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( President of the United States in 1817-25 gg.)

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Biography MONRO James
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James Monroe was born April 28, 1758 in Washington Parish, Westmoreland County, Virginia, and was the eldest son of Spence and Elizabeth (nee Jones) Monroe. Unlike other influential politicians in Virginia, Monroe grew up not on the big and small in a plantation in 500 acres. His father called "a worthy and respectable citizen". First, attend a private school pastor Archibald Campbell, and with 16 years of College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, the capital of the colony. A student took an active part in political conflicts between the colonies and the metropolis. Since the beginning of the revolutionary wars joined Virginia Regiment Continental Army and at age 18 received a certificate of manufacture in the rank of officer. He had a courage and in 1778 rose to the rank of lieutenant. Between 1780 and 1783 years, studied law under Thomas Jefferson, with whom it until the end of life have a close personal friendship.

Monroe's political career started in 1782 his election to the Virginia House of Delegates. In subsequent years, he was sent to the Congress of the Confederation, met in New York, and in which he served until 1786. After visits to the region of Kentucky and the future of the Northwest Territories in 1784 and 1785 respectively, . where he had extensive estates, . received during the revolution in payment for military service, . he acquired considerable influence on the development of the northwestern municipality regulations, . acting as a mouthpiece located in Paris, Jefferson,
. Without a doubt, he belonged to vigorous supporters quickly resolved by the development of the American West, also contributed to the economic use of its own land. This explains his opposition to John Jay talks with the Spanish envoy Don Diego de Gardoki a commercial treaty with Spain, which threatens the freedom of navigation on the Mississippi, won the Paris world in 1783.

. Along with the intensive work in the Congress of the Confederation, who introduced the Monroe with all the problems of the young Union, its long stay in New York has implications for personal life
. February 16, 1786 Monroe married Elizabeth Kotrayt daughter once wealthy, but impoverished by revolution planters of the West Indies. Their first daughter, named after the mother, was born in December of that year. Monroe was not a member of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, . but as a delegate convention of Virginia belonged to the opponents of the constitution, . with, . perhaps, . and here the important role played by his fear, . that the future of the federal government would sacrifice the interests of the regions to the west coast,
. In the first elections to the House of Representatives yielded Monroe, James Madison, . but in 1790 the legislature of Virginia sent him a senator in Washington, . where he remained until his appointment as U.S. ambassador to France four years later.,

. His work in Paris was not in the least little fruitful because, . that his pro-French position, . true, . consistent with the position of Vice-President Thomas Jefferson, and gradually developing the Republican Party, . but in sharp contrast with the neutral and even moderate the behavior of President George Washington and his Foreign Minister Edmund Randolph,
. It was not surprising: while Washington, . as his successor, John Adams, . keep their distance from revolutionary France, . Monroe, . by this time one of the prominent leaders of the Republican, . tried to maintain a mutual agreement between the two countries,
. Succeeded by Randolph, Timothy Pickering withdrew Monroe July 29, 1796 back to Washington, where he defended it in a letter. Sudden attacks of political opponents from damaging the political standing of Monroe or his party nor in Virginia. There he was in 1799 selected by the Governor and held that position until 1802.

After the election of his friend Jefferson, third president of the United States returned to Monroe in 1801 in Washington. The capital became the center of his political activities until 1809. The political mission led him in 1803 and again in Paris, where he participated in the negotiations by Robert P. Livingston, with the French Government to purchase Louisiana, . then Madrid, . where he unsuccessfully tried to obtain concessions from Spain, the eastern part of West Florida, . in London, . where, together with William Pinkney in 1806 without much success trying to resolve sharp differences with France,
. The result was so meager, . President Jefferson, . with the consent of their Minister of Foreign Affairs James Madison, . refused to grant the contract to the Senate for approval by the lack of concessions to the British to stop the forced recruitment of American sailors.,

. Monroe was so angry that, . that after his return in December of 1807 wanted to demonstrate their political stance in Virginia and has not kept supporters in the Republican Party from nominating its candidate for president against James Madison, . is under the auspices of Jefferson,
. He lost it in 1808, just as in 1788. In the election board has not received a single vote. Two years later, was back in the Virginia House of Delegates, and in January 1811 he was again chosen Governor. At the same time managed to reconcile Jefferson, Madison and Monroe. In March 1811, President Monroe appointed a new Minister of Foreign Affairs instead of Robert Smith.

First of all, the U.S. and Britain have identified the activities of James Monroe as Minister of Foreign Affairs in Madison. Efforts, . taken to settle the acute problem - the restriction of American shipping and, . primarily, . British demand to search American vessels at sea in search of former British sailors and n from the post of War Minister, the post was in 1814 transferred to James Monroe,
. As War Minister, he claimed the credit in the American victory at Plattsburgh and New Orleans. In the end, not those victories, and lucrative world of Ghent (ratified on 17 February 1815) has strengthened its political position and gave weight to the claims office of President.

. Despite the broad support of leading members of the Republican Party of Virginia and other states, . Monroe has only a small margin, . 65 against 54 votes, . defeated William Crawford of Georgia, . Minister of Finance in Madison, . at a closed session of Congress in March 1816 when discussing the nomination of the presidential candidate of the Republican Party,
. Samih presidential elections Monroe was not afraid. The Federalist Party was hopelessly split, and in its candidate Rufus King, of course, no chance. In the election board on Dec. 4, 1816 in Monroe, voted 183 for Rufus King, only 34 people.

In the circle of presidents from Virginia, Washington, Jefferson and Madison, James Monroe took a strange dual status. From George Washington Monroe brings a great "ground" as the first president, he was restrained, sometimes aloof and sought to formalities. By education, culture, life and refined elegance of Jefferson was, undoubtedly, the most impressive person in this illustrious circle of presidents. But Madison's classical education in many ways superior to the formation of Washington and Monroe. In one respect, Monroe was standing closer to Washington, . than to his friend Jefferson: while the latter is actively trying to create a political entourage, . which would be united in close connection with populist ideals of the American Revolution, . Monroe, . as Washington, . adhered to the old belief, . that policies designed to serve the public, . but should not for that he burst forward and even more so to create a circle of supporters,
. But, however, are viewed as similar to Jefferson and Madison, as well as differences with Washington. They are rooted in politics. As for Jefferson and Madison, the rights of individual states have had great importance for Monroe. Therefore, in 1787-88 he. He belonged to the opponents of the federal constitution, but as president he could not decide on a liberal interpretation of the constitution at the expense of competence of individual states. Like Jefferson, he belonged to those who understood the French Revolution rather as a continuation of the American Revolution than as a revolution and chaos. As an envoy in Paris, hid in his home of Thomas Paine. At the same time share the distrust of his teacher to the former metropolis, mistrust, which was strengthened on the basis of his own experiences during his stay in England.


. The eight-year presidency of James Monroe has long been characterized as the "era of good feeling"
. This definition has in mind above all is that President Monroe noted the lack of party disputes. In fact, the Federalists and Republicans as organized political groups - in the research remains controversial, . they really can be called a party in the modern sense - lost its meaning, . or rather, . dissolved in groups of politicians, . which were formed around certain prominent personalities, . William Crawford and John Calhoun,
. In some states, like Virginia or New York, political life is determined by the fiercely rival factions. Below the level of official policy, . which differed in politeness, and publicly displayed by the harmony, . this led to a strong fragmentation and bitter rivalry, . became more acute during the stay in the position of President Monroe as a result of which began in the sections of the contradictions in the duties and slavery.,

. In the face of such a development Monroe behaved passively: the belief that the president should be above political parties, personal quarrels and factions, he does not have strong political leadership
. Could not prevent a split into factions and rivalries, which penetrated into his office. At the end of his presidency the country was torn main problems of political and social coexistence.

. Four major themes were determined eight-year presidency of James Monroe: in foreign policy relations with European powers and their colonial claims, . especially in Latin America, . within the country - the problem, . associated with slavery, . and differences in external tariffs, . then question the constitutionality of the expansion of public transport system and infrastructure of the country as a whole,
. At the beginning of his tenure as President Monroe was faced with the consequences of his diplomatic activity under Presidents Jefferson and Madison: West Florida, . unresolved in the US-French treaty question western border with the Spanish possessions and the attitude to the Spanish colonies in Latin America, . who rebelled against their metropolitan,
. Solving these problems were further hampered by the hasty actions of Andrew Jackson, . which is not limited to - he hinted at this in a letter to Monroe - forced relocation and appeasement Seminole Indians in 1818, . and seized the Spanish fortifications in West Florida and forced the governor of the colony to escape in Havana,
. In the subsequent time, Monroe refused to participate as a sharp criticism of arbitrary action Jackson, . and in the explicit approval of these actions, . what, . according to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, John Quincy Adams, . would strengthen the American position in negotiations with Spain,
. On the one hand, . He maintained a conciliatory course, . Jackson defended the seizure of fortifications on the basis of knowledge, . are acquired in the course of expeditions, . On the other hand, . insisted on the release of fortifications, . if Spain would send their garrisons, . as a gesture of reconciliation towards Spain.,

. The rest of Monroe gave his foreign minister Adams complete freedom in negotiations with Spain
. Transcontinental Treaty, signed by Monroe on Feb. 24, 1819 and ratified by Spain after a long delay, in studies on the right is called the Adams-Onis Treaty. Agreed to settle the boundary line to the west and the U.S. has provided not only all Florida, but the first time in international legal binding form access to the Pacific Ocean, a broad belt south of the Columbia River.

. Considerably difficult to make a settlement with former Spanish colonies, which in recent years to the presidency of Monroe, proclaimed their independence, but still unsuccessfully sought recognition by the European powers and the U.S.
. In Europe, the powers belonging to the Holy Alliance, undertook mediation between Spain and her rebellious colonies with a view to restoring its previous state - with the exception of England, showed great restraint. Recognition of the state in Latin America required both to weigh carefully the consequences that such a move could have on the powers of the Holy Alliance. Monroe, as well as during his first mission in France, was inclined to the position, which would be connected to a neutral and friendly towards the young republic. His foreign minister, John Quincy Adams, by contrast, believed the early recognition of danger, because it would complicate relations with the Holy Alliance, and also did not believe in the stability of Latin American states. Henry Clay, . influential speaker of the House of Representatives and, . along with the Minister of War John Calhoun and the Minister of Finance William Crawford, . largest political figure in Washington, . strongly demanded the rapid recognition and support of young states in their struggle for independence against Spain,
. The requirement also means that owners of pirate ships in those states will be given any support, though their attacks on European merchant ships would inflict considerable damage to American foreign relations. The position of Clay's vision lay a large, united by common interests in the "American system" Continental-American family states in which the lead will take the first coming from the revolution the North American republic.

. In fact, issues raised the question of his own revolutionary self-understanding the United States, and this view is not stayed, according to Monroe, without the influence
. Adams also evaluated this question from the standpoint of how stable the new states and what the consequences will be recognized for the position of the European powers. To address the first issue was sent to the commission of three people, but it is not made clear. In the end it was solved by the development: the appointment of liberal government in Spain has meant that Spain had lost the support of the Holy Alliance. Thus was opened the road for the recognition of Buenos Aires, Peru, Chile, Mexico and Colombia, which the president proposed to the Senate in a special message of March 8, 1822. On this basis, later appeared in principle, broadly worded his Foreign Minister, a statement from Monroe December 2, 1823, the so-called "Monroe Doctrine". It contained a warning to European powers and Russia, that any recolonization or the acquisition of colonies in Latin America, the U.S. considers a threat to its own security. On the other hand, Monroe said that the U.S. will stay away from European affairs, including the existing colonies in the Caribbean and South America. First, however, there was a significant difference between this claim of rhetorical and actual influence of the Americans in Central and South America.

. Discussions on these issues sometimes supplanted by the background sharp disagreements on other dolgocrochno important issues: the future of slavery in the western areas and associated with the expansion of infrastructure issues constitution
. The problem of expanding public transportation system at this time was becoming increasingly urgent for the reason, . what, . one hand, . as a result of the rapid territorial expansion of the country - with short intervals in the Union adopted new state of Mississippi (1817), . Illinois (1818), . Missouri (1819), . Alabama (1819) and Maine (1820), some regions were threatened to develop on their own, . On the other hand seemed, . that the center of gravity in Congress is increasingly moving in favor of the South,
. From this development the southern states expected loss for its "special institute" processed slave plantations, to which in those years was formed gradually growing opposition in the North and North-West.

. The conflict erupted on the application of Missouri for admission to the Union
. Here is the first time encountered fierce opponents and proponents of slavery. Debate on the issue as to whether the decision on the adoption of Missouri to be uniquely associated with the duty to prohibit slavery in the draft the constitution, divided the country into two bitterly feuding camps. This split was hardly smoothed compromise Missouri in February 1820. Congress refused to tie reception Missouri to the corresponding reservation, . but it was agreed that, . that in the new states north of 36 б╟ 30 'north latitude can not enter slavery, . and to compensate for the entry "slave state" was immediately adopted by the State of Maine as free from slavery,
. This disagreement Monroe apparently remained neutral, according to his conception of the presidency. Behind the scenes in numerous conversations, he vigorously advocated the adoption of compromise, of course, in the hope of averting a split of the country.

. Disagreement Missouri effect on re-living fairy discussion about the need and structural basis of protectionism, which has finally "sectional" color
. While the Mid Atlantic and Northern states were in favor of a clear increase in installed in 1816 and aimed primarily against England protective tariffs to protect domestic manufactures, . Southern states also strongly opposed such an increase, . because it would adversely affect trade relations with the major importing country of their main product of cotton and would lead eventually to the ruin of the southern states and the destruction of their "special institute",
. Monroe's second speech on taking office in 1821 did not contain the exact settings, . that negatively perceived advocates of high protective tariffs, . he was in soft terms, called for better protection in domestic factories next year, . housed mainly in the north,
. In the spring of 1824 a dispute broke out with renewed urgency, with a role to play in outlined contested election. The decisive thing was that the southern states felt defeated by a majority, but their existence is under threat. Looking at the position of Monroe, one of the deputies from Virginia complained that Southern states were "victims of policies of this government from the beginning.

. Unlike the issue of fees in solving other important problems of that time, expansion of the national transport system, Monroe was more affluent
. This question he was involved in the first two years of tenure. The discussion focused primarily on the communication between the states of the east coast and re-populated regions on the other side

Allegheny Mountains in the valley of the Ohio River. Since his work in the Congress of Confederation of Monroe, with special attention to watching the development of the western territories. Even then it was clear that a reasonable accession of new areas to the east coast states will be a significant prerequisite for joining the two parts. In addressing this issue the federal government was faced with serious problems Constitution. Two views were opposed to each other: one was formulated by the Minister of Finance by Albert Gallatin in 1808. He justified the extensive program of building infrastructure of the country clause of the Constitution of the "common good". And Thomas Jefferson pointed out that the federation to open its facilities constructed on the roads require the consent of the state, through which the road will pass. However, when Congress last year in the presidency of James Madison at the urging of John Calhoun issued a law, . be used for the program the money of the Second Bank of the United States, . Madison justified his veto to, . that the "fathers of the Constitution" did not include the use of federal funds for such purposes,
. The President also reiterated the view expressed even by Jefferson requirement that in such cases must first be created under the constitutional framework, through the issuance of the additions to the constitution.

. Because of this, James Monroe came into conflict with Henry Clay, the most important defender of the Western States
. Only by the middle of his second term in office there has been relaxation of the rigid standoff. In the notice of the veto on the law which provided for a customs office at the Cumberland road linking the east with the new states on the other side of the mountains, Monroe expounded their views. Its summit was the declaration, . that Congress, . although it has no right to build transport routes between the states or to exercise jurisdiction over them, . but can provide the money, . which are limited commitment "to allocate them for the common defense and general, . rather than local, . National, . and not for one state, . favor,
. Thus found a formula of compromise, by which Congress could finance the general infrastructure events, deeply without interfering with the rights of individual states.

. At the end of his presidency were the harmony and concord, which played an important role in the political philosophy of Monroe, because he clearly saw as seeking from each other elements of the Union gave way to deep, leading to the split divisions
. After two terms as President Monroe in 1824 politlcheskuyu left the scene, which was deeply split the struggle for power and influence and is characterized by overt rivalry eminent personalities. In this development was and wine Monroe, . because his idea of the presidency, . he was obliged to Washington, . prevented more vigorously intervene in the daily political differences and thereby prevent the terrible fragmentation of political groupings,
. These shortcomings are faced, however, positive developments, particularly in foreign policy. At the same time Monroe was unanimous with his foreign minister that the highest goal of American foreign policy should be to promote American interests, and the base of the United States should be a factor in the international system of power. The concrete implementation of these goals he gave Adams. His achievement is the creation of Monroe's it for this conditional framework.

The difficult political situation at the end of his presidency prompted Monroe in subsequent years almost timidly stay away from politics. After his wife died Sept. 23, 1830, just two days after the death of his son in law, George Hay, he was with her daughter Eliza Hay returned to New York for her youngest daughter, Maria Hester and her husband Samuel Tutor. In recent years, Monroe was marred by financial troubles. Requirements for the alliance, dating back to the days when he was a diplomat in Europe, were rewarded by Congress only in 1830. Monroe died on July 4, 1831, the day of 55-th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of the United States.

Source: Peoples.ru

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