Hosni Mubarak( President of Egypt since 1981.)
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Biography Hosni Mubarak
The future president was born on 4 May 1928 in the depths of the Egyptian - in a small village of Kafr el-Musylha (province Manufiya), in the Nile Delta. His father owned a small plot of land and worked in the legal department of the province.
Hosni was brought up not in luxury. His friends and classmates were children fellaheen. Apparently, this explains the openness and simplicity of the president.
He studied persistently, and after finishing school, parents advised him to continue his education at Cairo University in the Faculty of Fine Arts. However, he decided on another ...
1948 war with Israel has shown: the Arab army unfit for active service. In the Egyptian officer corps began attracting young people from the middle strata, including those from rural. Hosni Mubarak has chosen the profession of pilot. After graduating with honors in 1949, the military college, he served in the Sinai, then was an instructor Air Force Academy. Repeatedly traveled in the 50 years in the Soviet Union, where he studied flying in the modern types of aircraft that the Soviet Union supplied Egypt.
. In 1956, Mubarak took part in repelling the Anglo-French-Israeli aggression.
. Ability of the young pilots were observed, and in 1959 he was appointed commander of the squadron of bombers TU-16
. A few years later he became commander of the brigade. Higher military education in the USSR, Frunze Academy, where he studied in 1964-1965.
. When in 1962 civil war broke out in northern Yemen, Mubarak was in the Egyptian contingent, sent to this country
. He took part in the fighting and proved to be brave and skilful military pilot.
. Incidentally, envied him the officers, using this fact, began to spread rumors that Mubarak, in Moscow, became a "prokommunista"
. The reality, however, another. He bad spoke in Russian, paid tribute to the Soviet-made aircraft, but it can not be considered "prokommunistom". Rather ...
The most difficult challenge for Egypt in 1967 became. Israel launched a heavy defeat of the Egyptian army. Before him set the task: given the danger looming over the country, increase the production of pilots, reducing the duration of their training from 4 to 2 years. I had to break the whole system of education. Mubarak did not go for days out of college, who personally monitored the observance of the daily routines and learning of students.
Unnoticed by President Gamal Abdel Nasser, he became in 1969 general aviation, and was appointed Chief of Staff of the Egyptian Air Force. In 1972, he was - the commander of the Air Force and also the Deputy Minister of Defense.
. These positions allowed him to reorganize the Egyptian air force, did not respond then the modern requirements, and prepare it for war with Israel, which began Oct. 6, 1973
. I must admit that while the Egyptian Air Force have achieved impressive results.
Mubarak has become a national hero, receives from the hands of Sadat's "Star of Sinai - Egypt's highest military award - the shoulder straps and the Army General. His military "climbing" it - comes from an ordinary family - is obliged Nasser era. To take off his political pushed Sadat, was appointed vice-president and, thus, opening the way to supreme power.
Since then, this broad-bodied general began to master the art of political "maneuver". Sadat had given him for the best possible opportunities, making it a sort of "a traveling ambassador". He laid on Mubarak execution delicate, sometimes difficult assignments.
Sadat's desire to play a leading role on the international scene, his frequent trips abroad Mubarak gave an opportunity to strengthen their position within the country. He began by saying that the reorganized political police and secret services, which have penetrated into all pores of the Egyptian society. He, of course, could not cure all the ills of these agencies, but as a result of cleaning, he was able to get rid of the discredited elements.
. Having become in 1978 the vice-president of the National Democratic Party, founded by him in return Sadat dissolved the Arab Socialist Union, Mubarak became influential friends, which further strengthened his position.
. During the six-odd years vice-president conscientiously implement policies of his patron
. In the upper echelons of the government spoke of him with respect, noted his intelligence, natural wit, strength and integrity, hard work.
Ordinary Egyptians esteemed vice president for integrity. He managed to stay away from corruption, which were infected with Sadat, his relatives, many high-ranking officials who had no qualms about robbing the country. Not surprisingly, the Egyptians still called Mubarak "Mr. Integrity.
. Perhaps he would have remained conscientious vice president, but the bullets that hit Sadat, Mubarak promoted even further - he became president of Egypt.
. Mubarak succeeded Sadat from almost monarchical regime, isolated in the Arab world and mired in external debt
. However, the people and among the secular opposition, many of whom were imprisoned under Sadat, the rise to power of the new "rais" (president) met with high expectations for change.
. "New leader supported because - he wrote in an article in a well-known Egyptian journalist Heikal - that it was the right man, able to dispel the fear that reigned in Egypt, and to heal the psychological trauma inflicted on the country
. Egyptians wanted someone who would not build a grandiose plans, but not brought to the country to disaster. "
Quiet, modest, but resolute - Mubarak secured the transfer of power almost without a single false step. As time showed, . former military pilot, . to make its first solo flight as head of state, . not only not overawed by the ills inherited from Sadat, . but with honor out of the many subsequent trials, . enhancing its credibility,
. Confirmation of this - part of President Mubarak in a meeting of Arab Heads of State and Government, held in Casablanca in May 1989, and then his election to the chairmanship of the Organization of African Unity (OAU).
. But it will be later ..
. Meanwhile, Mubarak assumed the presidency to release all political prisoners and exchanged handshakes. Members of the organization for ending Sadat, were tried and then executed or imprisoned. However, it was soon discovered many secret extremist Islamic groups, one of which - "Al-Aqsa Mosque" in May 1982 sentenced the president to death.
. However, due to the active work of secret services, Mubarak has managed to separate the "moderate" elements of the Islamic opposition, rejects violence as a method of political struggle, from the "incorrigible extremists"
. As a result, for the first twelve months of rule, he released 4,000 Islamic activists.
Looking ahead, I will say that Mubarak, knowing the danger posed by Islamic extremists, avoids drastic measures in the religious sphere. He understands that the problem of radical Islamic fundamentalism, remains on the agenda. While the extremists and driven underground, they are at any time may declare, as happened in October 1981, when he was killed (or executed) Sadat.
. With regard to the secular opposition, then, came to power, the president immediately announced its readiness to begin a dialogue with its leaders
. He allowed opposition parties and even their representation in parliament. In addition, he agreed to the resumption of publication of opposition newspapers.
. In an effort to consolidate his position, and at the same time being forced to reckon with supporters of Sadat, have retained key positions in political and economic life, the new president began to implement a gradual "desadatizatsiyu"
. In his direct orders were put on trial the brother of the late "Raissa" - Esmat Sadat and his sons, who directed the fraudulent transactions. The trial Mubarak allowed them to demonstrate their determination to eliminate corruption in Egyptian society.
. Most of those who followed the work of Mubarak in the initial stage, unanimously stated that he announced himself as the leader of the "new type"
. When he was asked: "What is the political line you intend to follow - Nasser and Sadat?", He replied with a smile: "His own, of course."
. There also clarified that its policy would be based on four principles: democratic pluralism, openness, honesty and economic problems.
. No, President Mubarak did not question (at least publicly) the main directions of policy predecessor
. But trying to expand freedom of action in the inherited framework, while refusing to sensational gestures in the style of Sadat. Moreover, he did not try to disguise the verbal demagoguery standing in front of Egypt's problems, as did the former leader. In the opposite of Sadat Mubarak made no attempts grandstanding solve internal problems shaking up his cabinet. But in the first speeches he constantly called for increased productivity, a greater sense of responsibility for social justice.
. Unlike Sadat's new head of state to refrain from promises, but always tried to give new impetus to economic policy
. He slowly but surely began to develop democracy in Egypt, believing that it was she who will ensure the long-term political stability of the regime. Moreover, he openly told his people that the government can not solve all the problems facing it.
. -New Egypt will be built only by the labor of the Egyptians, - the president likes to say.
. Unless, . Mubarak, in his intention to improve the economy is still based on the fact, . that "infitah" - open-door policy, . Sadat launched, . in principle, was correct, . but implemented on failed and was discredited by corruption and cronyism, . tsarivshimi in Egypt,
. Received by the Camp David accords "special" relationship with the United States, President Mubarak has tried to squeeze from them the maximum possible. Both politically and economically, skillfully playing on the desire of Americans to gain a foothold in the Middle East.
. Using such a trump card as the threat of freezing, and even break off diplomatic relations with Israel, Mubarak was in some degree of influence on U.S. Middle East policy
. Of course, the extent of this influence should not be overestimated, but it certainly is.
. President Mubarak, of course, appreciates the context of Egypt and the United States, as the recipient of a two, and even more billions of dollars annually in the form of grants grants, loans and military loans
. These injections were for him to "savior", which is holding up the Egyptian economy.
But even here there are limits on cooperation, especially at the political level. So, for example, on the U.S. proposal to help build a military base on the Red Sea for its rapid deployment force the Egyptian president said the strongest rejection. He said that Egypt will build it myself and keep control of it. The Americans will be able to use it when Cairo considers Washington's military intervention necessary.
. Never giving up the "special" relations with the United States, Mubarak at the same time made significant efforts to restore normal diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, which were completely normalized in 1984
. Today, virtually eliminated all obstacles for a long time hampered the development of relations between our countries.
Should not think, however, that "solo flight" President Mubarak held smoothly. The Israeli invasion of Lebanon in June 1982 led to the internal pressure on Mubarak to change the nature of the Egyptian-Israeli relations. Another test for him was 17 thousand employees unrest internal security forces, which took place in February 1986. The army quickly put down the riots, and the president himself, thanks to decisive action, has further consolidated its position.
In October 1987, Egyptian People's Assembly unanimously elected President Hosni Mubarak for a second six-year term. In November the same year the League of Arab States (LAS) has decided that its members can recover, if desired, full diplomatic relations with Egypt. Nine countries, including Saudi Arabia, almost immediately sent their ambassadors in Cairo.
In December the same year in Cairo, raised the flag over the representation of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Thus, Mubarak showed that Egypt is ready to again play the role of "regulator" to facilitate negotiations between the PLO and the U.S., Jordan and Israel to convene a peace conference on the Middle East.
. One of the key factors that determined the eventual success of the strategic course of diplomacy, Mubarak in Egypt's full return to the Arab ranks, was just a sound, consistent behavior of Cairo in his contacts with Tel Aviv
. Since coming to power, the new president had elaborated a very good form on Egypt to Israel: "Prospects of development of bilateral ties are determined by the overall situation in the Middle East, the Middle East peace process.
. This formulation (and Mubarak followed it faithfully) made it possible to keep Israel at arm's length
. On the other hand, such a position is clearly aimed at protecting the pan-Arab interests, could not go unnoticed in Arab capitals.
. Not gone unnoticed and the following fact: President Mubarak - the only high-ranking Egyptian leader, who refused to visit Israel, despite numerous official invitations
. However, when it was quite unbearable, and he could not resist the pressures, he had to go for a few hours in a small Israeli settlement located in the Negev. "I did it against my heart ..." - He confessed later.
In addition, the Egyptian president willingly offered their services to resolve many bilateral conflicts, such as the Iran-Iraq. All this helped create a completely new view of Egypt, is radically different from Sadat. In many respects this was promoted by the personality of Mubarak.
Sadat liked to official receptions, lavish dinners, ceremonies. Mubarak did not love high life, hates everything in his opinion, is overkill. Sadat adored appear in public in colorful military uniforms with many decorations. Mubarak did not put on the form since, as became a civilian post.
Sadat was totally corrupt, Mubarak - the incorruptible patriot. Sadat had spent time in luxurious palaces. Mubarak lives in a small 2-storey villa, built their own funds as early as 1971.
Sadat, a born actor, a lover of the limelight and the long tedious speeches. Mubarak does not have the eloquence, but he was also deprived of his predecessor's penchant for extravagant theatrical gesture, frankly dislikes talkers and can not tolerate verbiage.
. Intellectuals makes fun of him, tell him about all sorts of stories
. But not bad, as Sadat.
Mubarak sincerely devoted to the cause of democracy, Sadat only deftly juggled the term. The new president has proven that his actions in defense of individual freedom - not just empty words. During his political life in the country became more democratic than under Sadat.
. In Egypt, many believe, . that Mubarak, . After witnessing the assassination of his predecessor, . learned this important lesson: it is better to move forward gradually and to risk only a minor setbacks, . than trying to lead the country in a dictatorial style of Sadat, . fraught with turmoil,
. Perhaps that is why caution, pragmatism, moderation and consistency are the hallmarks of policy under a new president.
. Calling Mubarak "personification of prudence", already mentioned Heikal stressed that this "caution of an experienced pilot, who before he will lift the plane in the top, we need accurate data about weather, load, and other information."
. According to one Western diplomat, Mubarak, in fact, remained "a straight commander who gives orders and expects obedience"
. But he is not a dictator. It is primarily a military man, who gets angry if his orders are not executed.
The Egyptians are more likely than residents of other countries, valued in their leaders tone of some grandeur. Therefore, many criticize Mubarak for his modest costumes, neizyskannuyu speech and excessive shyness. They believe that he lacks the scope of this statesman.
Whatever it was, but through perseverance and fine sense of tact, President Mubarak of Egypt and was able to rally back his former authority. The Arabs could not understand the unpredictable Sadat and did not trust him. Mubarak, with his consistent and realistic foreign policy line they could understand, and inspires confidence. With him they want to deal with.
It dispersing extremely unfavorable impression made on the Arab world Sadat, President Mubarak has managed to turn to the Arabs themselves.
Year 1989 was a turning point and the first for Egypt, and Mubarak. President began to play an increasingly prominent role in the Middle East, African and even international stages.
National hero met the Egyptians returning from Casablanca Mubarak, where the Inter-Arab summit. At this summit, the President of Egypt in the first speech with his usual determination, made it clear that Cairo intends to secure undisputed leadership in the Arab world.
. Along with the increase of its prestige abroad, the Egyptian president consolidated his power within the country.
. Many recall that in the early years of the Mubarak took advantage of his status for the relief that followed the death of Sadat, and the termination of theatrical performances of former President
. Prudence new head of state was perceived rather as a sign of wisdom, and not as a sign of timidity. He scored, with special emphasis on modesty and directing the media to reduce attention to his person and family members. Among several other innovations, he vowed to limit their speeches to one hour.
Today, as in the years of service in the Air Force, President Mubarak wakes up at five in the morning and prepares breakfast for the family. With six to eight studies, reports and presentations, and then went to his office.
Up to 15-00 - a meeting with foreign delegations, meeting with government officials and experts. Then two o'clock in the sports club BBC - gymnastics and "squash" (a game resembling tennis). His lean figure of the president may give a handicap for young people.
. In the evening - the continuation of the working day.
. During the reign of Mubarak has recommended itself, if not as great statesman, then, at least, as a sincere and reliable Arab leaders
. Unable to resolve the multiple problems of the country, he, nevertheless, does everything possible to prevent degradation.
. The challenges now facing the president, not easy, because Egypt is located in a region where extremism is normal, and moderate approach - an exception.
. Hosni Mubarak can do much more
. The only thing he should not do - wait for it ...