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Panin, Nikita Ivanovich

( famous diplomat)

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Biography Panin, Nikita Ivanovich
born September 18, 1718 in Danzig, . spent his childhood in Pernove, . where his father was the commandant, in 1740 from Vakhmistrov Horse Guards made a cornet, according to some, . He was at the court of Elizabeth dangerous rival Razumovsky and Shuvalov,
. In 1747 he was appointed ambassador to Denmark, . but a few months later moved to Stockholm, . where he spent 12 years here he had to fight against the strengthening of royal power (if the weakness of which the Russian government hoped to have more influence), . and, . hence, . against the representatives of France,
. During his stay in Sweden, P., according to contemporaries, imbued with sympathy for the constitutional order. P. Bestuzhev creature was, but because his position with the fall of the latter and with the upheaval that occurred in half of the 50-ies in Russian politics (Russia's rapprochement with France, the Anglo-Prussian convention), it became very difficult. With a powerful enemy in the person of Count Vorontsov, replacing Bestuzhev, P. repeatedly asked to resign, when suddenly he was appointed (June 29, 1760), instead Behteeva, educator Paul Petrovich. P. made friends with Catherine, especially on the death of Elizabeth. Peter III, although it granted him the rank of TPA and the Order of St. Andrew, however, did not trust him and always kept with him one of his aides-de-camp. P. understood the necessity of revolution, but, according to most of Catherine, wanted it in favor of Paul Petrovich. When, after the coup, in which the PA, together with Dashkova, very close to him, took an active part, the power remained with Catherine P. made an attempt to limit the arbitrariness of the authorities by presenting the proposal to establish the Empress of the Imperial Council and the reform of the Senate. In the introduction to the project P. gives sharp criticism of the ruling in the management of arbitrariness (in the production of affairs has always acted more power people, . than the power of public places "), . and proposes the establishment of the Council of 6-8 members - the ministers, all papers, . which require a signature Emperor, . must pass through this board and be kontrasignirovany any of Ministers,
. - The Senate project is entitled "to have a free report on the highest commandment, if they ... be hemmed laws or welfare of the people ". The project caused by all persons from whom Catherine has demanded reviews, fears that it is hidden the desire to limit the autocratic power - and the empress, first wavered, rejected it. In a letter to Vyazemsky it, meaning no doubt P. and suspecting him of being sympathetic to constitutional rule, wrote: "some thought to the fact that he had been a long time in one way or the other earth, everywhere on the policy of one or another of his beloved land all must establish". Despite this setback, P. lost his position due to exceptional circumstances of the entry of Catherine to the throne and his influence on Paul. All its value P. must ensure that he was an heir at the tutor, Catherine, in her own words, was afraid to delete it. This role P. explains his position in all subsequent time among the contending parties, the court (he always had to fight against Orlov) and its relationship to the Empress, which had never been sincere and good. P. until very recently accused, . incidentally, . in, . that he deliberately corrupted the St. Paul and of his personal goals contributed to the discord between the Empress and her son, . but from the notes Poroshina seen, . that he was very serious about his task as an educator,
. Called n. connected to all the issues of foreign policy of the Russian government for the time from 1762 to 1783 years. As the first unofficial adviser to the empress, he was in 1763, to dismiss a vacation Vorontsov, made a senior member of a foreign board. Soon after this, the removal Bestuzhev, he was asked to administer any affairs panel, although the chancellor, he was never. Resolution of questions about the relationship of Russia to the Nordic countries has P. create a system of so-called "Northern Union" or the "Northern Accord", navlekshey him the charge of doctrinaire. The system of P. like, . to exalt the prestige and importance of Russia, . create around her alliance of all northern states to counter the aspirations of the Hapsburg and Bourbon dynasties: to this end he tried - generally unsuccessfully - to join the state, . whose interests were completely opposed, . as, . example, . With Britain, Prussia and Saxony,
. Frederick II, who needed only a union with Russia, prevented the implementation of the project paninskogo. In implementing this system P. turned its attention to the relationship to Sweden, . with its policy in this direction was very unhappy: his attempt to subjugate Sweden exclusively Russian influence and to eliminate the French cost Russia the huge money and do not bring the desired result,
. As if seeking a pretext for armed intervention, P. slightest change in the Swedish constitution declares a pretext to break, but when, . in 1772, . Gustav III restored the monarchy, . Russia, . occupied by the Turkish war, . had to live with that, . and again there were no war with Sweden, . especially through the intervention of Frederick II,
. Simultaneously with the issue of "Northern Accord" should have been resolved issues about the relationship of Poland and Prussia. Prussia P. an alliance, which gave Russia the opportunity to expand its influence in Poland. Up to 1772 P. was not, it seems so blind supporter of Prussia, which it exhibited. Poland, he sought to include, in its entirety, in the sphere of influence of Russia and was not inclined to share this influence, and even more so - the very territory of Poland. His energy to a certain extent, Russian policy was bound to the enthronement Stanislaus Poniatowski, no less vigorously and fully in accord with Catherine P. acted in the dissident issue, seeing the empowerment of dissidents increased Russian influence, all their claims in this direction, he could not, however, to. In the matter of the destruction of liberum veto, P. some time at variance with both Catherine and with Frederick, believing that strengthening of Poland can only be beneficial for Russia, which will be in it a useful ally. But P. not included any of those complications which threatened to intervene in the internal affairs of Poland, and was totally unprepared for the outbreak of the 1768 war with Turkey. This war was very detrimental to his position, all the failures blamed him, he was guilty and rupture with Turkey, and that Russia remained in this fight without allies. At the same time, this war has made use of Frederick II, to lead to the implementation of the long hanging in the air, the project division of Poland between Austria, Russia and Prussia. Agreement on this issue led to the end of the war with Turkey, since it eliminates the interference of Austria, Turkey to fight a long time to. On the acquisition of part of Poland could not be regarded as a victory, as Austria and Prussia were the best part of the gift. P. criticized for increasing Prussia, Count Orlov said that the men of the separate agreement, deserve the death penalty. Since then the situation P. becomes particularly difficult, he remained a supporter of the alliance with Prussia and the Empress more inclined to Austria, yet all the more intensified the rift between her and Paul's closest friend and adviser who was a P. In 1771 - 72 years are especially powerful struggle between the parties P. and Orlov. When it was decided to join Paul in marriage, P. able to provide for an impact on his future wife. Catherine was very unhappy with this intervention P. in its domestic affairs and took the marriage of Paul, to remove him from office educator. It is richly endowed AP, but with joy writing (October 1773) Mrs. Belke, that "her house cleaned". The relationship between Catherine and two brothers, Panin (cm. Petro P. ) Were very strained, with extreme displeasure, it has appointed Peter P. chief against Pugachev. By this time, is recorded Decembrist MI. Fonvizin story compiled, if DI. Fonvizin, who was the secretary P., under the leadership of the AP, the draft constitution and the plot against Catherine (extant a curious introduction to the project). After the death of first wife of Paul and after his marriage to Maria Feodorovna P. managed to retain its influence on the young yard, so that even the parents of the last act in accordance with its instructions; this influence P. used to maintain its former position and to defend the alliance with Prussia, which expires in 1777. Brought P., Paul was a passionate admirer of Frederick II. When, after World teshenskogo Catherine finally leaned to the side of Austria, P. had to come to grips with the influence of Joseph II, who eventually managed to get close to the grand-ducal couple, offering to give her sister Maria Feodorovna for his nephew, the heir to the Austrian throne. Catherine was very unhappy with the machinations of P. against the marriage of his disgrace, there were rumors in early 1781. To some, little clarifying the relationship is the opal P. and its activities on the declaration of "armed neutrality" (VII, 186) and its relation to Potemkin, who, along with the British Ambassador Harris, acted against him. The question of who owns the initiative Declaration in 1780, t. e. P. or Catherine, remains open. In May 1781 P. took leave and retired to his estate granted by Dugin, but in September the same year he returned to St. Petersburg and tried to detain foreign trip of Paul, which was supposed to entail even greater convergence of the "young court" with Joseph II. During this trip abroad P. maintained a correspondence with Paul. At the same time to play the famous Bibikov case; to censor letters Bibikova to Kurakin (close relatives and other AP), . accompanying Paul Petrovich, . Catherine read the complaints about the suffering of the fatherland and the "sad situation all dobromyslyaschih",
. Ekaterina attached great importance to this case and looking for Bibikov and Kurakin more important persons. Upon their return the young couple from abroad, the relationship of Paul to the P. somewhat changed for the worse. March 31, 1783 P. died. Perpetuate their gratitude P. Paul could only after the death of Catherine, erected to him in 1797, a monument in the Church of St.. Magdalene in Pavlovsk. Catherine, comparing in a letter to Grimm P. Orlov and puts the latter is much higher and said that P. There were many major deficiencies, but he knew how to conceal them. P. was one of the most educated Russian people of their time, so that, for reviews of foreign ambassadors, "was more like a German"; Catherine called him an encyclopedia. He was interested in a wide variety of issues from the field of public knowledge and was familiar with many of the classic works of philosophical literature. At a humane way of thinking and strict sense of the rule of law points in the eloquent words of one of the closest people to him, . famous Fonvizin; about some free thought in matters of faith demonstrated by the, . that at the invitation of the scribes to Pavel Petrovich Platonov, . Panin most interested in, . Does he not superstitious, . in a letter to Vorontsov, . who became ill from eating lean, . said, . that the law requires the destruction of health, . and the ruin of the passions, . "one hedgehog mushrooms and turnips can hardly inflict",
. Panin belonged to the Masons. Honesty and kindness P. and in his time did not have two different opinions, even his enemies respected him as a person, proud and honest. Because he had received when joining Paul in the 9000 marriage of souls, he gave away half of his secretaries, Fonvizin Ubri and Bakunin. P. By nature a man of pleasure, he liked to live well, according to Bezborodko, he was the best hut in the town, he was not married, but the enthusiasm of women often faulted by (his bride was dead from smallpox Countess Sheremeteva). With all-round activity that P. had to exercise, he was very lazy and slow: First Lady said that he would die someday of what will hasten. Diplomatic and private correspondence P. published in the Collection of the Imperial Russian Historical Society ". Draft of the Imperial Council is printed in the same t. VII. About Fonvizinskom project, please. "Russian Antiquity" (1884, No. 12), "Archives of Prince Vorontsov", "Russian Archives". Wed. Lebedev "Count Panin (St. Petersburg, 1864); Kobeko" Tsarevich Pavel Petrovich "(St. Petersburg, 1883) and review Ikonnikova these compositions in the 28-m award-winning Uvarov; Shumigorsky" Biography of Maria Feodorovna (t. I); Chechulin "Project of the Imperial Council" ( "Journal of the Ministry of National Education", . 1894, . ? 3), his "foreign policy of Russia at the beginning of the reign of Catherine II" (Saint-Petersburg, . 1896); Arnheim "Beitrage zur Geschichte der Nordischen Frage" ( "Deutshe Zeitschrift fur Geschichtswissenschaft", . t,
. II, III, IV, V and VII, 1889 - 1892). Then the general composition (Solovyov "History of Russia; Bilbasov" History of Catherine II ") and all the literature on the history of Russian-Polish and Russian-Prussian relations. A. Braude.

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