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( The U.S. President in 1865-69 gg.)

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Biography Andrew JOHNSON
photo Andrew JOHNSON
When Andrew Johnson after the assassination of Lincoln as president was sworn in by the supreme federal judge Salmon Chase April 15, 1865, the nation's future seemed uncertain. The civil war ended a few days ago, and "reconstruction", the return of the defeated South into the Union, raised the issue ogromschle. It was not clear as to whether all these eleven states of the Union, and there was unity over the fact, in whose jurisdiction includes the reconstruction: the president or Congress. It should look like this policy, what conditions should be put southern states and what the status will be in the future, freed slaves - all these also remained open.

Andrew Johnson was unable to cope with the problems struck him for various reasons. Even when taking the oath as vice-president March 4, 1865 he showed such personality traits, which raises doubts as to his suitability for the highest political posts. Democrat from Tennessee, it seemed, was a good complement to the Republican Lincoln, in the performance of his first duties as the Vice President was drunk. Ignoring every etiquette, . he represented the Senate appointed by the Lincoln cabinet members not to their rank, . in its severe short speech repeatedly pointed, . that all present are significant only because the politicians, . that they did such people, . and that he himself from the people,
. In emphasizing the importance of the people, . opposition politicians, . by virtue of their birth occupied a privileged position in society, . and constant stress on his humble origin - in this episode has already manifested the typical features of Johnson, . past leitmotif through his presidency,
. The perturbation caused by them in the Senate, predetermined his subsequent attitude to the Congress, several months later, characterized by a sharp confrontation and ended with an attempt dismissal.

. There are various reasons why a Democrat Johnson before the election in 1864 was nominated for vice-president
. On the one hand, . Republicans wanted to secure the votes of voters, . Faithful Union Democrat, . the North and to show its willingness to consider favorably returned to the states, . On the other hand, . Johnson, his courageous statement for the union, . support the emancipation of slaves and uncompromising position as military governor of the important border state of Tennessee won the respect of radical Republicans,
. When he became president, most Americans assumed that his attitude toward the South would rather stringent than pliable. Johnson's hatred of the planters, the aristocrats of the South was well known, . and the recurrence pattern of his beliefs: "Treason must call to hatred, . and traitors must be punished ", . seemed, . indicates a radical policy toward the southern states.,

. Often and willingly Johnson mentioned in the election campaign of his humble origin, makes them an attitude to life and contribute significantly to the unusual behavior when he became president
. Johnson was born Dec. 29, 1808 in Raleigh, in a small town in North Carolina, the son of poor parents. Since his father Jacob could neither read nor write and could barely feed his family, despite the occasional underworking mother, Andrew learned social contempt with which belonged to the representatives of the white bottom layer in the South. Being white, he could reassure himself that is not on the lowest rung of social hierarchy, below it was still black, though sometimes they were better dressed than he. Johnson never attended school as a child was given to tailor training, which ran in 1824. Two years later he settled in Greenville in eastern Tennessee and took up tailoring business. In this region lived little slaves, but there was a similar stratification of society, as in his hometown. While having a commercial vein, Johnson quickly made his fortune, he was forced to fight against a hidden hostility has long settled here elite. Education continued with the help of his wife Eliza Mc Kardl, the daughter of a shoemaker from Greenville. Because of illness, which lasted for years, Eliza, with whom Johnson had five children, often accompanied him in other cities. During his presidency, she moved with him to the White House, but must ARRANGEMENTS hostess gave his daughter Mary.

. His own political career, Johnson considered as worthy of imitation, as a model of unlimited possibilities of ascent in the American democracy
. Already in 1829, Johnson became a member of the Council of the City of Greenville and move forward with the local level through the bodies of individual states to the federal level: was the mayor of Greenville (1834), . deputies and senators in Congress in Tennessee (1835-53gg)., . member of the House of Representatives in Washington (1843-53 gg.) and the Governor of Tennessee (1853-57 gg.),
. Elected in 1857, United States Senator, . He was the sole representative of the southern states during the civil war in the Senate in Washington, . until Lincoln appointed him military governor of Tennessee (1862-65 gg.) This, . seemingly, . Direct career, . which is a vice president in 1865 led to the highest post of the U.S., . was, . however, . result of many compromises and clever tactical subterfuge.,

. After an initial alliance with the Whigs Johnson imbued with the democratic principles of Andrew Jackson
. If the refusal of conservatives in his own party threatened his electoral success, he was stormy speeches addressed to the simple artisans and peasants, whose voices, in most cases ensured him the victory. In particular, he distinguished himself as a strong supporter of the Bill of occupancy, which provided 160 acres of public land in the West every father of a family who wants to work. The proposal of the law, slave owners who did not bring any benefit, Johnson called the South misunderstanding and mistrust. The stronger was his protection of the interests of southern states on slavery, which he strongly defended even during the Civil War. Nevertheless favored the Union, , . his opinion, . violated the constitution, . he almost religiously revered, . besides his great ideal, . Andrew Jackson, . in the early 30-ies of the XIX century resolutely opposed then threatening secession of South Carolina,
. Finally, a role playing and personal reasons. Because of its open hostility to the political elite of the South, especially Jefferson Davis, his political career was possible only within the Union.

. The fact that Johnson until 1863, strongly advocated for slavery, it was a heavy bail for his relations with Congress
. While the deputies and senators from northern states saw slavery as a moral and political evil, for Johnson's rejection of slavery was a political necessity. When in the course of the Civil War, emancipation of slaves was becoming more likely, Johnson did not offer resistance, so as not to harm his political career. In 1862-1863. he was able to exclude from the declaration of freedom Linolna slaves in Tennessee, which was on the side of the Union, and at the same time, he increasingly spoke out against slavery, because it gave to the rebellious southern states pretext to start a war. Under these conditions, the unity and the constitution of the United States can be saved, only abolished slavery. Moreover, slavery is an economic monopoly, which inhibits also poor white Southern planters and provides a privileged status. The elite must be replaced by "new aristocracy of labor", which is based solely on ability and merit. Johnson's departure from slavery does not mean that he sees him as a moral evil. Did not change, he and his racist attitudes towards blacks, in which the inferiority was deeply convinced.

. Since becoming President in April 1865 before the convening of Congress in December 1865, Johnson tried to implement their ideas about the return of the South in the Union
. Admission of Deputies and Senators, selected southern states, is clearly a responsibility of Congress. In private conversations, he persuaded many members of Congress that will continue the policy of Lincoln and severely punish the leading Confederates.

. The first amnesty Johnson's former rebels on May 29, 1865 was tight in the sense, . that the fourteen categories of the population. southern states essentially excluded from the pardon: in addition to the officers and officials of the Government of the Confederation all setsessionisty, . owning more than 20 000 dollars, . have been personally apply to Johnson's amnesty,
. These restrictions were due solely Johnson's antipathy to the elite of the South and his view that only wealthy southerners are responsible for the war. He clearly enjoyed the fact that the wealthy planters besiege it, dependent on his grace. For several months he had pardoned more than 13 000 of them.

. Subsequent ads, . in which Johnson, in May and June 1865 appointed provisional governors in some southern states and established conditions, . on the basis of which were to be developed new state constitutions, . had outraged many radical Republicans,
. He not only elected governor of politicians from the old elite of the southern states near the leading Confederates, but did not impose any restrictions on the emerging republican constitutions. Even the ratification of the 13th supplement to the constitution, . which abolished slavery, . it only in private conversations made a condition included in the union, . addition, . Johnson limited suffrage, . giving it to, . who before the war had it, . thereby excluding blacks,
. The result of this soft attitude could have been foreseen: a constitutional convention in most southern states were selected former rebels, some of whom had been pardoned by Johnson only after receiving their mandates. Even the few duties that Johnson later entrusted to these obscure convent, were executed after a long delay, and often not fully. Ability to grant suffrage to some blacks who fought for the Union soldiers, was twice offered to Johnson, though reluctantly, but seriously, the convention was not discussed.

. Worsened relations with the Congress to Johnson's policy of obstruction in relation to the Bureau of the liberated people, . which was under the supervision of Ministry of War to protect the rights allocated by the will of the slaves and to ensure their existence through the provision of the confiscated lands and pustuyuoschyh outside plantations,
. Johnson not only prevented the lease of the confiscated land Negroes, but also ruled that the land granted during the war, General Sherman freed slaves should be returned to its former owners. Since the conservative government of the southern states, moreover, issued a Code of blacks on the model Code of slaves, . where a black inter alia, it was forbidden to leave the job without the consent of the owner or ill-treatment to seek another place of, . then the living conditions of blacks differed little from the conditions of life under slavery.,

. Naturally, the white population of the South with a happy and relieved to hear that Johnson's policy
. But surprisingly the president had initially strong support in Congress, which met only in December 1865. The Senate and House of Representatives did not allow any representative of the southern states. Both chambers consisted mainly of moderate and more conservative Republicans, while Democrats and radical Republicans had few deputies. In his vague and not to hedge his annual address to Congress, Johnson justified his policy by the fact that southern states had never legally left the Union does not and therefore should be integrated as soon as possible. Moreover, this right of individual states to decide their form of republican government is undeniable and equally emphasized such outstanding statesmen like Jefferson and Jackson. Especially the question of the electoral law clearly granted by the Constitution of the states, so that it would be a misappropriation of power by the President, if he gave it right in black. Primiryayusche sounded Johnson's statement that he wants to take care of security, "the freed slaves for their freedom and their property, their right to work and right to the results of their labor."

. Johnson's appeal was a success, demonstrated by the support of his policies by the joint committee, in which the deputies and senators were discussing reconstruction
. Two radical Republican, calling for suffrage for blacks, could not insist on his own, because this committee consisted mainly of moderate Republicans and Democrats. Under the leadership of moderate Senator Lyman Trumbull, . which, after private conversations with Johnson got the impression, . that the president would approve the proposed activities, . Committee has developed two draft laws to protect the rights of blacks: "Bill of Civil Rights" and "Bill Bureau released.,

. According to Johnson, there was no difference in how to recognize whether a Negro civil and natural law, as it was for the "Bill of Civil Rights", or give them the right to vote
. He believed that the draft laws were aimed, primarily, not to protect freed slaves, and he was convinced from the outset, the entire Congress, consisting of the radicals wanted to give black suffrage and to destroy the fruits of his policy. He did not understand the willingness of Congress to compromise that avoided all the drastic measures to be able to cooperate with the President. When Johnson vetoed both of the project, the time of the first trial of strength between him and the Congress. Even moderate Republicans saw as a betrayal of what Johnson challenged the right of the federal government to take measures to protect the black. Due to the intransigence of Johnson's radical and moderate Republicans have worked in time to confront the policies of President, openly granting blacks in the south of their fate at the discretion of the former owners.

. Johnson was convinced that morally irresponsible Congress wants to subjugate the South and frustrate all reasonable measures of executive power
. Therefore opposed the 14-second supplement to the constitution, which ensures equality of blacks and consider them as citizens of the United States. To encourage states to provide political rights of black, complement stipulated that state, deprived of adult citizens the right to vote, sends to Washington, respectively, less MPs. Johnson saw this addition as an expression of obstructive policy of the Congress. It seemed unnecessary and premature to give the civil rights of blacks. Since he could not prevent the adoption of 14-second supplement to the constitution in Congress, then tried all means to keep the individual states to ratify.

. In the election campaign in autumn 1866 revealed that the rift between the president and the Congress has become an irresistible
. Even the excesses in Memphis and New Orleans, which had killed many blacks and Republicans from the North were not able to convince Johnson that the federal government should stand up for the former slaves. Moreover, he blamed the radical Congress that he gave blacks unrealizable hopes and incited them. In their statements, Johnson tried in his old way, through personal attacks on opponents found an ally in the people. What was once operated in Tennessee, now has caused massive criticism. Particularly his assertion that Congress is trying to unconstitutional actions "to destroy the government, convinced of the need for Republicans to pursue its policy, despite the opposition of the President. Prerequisites for this set up victory in the elections, giving them an overwhelming majority in both houses of Congress.

Dispute about the suffrage for blacks in the District of Columbia in January 1867 was a typical example of the bitterness of the fronts. Congress has issued a draft law, Johnson put his veto and justified this by saying that any interference in states' rights was unconstitutional because it already has ten southern states are still not allowed in union. In response, Congress in the same day, rejected the veto required a two thirds majority vote. To prevent the president from using the right to fill positions in such a way, . which would destroy the policy of Congress, . issued a controversial law to stay in office, . which the dismissal of many important posts in the government depended on the consent of the Senate.,

. Since February 1867 the relations between the president and Congress have been completely destroyed, and the majority of MPs are now actually followed a radical course
. Congress has issued many laws on the reconstruction, dividing the South into five military districts, each of which obey the general from the North, which if necessary could apply military law. Reconstruction of the southern states in the union was now possible in the event that they convened a constitutional and constituent assembly abolished the "Black Code", ratified by 14 th addition to the constitution and gave suffrage to black.

. Thanks to the reconstruction of the Congress' erstwhile policy of Johnson was completely canceled
. Point of view of the president that Congress has its interference in the southern state legislation violates the constitution, was not confirmed by the Supreme Court. However, Johnson tried using his executive powers to interfere with the laws in practice. He was given command of the military district official guidelines, which required them to narrow interpretation of laws, and appointed generals gradually, completely on his side of the former. In the summer of 1867 Johnson believed that reached its goal and defended the southern states of the imaginary oppressive evils of radical Congress.

. Since the reconstruction of threatened disruption because of his stubborn president, a growing number of members of Congress saw the only way out of this situation in his ouster from office
. Since January 1867 the Committee met, who sought proof for accusations of abuse of position. When Johnson sent to Congress a provocative annual report, dismissed two generals of the military districts and against the will of the Senate sacked his Minister of War, Edwin Stanton, the House of Representatives decided on impeachment.


. Although there was complete unity in the fact that it is necessary to prevent the president to destroy the activities of Congress, Johnson in the spring of 1868 had a relatively strong position
. On the one hand, . Elections in 1867 were unfavorable for the radical Republicans, . the other - the designated successor to Johnson was Benjamin Wade, . President of the Senate, . radical, . who had as a result of his controversial speech to the inflationary policies of many enemies,
. Besides a purely legal point of view was disputed whether it falls Stanton, appointed another of Lincoln, under the provisions of the tenure, the violation of which was the main part of the prosecution. But above all during the hearing on his charges in the Senate, Johnson stared; vye showed his willingness to compromise. In private conversations he had promised not to interfere with more politics of the Congress. When in May, the Senate began voting on impeachment, seven moderate Republicans voted for Johnson, so there was no majority in the two-thirds necessary for impeachment of the president from office.

. The hesitation of Congress in condemning Johnson. Is explained by the fact that the procedure of impeachment was given a great constitutional and historical significance
. As yet no president was accused of misconduct, the senators in 1868 were supposed to decide on a possible precedent. Johnson's acquittal meant that impeachment should be used in strict legal criteria and it is practically excluded as a weapon in political struggle. After this has never been any attempt is made to remove the president from office for political reasons.

Johnson kept his promise and did not attempt to impede the reconstruction of more. Deeply convinced that the operation was always under the constitution, and he later used his veto power to at least express their principled doubts about the federal intervention in the affairs of individual states. For example, he opposed the proposal by the Congress at the end of his tenure as President of the 15-second supplement to the constitution, which prohibits the deprivation of electoral rights on the basis of race.

. In foreign policy, Johnson is making some progress thanks to the ability of his foreign minister, William Seward
. He succeeded in using diplomatic pressure to expedite the withdrawal of French troops from Mexico and to thus contribute to the restoration of the Mexican Independence. While prepared Seward purchase of various islands in the Caribbean has not been approved by the Senate, the United States in 1868, bought for 7.2 million dollars from Russia strategically important and rich in raw materials Alaska.

. But above all, Johnson was proud of its policy of reconstruction
. He believed his credit that, through uncompromising struggle against a vindictive Congress defended states' rights and ensure the domination of white. The fact that he thus prevented the inclusion of former slaves into American society, it did not prevent. Despite the popularity of the South, his candidacy was not nominated for re-election. The ambitious Johnson, believes that it is time to recognize and rehabilitate its policy, did not stop the political activity. Immediately upon returning to Greenville again rushed into the election campaign and after several defeats in 1874 was nominated by Senator Tennessee. In 1875, he was able to re-enter the house, which just a few years ago tried unsuccessfully to remove him from office. Before his death, July 31, 1875 as a result of hemorrhage, in the last speech he criticized the policies of the reconstruction of his successor, Grant, who defended the rights of blacks, and demanded to withdraw troops and restore freedom to the South.

. Historiographic assessment of Johnson's presidency depends primarily on what the position of historians took over the rights of black people
. First, there were failures in the center of Johnson as President. Especially in the beginning of XX century drew attention to the fact, . that only the lack of political skills led to Johnson's opportunity to impose a radical Congress of the economically less developed south temporary humiliating and ineffective rule of former slaves and the thirst for profit and depraved white Northerners,
. In the late 20-ies of the XX century it began to represent in a heroic light. It moved to the forefront of economic issues, and efforts to integrate the radical former slaves were regarded as wrong both economically and politically. Johnson, by contrast, was hailed as a visionary politician who honestly sought to integrate the southern states and in relation to the die-hard Congress to hold high the principles of the Constitution. During the civil rights movement after World War II historians have again sharply criticized the policy of Johnson in relation to black and accused him of racism and antiemansipatsionnoy position. Currently, historians seeking a more balanced assessment of Johnson, . explaining the weakness of its social background and prevailing in the South of values and norms, . impact of which he could not avoid the same, . like most of his countrymen.,

. While Congress killed the policy of reconstruction of Johnson, Johnson's presidency laid the foundation for long-term collapse of the activities of the Congress
. The end of Reconstruction in 1877 and lasts till XX century discrimination against blacks, as it were confirmed that Johnson, of course, realistically assess the extent of racism in the South than members of Congress from northern states. On the other hand, Johnson greatly helped prevent the inclusion of blacks into American society in the future. After the white population of the South two years with his help defend their traditional notions about the superiority of the white race, . any protection of the rights of blacks was possible only after overcoming strong opposition and with the consistent application of the Army,
. Chance to train after the Civil War South demoralized by political and military pressure to equal treatment of black was lost due to Johnson. Paradoxically, the most important positive result of Johnson's presidency from today's point of view is in the 14 th and 15 th amendments to the Constitution, . which were developed by the Congress because of his uncompromising and ratified by the states against their will,

Source: Peoples.ru

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Andrew JOHNSON, photo, biography
Andrew JOHNSON, photo, biography Andrew JOHNSON  The U.S. President in 1865-69 gg., photo, biography
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