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CARTER, James Earl

( President of the United States in 1977-81 gg.)

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Biography CARTER, James Earl
Was born in 1924.
James Earl Carter was born Oct. 1, 1924 in Plains, southern Georgia, and grew up in a provincial town in a relatively wealthy family. His father was politically conservative farmer, . peanut growers, . mother - in the style of the southern states known only as Miss Lilly - was for its time, and this region is extremely enlightened person, . a nurse by profession, . which in the age of 68 two years worked in India in the Peace Corps,
. She learned to Carter political activity. Her he took during his presidency, the prominent role of "first mother".

Growing up in the second world war, an ambitious young man in 1943, successfully entered the Naval Academy in Annapolis. In 1946 he graduated and soon thereafter married Rosalie Smith, a friend of his youth Plains. Rosalie Carter has been a reliable support to her husband in the subsequent hard times. As First Lady she gained the position, though for her unusually close relationship with her husband watched with skepticism.

. Jimmy Carter tried at first to a career officer in the Navy, but his career was the navigator of the submarine was cut short in 1953 when his father died and he was against the wishes of his wife decided to take the peanut business in Plains
. There he became a millionaire and still found time for political and social activities. He experienced a religious conversion to another religion and has publicly acknowledged a "reborn" Christian.

Stir up a bitter debate about the civil rights of black people. Carter first showed the political activity at local level in the field of education. In 1963 he followed a step in the regional policy. In the Georgia Senate, he represented mostly liberal stance. However, when in 1970, fought for the post of governor of the Democratic Party, he sought the support of tactically clever opponents of the civil rights movement. On assuming office, drew national attention when he said: "The Times of racial discrimination took place". The new governor did in time very much to eliminate the worst consequences of racial discrimination in Georgia. His opponents took note of what opportunistic methods Carter worked his political path.

. On the eve of elections in 1972 Carter as the representative of the "new" enlightened and industrialize the South sought for the post of vice-president, but the people of the presidential candidate George McGovern coldly refused him
. In response to Jimmy Carter's call to solve the very claim to the post of President of the Democratic Party in 1976.

Three factors were crucial to the success of the apparent outsider. Frightened by the machinations of the Nixon, Americans do not trust their professional politicians. The Democratic Party has institutionalized the need for man of the people, dramatically uveliniv number of primary elections, dividing proportionally among the candidates won votes. To eliminate the pernicious influence of big money in presidential elections in 1976, was introduced public funding of election campaigns (with simultaneous restriction of donations and expenditures). These factors have allowed unknown before the governor of the southern states successfully participate in the elections.

After his nomination as a candidate Carter among voters ahead of President Ford by 30%. In the end he won by 2%. Carter, . relatively helpless and less of an impact through the media, . disadvantaged because of pronounced southern dialect, . striving to avoid serious questions of conflicts, . evaluated more skeptical,
. Ultimately, he won, because doubts about Ford's were even more, it has pursued a pardon Nixon, and the decisive foreign policy televised debates, he made a grave mistake. However, the results of the election did not represent an overwhelming mandate for the first president from the South since Zachary Taylor (1848) Even before his inauguration on Jan. 20, 1977 Carter faced a major dilemma of his presidency. Elected as an amateur, he had to seek cooperation with the traditional political elite. However, he soon came under the threat to change his image and his ideals, t. e. to "politics as usual."

It became clear already then, when the replacement of important posts, he was forced to use the well-known establishment figures, especially in the field of domestic and foreign policy. But the White House, he has surrounded himself almost exclusively by young, inexperienced in national politics staff familiar to him from the time of his governorship. Bridge, apparently, was to serve as vice-president Walter Mondale, who was later proved to support the administration.

. Carter's style of government was a conscious reaction to the excesses of the "imperial" Nixon
. On the day of his inauguration, he, . instead of going in a limo, . way from the Capitol to the White House walked, . presidential yacht was sold, . playing presidential anthem terminated, . President himself wore their suitcases, . and the menu on public receptions will no longer be in a French,
. First, Carter purchased these symbolic gestures certain popularity. Later, the public did not have enough content for this form and rivals fighting for power and influence, not so easy to convince, or be subjected to pressure due to lack of a presidential representative.

. Another obstacle was the refusal of the Chief of Staff at the White House (the position vilified Nixon's chief of staff Haldeman)
. Carter wanted to introduce some kind of desk Government, the rest are all the reins of government to hold in their hands. Cabinet discipline is not peculiar to the American system and very quickly collapsed, and in this case. President, although no doubt intellectually competent and diligent in performing their duties, it was not on the shoulder, and his staff stuck in the positional battles and all sorts of scandals. When Carter by the end of his presidency reorganized the White House, then return to the traditional exercise of power (including advertising and information campaigns) could not restore it cracked authority.

. Their unusual style of the Carter defied Congress and
. True, the Senate and House of Representatives were in the hands of Democrats, but the leading politicians of the Democratic Party is not so easily moved to the line of presidential. We add to this the fact that Congress on the basis of reforms after Watergate, has become more oppressive, and better able to assert its independence from the president.

. Maybe it would be less problematic if Carter has claimed a lot of internal and foreign mortgages, which almost immediately demanded a quick solution
. The economy was badly shaken after the Vietnam War and the first oil crisis. Double-digit inflation index indicated the seriousness of the situation. A conservative on fiscal policy, Carter did not want to pursue a policy of deficit budget. So it is only strongly increase the borrowing rate, which was also ineffective. Meanwhile, the new "oil shock" with the lack of gasoline and the price hike has caused domestic political discontent, which has plunged Carter in the summer of 1979 in the deepest crisis of his presidency. By this time, it aimed at saving energy policy, which was supposed to make the United States independent of imported energy, has failed because of opposition in Congress. Also his statement for radical reform of Health and Welfare has found virtually no support among the party's friends. First of all, Senator Edward Kennedy managed to prevent far-reaching reforms of the Carter requirements, Coto rye because of the associated tax increases have contributed even less agreement. For example, Carter's domestic policy, except for the deregulation of air travel and some measures to protect the environment, was generally ineffective. On domestic policy superimposed urgent foreign-policy factors. During the election campaign Carter almost missionary zeal in the center of its foreign policy has put promotion of human rights in the Soviet Union and in the Third World. But first he had to complete a number of purposes, which have begun to implement its predecessors. Achieved while the results were, however, is so controversial that the president brought the approval of little. First of all, this refers to the return of the Panama Canal, the objectives, which by virtue of anti-imperial symbolism was particularly close to the heart of Carter. He succeeded in the past six months later, ready to submit a contract that involves the return of Panama Canal by the end of the century. Ratification in Congress has been extremely difficult and went to high cost of delay other plans.


. A significant foreign policy success was an agreement of peace between Israel and Egypt, has made it possible US-Egyptian rapprochement, to which Kissinger had with 1973
. Carter made it clear early on that he was ready to seek new opportunities for solving the Middle East conflict. These, at first awkwardly launched, efforts to develop a dialogue between Israel and Egypt, which Carter strongly accelerated by inviting the Israeli prime minister Begin and Egyptian President Sadat in his summer residence on Camp David. After trinadtsatidnevnyh negotiations, in which Carter as mediator played a decisive role in the September 1978 peace agreement. His signing of the "Rose Garden of the White House March 26, 1979 was the high point of his presidency Carter. However, awakened by the Camp David Accords hope of the Israeli-Egyptian union to come to address the problem of the Palestinians at first did not materialize, but the further course of the peace process would have been unthinkable without the participation of Carter.

. Even more difficult is folded efforts aimed at mutual understanding with the Soviet Union
. Carter wanted to achieve two things, . were nearly incompatible with each other: an agreement on arms control and Soviet concessions on the issue of human rights - all-inclusive foreign policy objectives Carter, . he has by virtue of idealistic motives considered mandatory for himself and which was placed before him by Congress,
. In pursuing these goals, he is constantly confronted with internal political opponents and skeptical European allies.

. Finally, in June 1979 managed to conclude OCB-II on limiting strategic nuclear weapons, and the reduction was significantly lower than that originally wanted Carter
. The signing of this contract contributed, . one hand, . some weakening of human rights policy, . another, . use of the "China card", . since December 1978, Carter has achieved the normalization of relations with China (at the cost of diplomatic relations with Taiwan) - in terms of domestic policy is extremely controversial meropriyatie.OSV-P and the whole policy of detente, . eventually, . not benefited Carter,
. Even in a close circle of advisers, this course has led to disagreement between the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Cyrus Vance, tending to equilibrium, and the Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski, who prefers a policy of force. To have the general prospects for a successful ratification of SALT II by the Senate. Carter was forced to agree to a sharp increase in defense budget. This has contributed not only the growing budget deficit, but also undermined the credibility of Carter, as he originally advocated a reduction in military spending.

. The Soviet Union has crossed all the calculations, when in late 1979 invaded Afghanistan and completely destroyed all the beginning of detente
. True, . Carter administration once provided covert support to the Afghan resistance, and appointed a number of sanctions (including termination of sales of grain to the Soviet Union and a boycott of the Olympic Games in Moscow in the summer of 1980), . but these activities were not, . to induce the Soviet Union to make concessions or to save the credibility of the Carter,
. OCB-II was never ratified (but its provisions are respected in silence).

. Completion of Carter's presidency began, however, in Tehran, where the November 4, 1979 militant followers of Ayatollah Khomeini took hostage 60 American embassy staff
. This event was preceded by the overthrow of the shah, whose Carter once thought the democratic pillar of American politicians in this region shaken by wars. When a cancer patient check in late November, was adopted in the United States for treatment, the anger of Iranians found his relaxation in the seizure of U.S. embassy. His first reaction was restrained with the understanding adopted by the Public. But the longer the embassy staff were held hostage, the greater the dissatisfaction with the helplessness of American policy. True, the president in his address to Congress on Jan. 23, 1980 tried to start later called the "Carter Doctrine" turn in U.S. foreign policy. In it he denounced every attempt of any third power to acquire influence in the Persian Gulf region as a violation of vital interests of the United States, which if necessary can be answered by military means. But when in April at the very beginning shamefully failed attempt by military force to free hostages in Tehran, and this led to the resignation of Minister of Foreign Affairs of Vance, the mood in the country has changed dramatically. Taking of hostages in Tehran has become the dominant theme of pre-election struggle. Carter was taken in a pincer. In the Democratic primaries he was summoned to fight a constant opponent Edward Kennedy. Carter was able to defeat this representative of the liberal wing only at the cost of a deep split in the Party. In the primary election against his opponent, . conservative Republican Ronald Reagan, . deftly rhetorically raised the weaknesses of the president: "Should the United States continue to suffer, . to "The Great Dictator" as Brezhnev, . or "minor criminals", . terrorists, . hostage-takers, . powers-United States, . a third-rate power? And there are things the Americans after 4 years of Carter's presidency more, . than before? ".,

. Backtalk Carter, Reagan is a danger to the world and destroy the welfare system, little help
. President, . which is due to fraud with the hostages refused to vigorous election campaign and in the hope of seniority bonus retired to the White House, . suffered a bitter defeat: Reagan won 51% of the vote and 489 electoral votes of the Board,
. The Americans, frustrated by the familiarity with amateur amateur, sent him to a comfortable retirement. Only on the day of the inauguration of his successor, U.S. diplomats have returned to the U.S., after 444 days after being taken hostage.

Carter and even more his wife were deeply affected by the challenge of voters. But they soon recovered from the defeat and began life as the former presidential couple, who brought them respect and even love. Carter created a presidential library in Atlanta, which is not only a repository of his papers and memoirs. In "The Carter Center, former president of the headquarters staff is trying to solve international problems. As mediator Jimmy Carter may be written in its credit some of the successes. In late September 1994 during a diplomatic mission to Haiti, he advocated the restoration of the deposed former post of President Aristide. In early 1995, to mediate in the Bosnian conflict. He also drew the attention as an active assistant in projects for construction of apartments for the poor.

The political authority of the presidency, Carter remains low. Nothing proves this better than the agonizing efforts of the next president of Democrats Bill Clinton in every way to avoid any similarities with Carter. This negative assessment seems exaggerated and unfair, especially in comparison with his successors, who left the country huge mortgage (besides almost four times as great mountain of debts). Carter in difficult conditions took the difficult task. But he still has some long-term success. In other cases, he was ahead of its time: the energy program, health care reform, reform of Social Security once again stand on the political agenda. In foreign policy the issue of human rights and democratization of the normalization of relations with adversaries in the Cold War brought the fruits of recent. Maybe Carter did not take place as President. But as the initiator of the future political events, he deserves respect, regardless of his presidency.

Source: Peoples.ru

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