Ronald Reagan( President of the United States in 1981-88 gg.)
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Biography Ronald Reagan
Ronald Wilson Reagan was born Feb. 6, 1911 in Tampico, Illinois, in a family with modest financial situation. His parents and grandparents were Irish, Scottish and English descent. Child and adolescent years he spent in a small provincial town of Illinois, in addition to the city where he was born, back in Moimaute, Dixon, and finally, in Yuerike, where from 1928 to 1932, attended college. It was a region of the United States in the Midwest, . where a young man growing perfectly able to learn, and inwardly feel the foundations of American ideology: individualism, . belief, . that every man is a blacksmith of his own happiness, . and the deep skepticism of the central government in faraway Washington, DC,
After college, Reagan became a sports commentator, first one year at a small radio station in Deyvenporte, Iowa, then at the larger stations in the NBC Dei-de-Moine same state. These were years of learning skills, for which Reagan ultimately won the glory of the "great communicator". In 1937 he moved to Hollywood, where he began his 30-year career in film and television. D. I his political development is also important was the fact that he became an active trade unionist, and in 1947 president of the union Actors. This activity has taught him to negotiate (and the tariff), and developed an instinct for when to remain steadfast, and when to compromise. The contract also included a, . that 16 weeks of the year Reagan was supposed to ride on the production departments of the company, . to speak at meetings of production and thus improve the work environment and encourage the identification of employees with the firm,
. His standard speech also contained a political appeal: he emphasized the importance of the individual, praised the ideals of American democracy, warned against the communist threat and the danger of severely escalating social state. In 1962, Reagan, originally considered himself a Democrat in the spirit of Roosevelt, has officially changed his party affiliation and became a Republican.
. There was an accident and then, . that experienced in the media Reagan in 1965-66 was a candidate for governor of California is: here, . in comparison with other states, . personalization of politics has moved far, . and the parties have played a relatively minor role,
. Although (or perhaps also: just because, . that) Reagan was known as a supporter of Barry Goldwater, . failed in 1964 arhikonservativnogo candidate for the Republican presidential, . he was a moderate, . but clearly conservative election campaign,
. He played for a return to good old-fashioned morality, the law and order in relation to a wave of students and universities, with the budget cuts the state of California and for the reverse transfer of responsibility to the communes and the citizens. Over the 8 years that Reagan was governor of California in his leadership style and the content of the policy revealed many of the features that later characterized his presidency. He was head of the executive power as chairman of the Supervisory Board, emphasized his conservative principles, was able to set priorities, but did not interfere in particular the administration and the legislative process. The governor repeatedly appealed directly to voters to give way to pressure both houses of the legislature. In cases of dispute he was able to act pragmatically, to compromise and find most. Despite his conservative rhetoric of the election for two terms as governor raised taxes, doubled the budget of the state and did not decrease the number of public servants.
. Again, the ability of Reagan as a specialist media and communicator leveled his way to the White House
. His adroit performance as a politician, a citizen found a great response in the Republican Party. Once in 1976 he had 111 votes (from 2257) on the Republican Congress lost the nomination to President Gerald Ford in 1980, he won 29 of 34 rounds and has been successful at the Party Congress.
. The great success as he explained by the fact that his rhetoric was based on the fundamental beliefs
. He was an actor with political principles, who could himself and his policies to identify with American values and traditions. By his personal qualities were calm self-confidence and optimism.
. His energetic style and a whole avalanche of human and political business decisions in the first months after the election reinforced the impression of public, . that the assumption of the new president came to a political twist, . broke even "conservative revolution",
. What primarily has to Reagan, it is to restore the lost faith in the institution president, as an institution, which is formed and carried out national policy. In an interview with "Fogen" the president explained that his method of leadership is surrounded by a very famous, maintaining the authority and non-interference, while his policy is correct. Really, . president was disconnected from the daily administrative course of events, . that initially functioned perfectly, . but in the second period led to the Iran-Contra scandal, . which clearly showed, . that the president is no longer the White House.,
. How brilliantly Reagan and his closest advisers have been prepared for the presidency, showed their personnel policies 1980/81
. Particular attention was paid to ensure that lower-level cabinet were envoys of President, which pursued the policy of the White House. These high-ranking officials, before they went to their ministry, truly trained trusted Reagan. 300 key appointments were based on the criteria of party affiliation, . this has not happened since 1960: over 80% of all newly appointed were Republicans, . only 3% of Democrats (among them such a conservative woman, . as United Nations ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick),
. And in this area the second term in office is a turning point, corruption has played an increasing role. Until the end of 1986 more than 100 members of the Reagan administration had been dismissed for that reason, or were under indictment.
In the first term of office of President was surrounded by two rings of advisers. The inner ring is the so-called troika, namely: James Baker as chief of staff, Edward Meese, chief of cabinet, and Michael Deaver, responsible for public relations. The second ring consisted of those who reported to the trio, but he did not have access to the president. In 1980, under the leadership of Meese was formed 7 committees of the Cabinet in order thus to bind members of the cabinet to the White House and avoid the mistakes of the Carter administration, when the cabinet members has publicly argued with each other. In April 1985, these 7 cabinet committees have been converted into 2, namely: Council on Domestic Policy and Economic Policy Council. Members of the Cabinet now, however, increasingly ignored the agreement made in these councils. Right at the beginning of the Reagan presidency was simplified budget process within the executive branch, centralized and politicized the Office of Management and Budget under the leadership of David Stockman. In general, administrative and institutional arrangements in the executive branch after the 1980-81 year were designed to centralize power in the White House and the software to tie political officials, heads of agencies. During the second term, Reagan turned this concept due to the excessive centralization, . that trio took place only one man Donald Regan, . which was less than competent, . his predecessors, . and incapable of collective leadership,
. Energetic and ambitious first lady Nancy Reagan also clearly more influenced the schedule of her husband, while she drew horoscopes and trusted the advice of astrologers. The authority of the president and his institute have suffered because of fraud Iran-Contra affair, the collapse of the exchange in October 1987 and rapidly rising budget deficit and foreign trade
. The White House legislative liaison office Reagan assembled a professional team, which is headed by Max Friedersdorf initially extremely effectively able to dispense with Parliament
. Managed to create in both houses independent of the party vote, the coalition that supported the economic and social policies of Reagan, but, above all, his budget. Since the beginning of Reagan and his staff skillfully linked to each other a direct impact on Congress and indirect pressure on Parliament by mobilizing public. The first 6 months of the Reagan years were marked by breathtaking advances in Congress. However, the coalition broke up soon due to a vote looming budget deficit and the beginning of a deep economic crisis. In the second term of his presidency, Reagan tried to keep the successes vote early years. In fact, the Congress, which since 1986 in both chambers again the majority were Democrats, all the more determined the content of policies. Reagan did not become the most successful legislator since Franklin Roosevelt and Lyndon Johnson, as it claimed legend, created by conservative journalists in the first year of the Reagan presidency. Moreover, he holds the second place among the seven presidents since 1953 for support in Congress.
More Reagan succeeded in locating their preferred candidates for judicial chairs the Federal Court. However, due to the constitutional-legal binding agreement of the Senate in appointing judges to the president was forced to lead a prudent practice, as demonstrated by the failed nomination of Robert Bork to the Supreme Court. Nonetheless, Reagan managed to replace them with new faces almost half of all the judges' seats in the district and appellate courts, as well as 3 of 9 seats in the Supreme Court. Most of these lawyers were conservatives, but it is not dogmatic, and even more so they were not ideologically hardened.
. Blow in the timpani Reagan announced the beginning of his presidency, and its initial successes in the economic and social policy in the Congress gave the impression of "conservative revolution"
. However, there should distinguish between two terms in office, as well as 2 presidency. Congress functioned as a liberal brakeman, so that Reagan's conservative policies could not be carried out in undiluted form.
. The core of the Reagan Revolution was proclaimed by the "Reaganomics, supply-oriented economic program, which is understood as a response to the economic problems of 70-ies
. According to her must have been significantly reduced, taxes, depreciation and suggested the possibility of deleted or relaxed, state regulations affecting the investment to bring about economic growth. Loss of income were to be prevented by short-term savings in social programs, and long-term - to finance the increased revenue from an expanding economy - all with the balanced budget. It was quite clear that there is any trust conflicts, moreover, that both were significantly increased defense spending.
. Reagan actually obtained the basic tenets of his economic program with the approval of the budget for the first half of 1981
. It was decided to cut taxes by 25%, y / o in the first and 10% in two years. Since 1985, taxes were indexed to the rate of inflation growth in prices, so that the depreciation of money should not have been more automatic increases in real tax. The tax quota actually declined for the majority of taxpayers. However, not least in the face of dramatically growing budget deficit, even if Reagan had done 13 tax increases that have abolished nearly a quarter of tax cuts. Add to this increase in social insurance contributions. In general, tax revenue as a percentage of gross national product declined during the Reagan presidency from 20 to 18,6%, which approximately corresponded to the share immediately after the Second World War.
. That, . that the "conservative revolution" did not take place, . most strikingly demonstrated by the fact, . that the amount of the federal budget in the Reagan steadily, . namely, . from 699, . $ 1 billion in 1980 to 859, . $ 3 billion in 1987 (respectively the value of the dollar in 1982),
. If you do not even take into account military spending, the budget in this period rose from 535.1 to 609.5 billion dollars. Thus the state budget deficit at times completely went out of control and in 1986 reached a record high of 221 billion dollars. In the public deficit by lowering taxes while increasing spending was to blame for the president, . which, . a conservative, . firmly adhered to the principle of a balanced state budget and would like to see him enshrined in the constitution.,
. Reductions in social programs has been long enough to keep the sprawling hole in the budget
. It is characteristic that most strongly reduced were those programs that were very poor and worse than the rest of organized groups, who also took the smallest part in the elections of the President or the Congress. Ration cards were canceled, and allowances for single mothers significantly reduced. Simultaneously, social programs that are useful for the middle layer remained almost unchanged, as well as pension insurance and related health insurance. When Reagan took place in American society polarized between rich and poor, the redistribution in favor of the rich, while at the same time increased the number of those who lived below the poverty line.
. Because of the protest of the Congress has failed the largest program of decentralization in the history of western democracy, . "new federalism" Reagan, . which was aimed as a significant reduction in federal payments, . and "reverse" translation of social problems, while state tax resources to individual states,
. Reduction of federal grants to states, however, was significant in the field of housing and urban development is almost dramatic. Growth rate of federal funds to states nominally slower even when the Carter administration, actually as a result of high inflation rate even declined. Carter's presidency, could therefore be regarded as a transition period to the "new federalism" Reagan. This also applies to the politics of deregulation: this cancellation taken in federal-state-wide restrictions on competition in air and road traffic has started under Carter and continued under Reagan abolition of regulations on environmental protection and labor protection.,
. The Reagan administration successfully wrestled with inflation and unemployment
. Index of inflation fell from 12.5% in 1980 to 4,5% in 1988. Quota of unemployed in the same period dropped from 7 to 5,4%. It was created 18 million new jobs, although many places were in the group with the lowest income. One should not forget that the economic recovery followed the severe 1981-82 recession years (with a quota of unemployed in 10%), and that rapidly, almost dramatically increased trade deficit.
. It is in the spirit of conservative politics was a huge increase in military spending, against the Soviet Union, whose entry into Afghanistan had been respectively instrumentalizirovano
. Also here, even under Carter, began an unprecedented program of weapons, which had to meet the Soviet threat, put in place the "evil empire" (as Reagan publicly called the Soviet Union). The President also granted full freedom of action the secret services, especially under the leadership of the CIA William Casey, in promoting resistance to the Soviet sphere of influence and support anti-communist guerrilla forces in the Third World. In this policy, first, it seemed, there was no place for disarmament and arms control. Only after, . the American military weight increased in relation to the Soviet Union - primarily because that had begun since 1983, placing intermediate-range missiles in Western Europe, . Reagan was able, during his second term as president to conduct negotiations with the Soviet Union from a position of strength,
. Followed 4 Summit, the conclusion of the INF Treaty, the successes in the strategic arms limitation and in the mutual external inspections. However, in 1982, Congress formed a broad coalition, which initially cut by half the desired rate of growth of the president in the military budget, and in 1984 completely eliminated its. Because of the high rates of weapons dramatically change public opinion and concern for the enormous budget deficits that led to the explosive growth of public debt, more and more determined all policy areas, including policy and defense. In other studies there is a right to know was whether the weapons program of the Reagan administration actually directed originally against the Soviet Union or, as suggested E.O. Champ, had to consciously serve as a lever to remove the American welfare state.
. Foreign policy Reagan was evasive anti -, . as it manifested itself not only in relation to the Soviet Union, . but in its original ideological-inveterate features also in relation to Central America, and especially to the Sandinistas in Nicaragua,
. The fact that under Reagan implemented the policy of detente, refers to the paradox of his presidency. The power struggle with the Soviet Union had been won, because it came in 1985 to the reign of Mikhail Gorbachev ended his expansionist world politics and, thanks to the reforms brought an end to the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact. Reagan fastened, however, this victory to our flag, but it was increasingly presented to Gorbachev, winning. Other achievements in foreign policy occurred, . mostly, . through symbolic actions, . as, . example, . invasion of the small island of Grenada in 1983, . which was to put an end to the influence of Cuba on the Caribbean Sea, . and aerial bombardment of Libya in 1986 as punishment terrorism charges country,
. At the same time, American foreign policy in the largely stayed flexible and pragmatic, as shown by the rapid withdrawal of American troops from Beirut after the assassination attempt using a bomb, which killed 200 American soldiers. Just in the area of foreign policy of the various competing political institutions, such as the Council of National Security, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Defense, CIA and White House staff. It is this situation has made possible swindle of the Iran-Contra affair, which became known in 1986 thanks to foreign press reports. Despite the objections of the Minister for Foreign Affairs George Shultz and Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, the U.S. secretly supplied arms and munitions to Iran, which since 1980 waged war against Iraq. The aim was, therefore, release of American citizens who were held hostage by Iran, which, however, succeeded in a single case. Profits from arms deals, . apparently at the initiative of Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, . who was a member of the National Security Council at the White House, . used by the CIA to support the Nicaraguan contras, . leading a guerrilla war against the Sandinista Government,
. Congress was investigating these illegal and unconstitutional actions in 1986 and 1987, but could not prove direct involvement in the President. Given the traumatic experience of Watergate stories. Congress feared the process for dismissal is still a popular president who restored America's faith in himself. Democratic MP Schroeder said in this connection the "teflon presidency," Reagan, from which the slide all the bad news.
. Characteristic of political pragmatism Reagan was that he deliberately kept away from social and moral issues, such as the admission of the morning prayer in public schools or ban abortion
. Despite the insistence of his Christian conservative supporters, he was limited to rhetoric, but did not reveal any specific initiative. Emotions are inherent in these conflict issues could easily lead to polarization and jeopardize the economic and social policies in Congress. In particular, these policies and social and moral issues that have characterized some conservative positions, were not for Reagan's priority.
. Reagan's presidency was noted paradoxes: how the conservative president has created more in American history, the mountain of debt
. Despite the fundamental shift "Reaganomics" against labeled as "socialist" Keynesianism, . using weapons created a massive investment program, . which by its economic impact was limited to "military Keynesianism",
. If at the beginning of his presidency, Reagan saw the Soviet Union more "evil empire", then in 1987-88 with the understanding that the country stood at the forefront. Although Reagan help convince the public that the federal government is unable to solve actual problems, however, he revived the institution of the President and showed that the political system responds to the president.
. Sami contradictions and trust conflicts inherent in the Reagan conservatism, contributed to its downfall
. That, . that the conservative claim, . as it is rhetorically brilliantly presented Reagan, . not fulfilled, . manifested in many aspects: social state "of the new rates still exist, . Reagan's concept of "new federalism", . essentially, . failed,
. Socio-moral issues on the top of the agenda, "New Right" were not accepted by Reagan. In matters of civil rights, women's liberation and birth control the American public remains liberal.
The number of federal officials from 1980 to 1987 increased by 3%. If in the election campaign in 1980 Reagan promised to eliminate the Department of Energy and Education, it promises not only been fulfilled, but also created another Department of Veterans Affairs. Instead of the planned 11 ministries at the end of Reagan's presidency there were 14 ministries, the federal government has not decreased, but increased. Also in the party system and in public opinion in the 80 years of conservative fracture were observed: the Democratic Party dominated the House of Representatives and in most states.