Zachary TAYLOR( U.S. President in 1849-50gg.)
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Biography Zachary TAYLOR
Born Nov. 24, 1784 in Orange County, Virginia, young Zachary grew up in is located far to the west, then the border area near Louisville, Kentucky, where his family moved shortly after his birth. His father - a wealthy farmer, who served in the Army and was an officer during the American War of Independence.
Receiving surface schooling, Taylor in 1808 joined the army. In 1810 he married Margaret Maekel Smith of Maryland, with whom he had six children. Was a party to the 1812 War, Indian War, the Black Falcon, 1832, the Second War, Seminole Indians in Florida and the war against Mexico, 1846-48 gg. As Major General, for his bravery earned him the nickname "Old daredevil" and a victory in February 1847 by Buena Vista over a numerically superior army of the enemy at once made him a national hero.
. When the Whigs nominated Taylor in 1848 presidential candidate, then bet on a completely inexperienced in politics personality
. However, the Democratic Party was forced to fight with even greater challenges. After the major internal strife was presented to one candidate, . program exposed the party to a burst test: politically rather pale, Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan, argued for the principle of "popular sovereignty", . that in this case involved the right people in the states and territories own decisions about permitting or prohibiting slavery,
. Such an order would be valid for the area, declared in 1820 in conflict with the Missouri at all times free from slavery, resulting in a significant agreement between North and South would lose its force.
. In the Democratic Party in the north came a political rival of her own series: the so-called Free Soil Party, . arisen as a result of the split of the north wing Democrats, . fielded a candidate for the presidency of Martin Van Burena, . and his deputy, his son John Quincy Adams - Charles Francis Adams,
. This party has focused all of those who rejected the further spread of slavery to new states that emerged in the ceded territories of Mexico.
. Although policy-Whigs from the North maintains the reservation Wilmot, . which included the prohibition of slavery in all newly acquired fields, . and decisively rejected the proposed Cass "popular sovereignty", . Whig Party in its election program avoided explicit statements of his views on the issue of slavery,
. With the nomination of General Taylor's presidential candidate dare to win the necessary majority of votes in the North and South, through the campaign, fully focused on the personality of the general.
. The fact that Taylor was a native of the South, lived in Louisiana, had a cotton plantation in Mississippi and owned nearly 100 slaves, did not affect the strategy of pre-election campaign, as well as because of his military glory, these facts seemed to be minor
. Taylor actually went to the elections, which first took place in one and the same day throughout the Union. In the south, he was able to unite around a 51% vote. In the north of Free Soil Party harmed the Democrats more than the Whig Party. In the important New York State, Van Buren scored 10% of voters who originally lost the Democratic Party, so that Taylor could write this state in its assets, which ultimately proved crucial. Participation in elections 72,7% of voters shows how the democratization of the United States has moved forward and how important the people gave the election, whose support had been increasing. Both candidates have passed in 15 states, but due to the unequal division of electorates in those states, Taylor received 163 votes in the election board, but only 127 Cass. Vice-President was a liberal Whig from New York, Millard Fillmore.
Few presidents in American history entered into office, not knowing the extent that politically otnih expect. It was assumed that Taylor as non-political president will provide all the legislative initiatives to Congress and will care only about the implementation of laws. First, the performance of his duties largely influenced by his politically experienced vice-president Fillmore. Soon, however, in this role, Mr. Fillmore succeeded William. Seward, senator from Massachusetts, who advised Taylor to strengthen the party Whig intelligent policy distribution of posts. His political uncertainty Taylor quickly compensated decisions ad-hoc, which, however, often do not conform to the political complexity of the matter. Since his office was part of an influential Minister of Foreign Affairs is not quite experienced in foreign policy, John M. Clayton, which is awkward diplomatic behavior almost caused a rupture of relations with France. As foreign policy success Taylor was able to write in their asset so-called treaty "Clayton-Bulwer", . signed with Britain in April 1850, . in which both countries pledged in the future, not to the annexation and colonization no sredneamerikanskie land.,
. In a presidential election year in the Sacramento Valley in California found gold
. The years went down in history as the legendary "Gold Rush", in which a California rushed tens of thousands. The newly emerged crucial national issue of the proliferation of "special institution", as eloquently called slavery in the South, when California, in October 1849 made a proposal to take it to the Union as free from the slavery of the state. Soon after induction, in March, Taylor advised persons that step, but now he was in a hurry to accept the Congress as a constituent SOBR tion of California decided to ban slavery. New Mexico, as announced Taylor, probably soon follow California.
Californians for its part, has chosen this time deputies and senators in Congress in Washington, DC. However, they, like Taylor, watched in a hurry, that this requires permission. Congress. Many members of Congress were dissatisfied, since they are from the days of Andrew Jackson in disbelief watching the ever-increasing power of the president and felt left out deliberately. Southern MPs were shocked and saw Taylor's proposal as an obvious attempt to weaken the South and with it the slave system. Some of them were willing to accept California as a state free from slavery, if the federal government also will guarantee the future of the slave system as a whole.
. The reaction of congressmen from the South should be considered in another important context: in 1789 in the south of the U.S. population is 40% white population in 1850 had only 31%
. This demographic shift affect the number of southern members of Congress. If the South in 1789 had 46% of seats in the House of Representatives, then in 1850 only 38%. True, the Senate still existed a balance between North and South, which threatened to disrupt the adoption of California as the 31 st state. This shift of power in Congress due to growing concern about southern deputies, who are now inclined to make more decisively and aggressively to protect their interests.
. More than eight months of fierce congressional debate on the California petition and related political complications
. The most extreme position was at the same time, Senator John Calhoun of South Carolina, . which in March 1850 warned, . that the separation of the southern states can be avoided, . only if Congress will guarantee the approval of slavery in all territories, . and that there will always be a balance between free and slave states.,
. As in the case of Missouri in 1820, Senator Henry Clay once again pointed the way out of this impasse threatens
. He proposed to keep California free from slavery and the territories of New Mexico and Utah to provide to determine their appropriate status. Texas must give way to the field of New Mexico, . but as compensation to receive ten million dollars of federal funds, . the District of Columbia - in the federal capital - should be banned slave trade, . but not slavery itself, . finally, . should use effective means to capture and return runaway slaves, . to protect the rights of ownership in the southern states,
. In Congress, the Whigs in the face of Daniel Webster and Democrats in the person of Lewis Cass and Stephen A. Douglas called for support of the compromise parties. Northern wing of the Whigs, and with them, and Taylor, rejected the concessions to the slave interests as too far-reaching. When, in response to the Southern members of Congress once again protested against free from the slavery of California, and even talk of secession, . that Taylor was unable to conceal his military past and threatened in case of non-compliance of the law, . California restraint free from slavery, . intimidating fines,
. It was manifested that he still was in the geographical sense, a man from the South, a long military career had taught him to put the unity of the nation above regional special interests. While in Congress continued to fight for the resolution of the problem, Taylor suddenly died on July 9, 1850 at the White House. During the celebrations of the Independence Day, he spent many hours under the scorching rays of summer sun. Upon returning from celebrations, tired to death, eat plenty of fresh fruit and drank cold as ice, milk, after which he soon had convulsions and inflammation of the intestine, and which caused his death. This blow of fate fell by the way the supporters of unity between North and South, as they are now able to quickly take in the Congress "Compromise in 1850, which Clay had prepared an outline for a few months ago. Incessant rumor that Taylor was allegedly poisoned in 1891 led to the exhumation and forensic examination to establish unequivocally that the president was assassinated.