect depressing. Discussing the results of the visit, Mannerheim and his entourage came to the conclusion that such a global strategy is doomed to failure.
In 1942, Mr.. all the Finnish military leadership, headed by Mannerheim intensified the policy of removing certain parts of the Finnish germanskogo subordinate commanders in the north of Finland. In the occupied territories on the Karelian isthmus, especially north of Lake Ladoga, including Maselksky Isthmus, started the construction of fortifications. Had hoped that these positions Finland consolidates its armed forces until the great powers, especially Germany and the Soviet Union, exhausting each other in bloody battles.
Calm were the headquarters of the Mannerheim and 1943 and the first months of 1944. The political leadership of Finland, in consultation with the Mannerheim, sought, mainly through the CSHA, a way out from the war on favorable conditions for it. At the end of 1943. establish confidential contact with the USSR. Mannerheim was canny in this respect more pessimistic than most politicians of his country. He said that "the winner of the war can not demand better conditions than those that existed at the beginning of the war".
Hitler decided to punish the Government for the fact that it has entered into negotiations with Moscow: stop supplies of arms, Mannerheim, however, managed to get them to resume, although not fully.
Germanic leadership, which is already in the spring of 1943. after the first signs of Finland wishes to conclude a separate peace unsuccessfully sought a political agreement with it, quickly decided to use the convenient moment.
. Such a political agreement, as with other allies, Germany and Finland have not been
. Finland has also not been a member of the prisoner in autumn 1940. Triple Alliance with Germany, Japan and Italy, joined the allies and the Balkan. In November 1941. Finland became a member of the Anti-Comintern Pact.
The issue of electing the head of state Mannerheim rose to almost all the presidential elections, convinced that electoral victory is not assured, Mannerheim each time refused to stand for election. In the summer of 1944. 77-year-old commander in chief, after some hesitation, and references to old age and poor health has agreed to. August 4, 1944, Mr.. Parliament a special law adopted without a vote of Marshal Mannerheim, Finland's president. This was his revenge for the defeat in the presidential election in 1919.
First Mannerheim formed a new government. Resigned from their posts of Prime Minister W. Linkomies and Minister of Foreign Affairs of X. Ramsay, to be replaced well who spoke the Russian language Enkel Karl, son of the general who ruled in his youth from the Mannerheim Haminskogo Military School. In general, rapidly succeeded each other, the two Governments Mannerheim in the formation of which the activities involved who left their posts earlier leaders of Finland, consisted of agents of the former policy and personal friends of the President.
Then Mannerheim began to prepare a withdrawal from the war. He did LRA slowly. August 17, President-marshal said come to Finland Keitel, that he, as the new president is not bound Ryti letter to Hitler on the conclusion of Finland's world, only with the consent of Germany.
August 25, 1944, Mr.. Mannerheim turned through Sweden to the Soviet government with a written request, if Moscow agrees to accept the Finnish delegation to make peace or truce. August 29 was received a positive response under two conditions: Finland openly announce the severance of relations with Germany and would require the withdrawal of the German armed forces no later than September 15. If the Germans did not leave, they must disarm and submit to the Allies as war.
September 3, 1944, Mr.. ended hostilities on the Soviet-Finnish front. September 19, 1944, Mr.. Moscow signed an armistice agreement, dictated, as at the end of the Winter War, the Soviet side, but this time agreed with Britain. The Soviet Union tightened its original condition: demanded - and achieved - the creation of a naval base, instead of Hanko in Porkkala, only 17 km from Helsinki. During negotiations, the Soviet side in the sharp form raised the question of expulsion from the territory Finlyantsii German troops, provisional date of which has already passed.
In November 1944. parliamentary circles Mannerheim was forced to abandon right-wing government, not with the Federal ladivshego (Soviet) Control Commission and to appoint a Prime Minister of the spiritual leader of the peaceful opposition "YU.K. Paasikivi. With great reluctance Mannerheim Paasikivi consistent with the intent to include in the government forces of the Left, particularly the Communists. The latest after the entry into force of the armistice agreement with CCCP were popular among the population. In the armistice agreement in Finland were to be banned fascist organizations. Federal (Soviet) Control Commission determined the list, also includes shyutskor - the old stronghold of Mannerheim. Mannerheim endorsed the idea of transfer of property shyutskora close to him to the Red Cross.
In March 1945,. Finnish Parliamentary elections were held in which leftist forces have strengthened their positions. This is also reflected in the composition of the new government Paasikivi. Power was concentrated in the hands of the Prime Minister. Mannerheim had gone into the background: the aging president's health has deteriorated. Influence the government, as noted Mannerheim himself, he has not been possible, since as a result of parliamentary elections where his party was dominated by alien.
After the armistice, many Finnish officers feared that the Soviet Union will try to occupy the country. For reference in this case, the guerrilla war across the country had hidden weapons. In the spring of 1945. These warehouses were found. Their creation was a dangerous stunt for the development of Sino-Finnish relations and thus for the country. In a letter to Mannerheim Operations Chief of Staff Army Lt. Col. Y. Haahti took all the blame. The President said that he believes it, but the leadership of the armed forces was replaced against the will of the President.
The acute political struggle has developed in Finland in 1945. on the implementation of the 13th article of the armistice agreement - the punishment of war criminals. While visiting with a gastric ulcer in the hospital for treatment Mannerheim went to Portugal in late October, when the trial of war criminals had already begun.
Back in early 1946,. in Helsinki, Mannerheim was back in hospital. The representative of the Federal (Soviet) Control Commission visited him and said that the Soviet Government has no claim to it, despite the findings of the trial of war criminals. Members of the government headed by Prime Minister also visited the patient, suggested that he resign, referring mainly to poor health. Mannerheim had promised to leave, but after the end of the process.
He kept his word. The process ended on February 21. March 3 Mannerheim was discharged from the hospital, wrote in an angry letter to the president last ispolnyavschemu Acting Commander of the Armed Forces, General I. Lundquist, condemning the intention to dismiss the latter from the army several generals, and the next day tendered his resignation. He justified his decision other than ill health so, . that the end of the trial of war criminals vynolneny all the tasks on the withdrawal from the war and implement the Armistice Agreement, . for which he, . Mannerheim, . occupied by general request such a responsible post,
Mannerheim was right - he fulfilled his duty. But while all politicians thanked Finland Mannerheim, . and in particular words of praise in his honor said, his successor as president - Paasikivi, . fact remains, . that during the presidency polutoraletnego Mannerheim political situation in Finland has changed so much, . that deserved the marshal was over a man on political scene,
Freed from state duties, Mannerheim was able to pay more attention to their health. In September, 1947. was made in Stockholm operation. When the disease abated, Mannerheim keep up. Often met with people close to him, striking his interlocutors knowledge in different areas.
Over time, Mannerheim became more modest - 8O his birthday he met in the village among friends, can do without excessive celebrations. Deepened its political pessimism Marshal. Representatives of the Soviet Union tried to behave correctly, and put forward demands that are contrary to the agreement of the Armistice. But some of these requirements have been strictly formulated by the Finns interpreted them as interference in its internal affairs. Since the summer of 1946,. sharply increased the activity of Finnish communists. Mannerheim often repeated: they have podomnut. Once, when he and his pessimistic predictions Paasikivi tired, he could not restrain himself and said: "If this is so, then we both have to go into the woods and put a bullet in the forehead".
January 19, 1951, Mr.. 83-year-old marshal, and perfect memories, seriously ill. Sharpened ulcer. His immediately placed in a hospital in Lausanne. Smiling faintly, he said the doctor; "In many wars I fought ... but now I think I lose this last battle ".
After about another operation Mannerheim for a few days was better, but then followed a sharp deterioration and 27 January 1951. died.
His body was returned to Finland. Even after the death of Mannerheim continued its related political battles. The government feared that the funeral might result from a larger nationalist demonstration, which would aggravate foreign. Long argued. A majority of one vote, decided that the government members will not participate in the funeral. But some of them, including the Prime Minister U.K. Kekkonen, whose relations with Mannerheim in his life were very difficult, yet went.
The funeral was held on February 4 when a large crowd of people. Brought in last horse was once a dashing cavalryman. Speaker K.-A. Fagergolm in his farewell speech demonstrated the outstanding importance of Mannerheim as a political and military leader of Finland. Mannerheim was buried in the Hietaniemi Cemetery next to his former comrades, soldiers fallen in wars.