Bacon, Roger( English philosopher, scientist and an astrologer, a Franciscan monk.)
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Biography Bacon, Roger
(ca. 1214, Ilchester, Somerset, England - 11.06.1294, Oxford)
He studied at Oxford University, where he later taught. In 1257, Mr.. was suspended from teaching in 1277, Mr.. his defense of astrology was condemned by General of the Franciscan order. In 1278, Mr.. B. was imprisoned in a monastery prison.
Criticizing the gullible commitment to the authorities, and unchecked abstract theoretical constructs, B. opposed the principle of specific empirical knowledge (mystical - in the faith, . empirical - in the field of natural science); here - it calls for the development of optics, . mechanics (practical geometry), . interest in the tools of scientific knowledge, . whether linguistic preconditions for an adequate reading of the Bible and Aristotle, or instruments for astronomical observation of the sky,
. Mathematician B. assessed as a "door key" to the other sciences. B. has contributed to the development of philosophy of astrology, systematized the concept of the elements put forward the idea of qualitatively different elements, which create a combination of different things. B. defined the place of astrology in the system of human knowledge: it is among the universal science, whose purpose - mastering the mysteries of nature. "He says, . that the lights in their movement and relative position are the real sources of human destiny, . that the whole character and store a person's life is determined by their position in the sky at the time of his birth, . and that nothing is easier, . how to know and the past and future with the help of astrological tables, . that, . incidentally, . by the same B,
. and were made ". But at the same B. defended the idea that the human will is free, and the light is determined by only trends fate.
B. sometimes attributed to the most popular medieval treatise The Mirror of Astronomy "(" Speculum astronomiae ") - without sufficient justification. Most likely, this treatise written by Albert the Great. However, other works of B. obvious that he not only recognized the astrology, but also actively interested in its. Magic and astrology are closely contacted B. with mathematics and experimental science. Moreover, he thought it possible even for religions to find the astrological explanation. Thus, Christianity he believed under the administration of Mercury, and Islam - under the patronage of Venus. This concept has subsequently led to intense criticism from theologians and church leaders. Recognizing yuditsiarnuyu astrology, B. thus distinguish the true and prohibited astrology (the latter is intertwined with witchcraft).
With a doctorate in theology and an honorary title of "doctor mirabilis" ( "wonderful doctor"), B. was also an outstanding engineer, an alchemist, a physicist and has made several discoveries and inventions, which seemed to contemporaries magic. He is credited with the invention of gunpowder and the ability to make fire-glass. According to legend, B. also produced a bronze head, which, having hidden inside an acoustic apparatus, it seemed, uttered the prediction, when in fact it were the words uttered by him in another room.
In his treatise "The amazing power of art and nature", he predicts the use of steam as a driving force, describes the hydraulic press, diving bell and kaleidoscope. B. also foresaw the invention of the phone, self-propelled carts, a telescope, aircraft heavier than air.
1. Bacon, Roger. / / Philosophical Encyclopedic Dictionary.
2. Astrological Dictionary.
3. Complete Orthodox Theological Collegiate Dictionary.
4. Theosophical dictionary.
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