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Patkul Johann Reinhold

( Lifliandskii nobleman)

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Biography Patkul Johann Reinhold
(1660 - 1707)
. Born in Stockholm in prison, . where his mother had accompanied her husband, . arrested for crime against the state, was a Swedish military service, in 1689 was a member of the deputation of Livonia, . who asked Karl XI on the restoration of the rights and privileges of the nobility Livonian,
. P. acted with such sincerity and perseverance that brought the hatred of King Charles XI. In a sharp condemnation of the government, was sentenced in 1694, to the amputation of his right hand and the confiscation of property, but managed to escape. Once the petition to Charles XII of annulment were unavailing, P. enrolled in 1698 for service to the Elector of Saxony, and being sent to Moscow, contributed to the conclusion of an alliance between Saxony, Poland and Russia against Sweden. Not get along with the approximate Elector, P. in 1702 entered the service of Peter I. All absorbed the idea of revenge to the Swedish king, the benefits of Russia, he does not think in many ways was at odds with the intentions of Peter. King, for example, to recruit foreigners to ensure that they have learned from Russian military or diplomatic skills; P. found that Russian is not prepared for anything, and therefore should be replaced by foreigners. Hence a number of complaints P. on the Russian officers and soldiers and their complaints to the P. Much harm P. and his character - tough, sharp, high opinion of themselves and low on other. In 1704, P. was sent to Warsaw as the Russian Minister, and after that was appointed head of the Russian detachment, sent to the aid of Augustus. With the assistance of the detachment in August regained Warsaw, which was occupied by the Swedes, then the AP, barren standing for a whole month near Poznan, also occupied by the Swedes, led troops into winter quarters in Saxony. In his dispatches out P. constantly complains about the lack of money, the high cost of all supplies, threatening to leave the royal service, rebukes Peter in that he did not come to Poland. At the same time, P. with his usual sharpness has repeatedly expressed its views on the inability of the king and his ministers in August, and are seizing the earliest opportunity, to destroy P. Peter ordered P. or withdraw from Saxony to Russia through Poland, or, failing that, transfer them temporarily to the service of the Austrian Emperor, and then return through Hungary. P. decided on the latter; Saxon Privy Council, ruled the state, demanded that the P. left the army in Saxony. When P. did not agree, the ministers decided to arrest him (December 20, 1705), referring to the fact that P. acts arbitrarily, without the knowledge of the king. Peter repeatedly protested against this violation of international law, but his attention was distracted by the danger that threatened while Russia from Sweden. By altranshtedtskomu peace between Sweden and Saxony (1706) P. It was decided to give Charles XII. Augustus II secretly ordered the commandant of the fortress Kenigshteyn give P. opportunity to escape, but because of greed of the commandant, who really wanted to get with P. redemption, the case dragged on until then, until the fortress became a Swedish detachment, and April 7, 1707 P. was kept chained. October 10, he was, as a traitor, the wheel alive, and then quartered. The unhappy fate of P. inspired many poets, including Gutzkow. He brought to the scene and Lazhechnikov in the novel "The Last Novik. See. "J.-R. v. Patkuls, ehemaligen zarischen Generalleutnants, Beriche an das zarische Kabinett zu Moskau etc. "(Berlin, 1792 - 97); biographies AP: Wernich (Berin., 1849) and Sjogren (in Swedish, Stockholm, 1882); Buchholtz" Beitrage zur Lebensgeschichte J. R. Patkuls "(Leipzig, 1893); Jarochowski" P's Ausgang "(in" Neues Archiv fur sachs. Geschichte ", t. 3, Dresden, 1882 - 83); von Bruningk "Patkuliana aus dem livland. Hofgerichtsarchiv "(in" Mitteilungen aus der livland. Geschichte ", t. 14, Riga, 1686); Hermann "Joh.-Reinh. Patkul "(in the" Neue Jahrb. der Geschichte und Politik ", 1848).

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