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HAYES Ratterford

( President of the United States in 1877-81 gg.)

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Biography HAYES Ratterford
Ratterford Berchard Hayes was born on October 4, 1822, three months after the death of his father in Delaware, Ohio. With the financial support of his uncle, he received a thorough schooling and in 1842 passed the exam in Gembiere at Kenyon College, Ohio. After practicing law firm in Columbus, Ohio, in 1845 completed his studies at Harvard Law School. Four years of accumulated experience in the law office of his uncle, and in 1850 became an independent counsel in Cincinnati. In 1852 he married Lucy Warren Webb, educated woman with varied interests and actively defend social reform and rejects slavery. She had a great impact on Hays, which has always been an opponent of slavery, but until that time, the policy of almost no. He drew the young Republican Party, which in 1856 challenged the government with Democrats and four years later, he, along with Abraham Lincoln entered the White House.

During the Civil War, Hayes was a Major in the 23rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment and rose to the rank of brigadier general. During the war, intensified his interest in politics. With the support of the influential publisher of William Henry Smith Heisoo managed in 1864 to be elected to the House of Representatives of the Union. As a radical Republican, he advocated a policy of reconstruction in the southern states. As an advocate of strict political control of the South, was against the tough action on the former Confederate. He approved the 14 th and 15 th Supplement to the constitution, which were recorded the civil rights of African-Americans, and supported the demand of impeachment against President Johnson. Hayes contributed to the establishment of the University of Ohio and the transformation of the Library of Congress in Washington in a public institution.

From 1868 to 1872 he. and from 1876 to 1877. Hayes served as governor of Ohio. In between these years he devoted himself to family and private affairs. At Hays had four sons and one daughter, three other children died at an early age.

As governor Hayes won recognition for its actions in defense of reform in public administration. To prevent fraud in the elections, advocated for the registration of all eligible votes, tried to implement more stringent security measures in the mining industry and recommended that the state regulation of rail. In addition, proposed the creation of better conditions in prisons and the neurological clinics. He was considered a shrewd politician, a bold and liberal administrator. Supported the election campaigns Ulysses C. Grant, in the presidency which was later very disappointed.

. When Republicans in early 1875 asked him to run for governor next election and at the same time in the future promised to nominate its candidate for the presidency in elections in 1876, he agreed only after long hesitation.

. Although he estimated the chances at the nomination fairly low, at the national convention, already in the 7 th round, he received the required majority of votes.

. In its statement on consent to be a presidential candidate for Hayes main themes of his election campaign called the need for management reforms to eliminate the allocation of government posts among the party's, . the winning, . establishment of credible and capable governments in southern states, . improving public school system and the decision is the ongoing conflict over paper currency or metal,
. Simultaneously, he announced that if elected president after four years will not run for second term. During this Hayes incriminated himself more freedom in carrying out management reforms and the general independence from the influential members of the party favors. In this way he was able to return to the party of many liberal Republicans who broke away in 1872.

. Democrats put forward a presidential candidate Samuel Tilden focused its election campaign on the themes of economy, metallic money and reform
. When the evening of November 7, 1876 votes were counted, it appeared that Tilden won by 250 000 votes and the result in the election board 184 to 165. But Republicans immediately questioned the legitimacy of the vote in South Carolina, Louisiana, Florida and Oregon, and demanded the appointment of the arbitration commission. Was invited five members of the Senate, the House of Representatives and the Supreme Court to get an unparalleled in American history commission. It consisted of 8 Republicans and 7 Democrats, who voted according to their party-political position. So Heisoo majority of one vote were awarded the disputed votes, and March 2 by one vote elected a member of the board, he was declared president of the United States.

. Celebrations on the occasion of the inauguration took place in the controversy about the election
. During his time as president of the Hays protests against him subsided and most people respected the president and his wife, who actively cooperated in the movement of moderate and cleared the White House from all alcoholic beverages.

. In order to meet the Democrats, Hayes approved the withdrawal of the last located in Louisiana and South Carolina Allied
. April 24, 1877 the last federal troops left the area of the former Confederacy.

Since the election's outcome was unclear for a long time, the inaugural Hayes imelnepolny the Cabinet. Although he said that upon appointment will not be considered party-political affiliation, but gave his friends and aides in the election campaign. But powerful forces within the Republican Party could not influence him. During the entire period he fought against repeated attempts of Congress to impose his appointment to public office. In discussing the proposal to fill the positions with the senators and deputies, the decision left for themselves.

. The biggest influence on the president provided the Minister of Finance John Sherman, Minister of Foreign Affairs William Everts and Minister of the Interior Carl Schurz
. In the face of Mc Kendry Ci of Tennessee, appointed by the Minister of mail, the first post in the cabinet was a former Confederate.

. In his inaugural speech, Hayes, referring to fiscal policy, expressed the view that soft money is acceptable only if their value is based on the coins and if at any time it can be freely converted
. Concerning governance reforms the president announced his return to the principles and practice of "founding fathers" and stressed that Congress has no right to prescribe the distribution of posts. Hayes promised to support the Government in improving the overall school system, the South, he promised in the future establishment of civil rights for those who received their freedom.

. Since the beginning of a new presidency has coincided with economic recession, then the solution of the financial problem has become a priority for the Hays
. At that time, he believed the only gold standard value, the House of Representatives and the Senate issued a draft law, which the limited extent allowed silver coinage as the cost. This law represents a compromise between the "hard currency" and paper money, was adopted in early 1878 against the President's veto.

. This was the only time when the veto Hayes (as he placed a veto on all 13 projects of Congress), Congress rejected.

. Especially Hayes vigorously opposed all attempts to curtail achieve the 14 th and 15 th amendments to the Constitution for the black population.

. In accordance with its statement Hayes from the outset worked on management reform, and the Minister of the Interior Schurz was appropriate for this person
. To illustrate its intention to end the distribution of government posts among the supporters of the winning party and with nepotism, . Hayes chose the customs authorities of New York Harbor, . where the vast majority (of more than 1000 employees) were required to their workplace protector stvu Senator Roscoe Konklinga, . heads a powerful party machine in New York,
. Overcoming the resistance of the senator, Heisoo managed to put at the head of this important institution of impeccable and reform-minded people. The result was the high efficiency and a modern, professional management - proof of the necessity and benefits of the planned reforms and personal victory for Hayes.


. He hoped that prsle withdrawal Union former Whigs and some Democrats in the southern states will join the Republicans, or at least, will be loyal to him, did not materialize
. Even the substitution of the Democrats numerous federal posts in the South could not reduce political tension. In September 1877 Hayes with a large government delegation traveled to many southern states to promote its policies. But he was unable to prevent the return of conservative Democrats in almost all the influential positions. After election to Congress in 1878 of 63 Southerners in the House of Representatives, only four were Republicans. For the first time since the Civil War the Democrats once again represented the majority in the Senate. Politics Hays to the southern states and its liberal, aimed at reconciling the position increasingly criticized within his own party. He was accused of weakening the party in the South, pinned responsibility for the loss of civil rights, which after the war were given African-Americans. While the South is gradually recovering economically, the growing social and political pressures caused the migration of a large part of the Afro-American population in the North. This reconciliation of former Union and Confederate States did not take place.

Shortly after assuming the office of President Hayes started the big strike of railwaymen. With the economic downturn rail company suffered heavy losses. Reducing wages caused the strike, which is from Baltimore in Maryland quickly spread to 14 states. Nine governors appealed to the president for help. After the violent clashes began, Hayes decided to send troops to West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Illinois. The first time the army was used against striking workers. Because Hayes refused to support the strike-breakers, they were prevented more bloodshed, and a few weeks later to restore calm.

In foreign policy, Hayes did not have big problems arise. Border conflicts related to the revolutionary disturbances in Mexico were settled by peaceful means. France's intention to build a canal through Central America has caused in the United States a temporary excitement, which quickly subsided when that plan has been abandoned.

. In major cities, the west coast has been increasing conflict between the majority white population and moving a large number of Chinese who in Berlingeymskom Contract (1868) was granted unrestricted relocation
. Work for low wages the Chinese seemed to be a dangerous competitor, and imbued with racial prejudice Congress passed a law to limit immigration. Hayes imposed on him his veto. To resist the ongoing pressure from Congress, he entered into negotiations with the Chinese government. These negotiations led to an advantageous trade treaty and a "voluntary" self-restraint in China, which claimed responsibility for immigration control movement.

As announced, Hayes did not attempt to stay for a second term. He supported the candidacy of Garfield, which said: "It is an ideal candidate, as is the ideal man who made himself". After the presidency, Hayes and his wife returned to Spiegel Grove in Fremont, Ohio, where they held a retirement. Until Death (January 17, 1893), he worked in the charitable societies.

. In U.S. history, Hayes connected with the end of Reconstruction, which has not established the present political and social balance between the northern and southern states
. His contemporary and friend of Harry Williams wrote that he was "a strange mixture of idealism and practical effect". After the vortex of civil war, political crisis, with Johnson and scandals in the Grant in the country when Hayes became a little more rest. Financial policy Hays contributed to the fact that after five years of recession and economic recovery came. In contrast to the House of Representatives, at first controlled by Democrats, and the Senate, which in the second half of his presidency managed democracy, Hayes consciously strengthened the position of president in the government system. He considered it his personal success that can say: "... Not a single member of both chambers is not trying to dictate the substitution of more posts. I started with the selection of the cabinet against their will ". He thus laid the foundation for further reforms of the government and administration.

Mark Twain thought that the quiet and unobtrusive, but the true greatness Hayes eventually find indisputable recognition in history. Today, in a scale of Presidents Hayes took a middle position. His political figure is the ability to combine old values with new ideas and increase susceptibility to the society.

Source: Peoples.ru

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