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Alex Pisemsky Feofilaktovich

( Famous writer.)

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Biography Alex Pisemsky Feofilaktovich
photo Alex Pisemsky Feofilaktovich
Born March 10, 1820, Mr.. Manor House Ramen Chuhlomskogo County Kostroma. His family - an ancient, noble, but the next Pisemskiy ancestors belonged to a backwoods branch; grandfather was illiterate, he walked in sandals and he plowed the land. The father of the writer determined soldier in the army, marching to conquer the Crimea, the Caucasus was promoted to the rank of Major and returned home, married Evdokia Alexeevna Sipovo. He, . According son, . "in the full sense of a military campaigner of the time, . Executive strict debt, . temperate in his habits to purism, . man incorruptible honesty in terms of money and yet stern strict with his subordinates; serfs his trembling, . only fools and lazy, . and smart and hull, he even spoiled sometimes ",
. Mother Pisemskiy was committed by other properties: nervous, . dreamy, . subtly intelligent and, . when there is a paucity of education, . speaks very fond of sociability; it was "a lot of spiritual beauty, . which over the years, more and more in favor ",
. Cousins, it was: a well-known Freemason Yu.N.. Bartenev (Colonel Marein in "Mason") and VN. Bartenev, educated naval officer, had an important influence on Pisemskiy and shown in the "men of the forties" in the face nice Esper Ivanovich. Childhood Pisemskiy passed in Vetluga, where his father was the mayor. Child, who had inherited from her mother's nervousness grew freely and independently. "Learn me especially not nudili, . Yes, and I myself am not very fond of learning, but read, . especially novels, . I loved to distraction: before the age of fourteen I had read - in translation, . course, . - Most of the novels of Walter Scott, . "Don Quixote", . "Foblaza", . "Zhilbaza", . "Lame demon", . "Serapion Brothers" Hoffman, . Persian novel "Hadji Baba"; children's books as I have always hated and, . remember now how, . always found them very stupid ",
. On education he cared little: "I had mentors were very bad, and all the Russian". Language - except in Latin - it is not taught, languages him not to give, and he often subsequently suffered from this "despicable ignorance of languages, explaining their inability to study them a margin of abilities to the philosophical sciences, the abstract. At fourteen he entered high school in Kostroma, where he began to write and a passion for the theater, and in 1840, Mr.. moved to Moscow University, "Being a great phrase-mongers, thank God that chose Mathematics Department, which immediately sobered me, and became accustomed to speak only what he clearly understand. But it seems that only ended with the beneficent influence of the University ". With this pessimistic observation agree not all biographers Pisemskiy. No matter how scanty were the actual scientific information, . acquired by the Faculty, . Education still somewhat expanded his spiritual horizons, more importantly might be familiar with Shakespeare, . Schiller (poet of humanity, . civilization and all the youthful impulses "), . Goethe, . Corneille, . Racine, . Rousseau, . Voltaire, . Hugo and George Sand, . especially with the latter,
. Pisemsky fascinated, however, only her sense of freedom and the preaching of the emancipation of women, rather than social ideals enshrined in its products. Although, . According Pisemskiy, . he had during the sojourn at the university "knowingly appreciate Russian literature", . but an ideological movement of 40-ies very little impact on the development and the main figure Pisemskiy era - Belinsky, . really had an impact on his aesthetic theory, . but not on social attitudes,
. Slavophilism also remained alien to him. His spiritual interests were associated almost exclusively with the theater. In 1844, Mr.. he "once again courted fame actor": experts put him in the role Podkolyosin even higher Schepkina. Praise excellent reader has always been a Pisemsky, but the "reputation as a great actor that has been drawn up in Moscow, where he was very proud of, could not stand the final test in St Petersburg (Annenkov). In 1844, Mr.. Pisemsky graduated from the University of course, his father at this time was no longer alive, her mother was stricken with paralysis; livelihood were very limited. In 1846, after serving two years in the House of State Property in Kostroma, and Moscow, Pisemsky resigned and married Catherine Pavlovna Svinyin, daughter of the founder of the Fatherland Notes. The choice was extremely successful: family life has made a lot of light in the fate Pisemskiy. In 1848, Mr.. He again entered the service, . official for special assignments, . to the Governor of Kostroma, . then he was assessor of the provincial government (1849 - 1853), . official head office principalities in St. Petersburg (1854 - 1859), . Adviser to the Moscow provincial government (1866 - 1872),
. Performance, Pisemskiy dipping deep into the provincial trivialities of everyday life, has had a significant impact on the material and the method of his work. "Sobriety", made by the Pisemsky from the University, gained strength far from the disturbances of stress-cultural life. On the literary career he made the first time with a little story of "Nina" (in "Son of the Fatherland", July, 1848), but the first work of his should be considered "Boyarschinu" written in 1847, Mr.. and, by the will of censorship, which appeared in print only in 1857. This novel is imbued with all the characteristics of talent Pisemskiy: emergency convexity, . even the coarseness of the image, . vitality and brightness of colors, . wealth of comic motifs, . predominance of negative images, . pessimistic attitude towards sustainability "elevated" feelings and, . Finally, . excellent, . strong and typical language,
. In 1850, entering into relations with the young editors Moskvityanin, Pisemsky sent a story of "mattress", which was a resounding success and, together with the "marriage for love", nominated him to the forefront of the then writers. In 1850 - 1854 he. appeared his "Comedy", "hypochondriac", "rich fiance," "Piterschik", "Batmanov", "Section", "Man-Thing," "braggart" - a series of works, still have not lost their inimitable vitality, truthfulness, and coloring. Various aspects of Russian reality, has not yet been raised, were here for the first time the subject of artistic representation. Recall, for example, that the first sketch Rudinsky type given in Shamilova for four years before the appearance of "Rudin"; ordinariness Shamilova, compared with the brilliance Rudin, well-shaded lower tone works Pisemskiy. Relocated in 1853, Mr.. in St. Petersburg, Pisemsky made a significant impression is its originality and, so to speak, primitive. Caution, . with which he shied away from theoretical and philosophical conversations, . "showed, . that abstract ideas were not in it, neither student, . no fan; conventional ideas and, . seemed, . indisputable, . found in it the enemy, . but completely unprepared for their assimilation,
. Materially Pisemsky in St. Petersburg was restrained; his life "approach to the life of literary proletarian". Service he did not succeed, "he wrote little. In 1854, Mr.. published in the "Contemporary" - "braggart" and in "Notes of the Fatherland" - "Veteran and rookie", in 1855, Mr.. - A critical article about Gogol, . best story Pisemskiy of folk life: "carpenter's gang" and the novel "I'm sorry if it", both recent works have had great success, . Chernyshevsky a review of the literature in 1855 described the story Pisemskiy best work all year,
. When in 1856. Naval Ministry organized a series of ethnographic trips to the outskirts of Russia, Pisemsky assumed Astrakhan and the Caspian coast and the result was a series of travel articles in the Sea Collection "and" Library for Reading ". All 1857. Pisemsky worked great novel, and, except for travel essays, published only a short story: "Old lady". In 1858, Mr.. Pisemsky took over the editor "Library for Reading", his "Boyarschina" was finally born, and in "Notes of the Fatherland" was published his chef d'oeuvre - the novel "A Thousand Souls". Not adding almost no new features to the image of the writer, . had already expressed in his early works, . novel, . how best to think deeply and thoroughly treat it work, . characteristic of all other for artistic physiognomy of the author, . and especially, . for his all-consuming glubokozhiznennogo realism, . not knowing any sentimental compromises ",
. In the broad picture of the social order shaken the province inserted amazing finish to the psychological portraits of individuals. All the public attention and criticism has been absorbed by the hero, especially the history of its performance. In the figure Kalinovich all - in direct disagreement with the essence of the novel and the author's intentions, . denied artistic didacticism, . - Saw a reflection of the fashionable ideas of the late 50-ies: the idea of "noble official", . shown here, . however, . in a rather dubious light,
. Dob, finding that "the whole social aspect of the novel force secured to the idea of pre-composed", refused to write about it. Nastya, admittedly - the most successful positive image Pisemskiy. Perhaps a favorable external circumstances, marking this period in his life Pisemskiy giving it almost does not repeat itself in his work and the ability to be touching, and soft, and clean the image of risky moments. That softness is close to the "Thousand Souls" small but strong and glubokotrogatelnaya novel "An old man's sin" (1860). Earlier this story - along with the novel - was published in the "Library for Reading" famous drama Pisemskiy: A Bitter Fate. The basis of the play is drawn from life: the author participated in the analysis of such cases in Kostroma. The end of the play - the turnout Ananias, with a confession - as a legitimate and typical for the Russian domestic tragedy in the author's intention was different, and in its present form was created under the inspiration of the artist Martynova. Together with the first stories Pisemskiy of people's life, "Bitter Fate" is considered the most powerful expression of his realism. In the image of Great guy, in the transfer of popular speech Pisemsky anyone either before or after has not been surpassed; after the return to peyzanam Grigorovich became unthinkable. Descending into the depths of people's lives, Pisemsky leave their usual skepticism and created a lively type of good people, so rare and not always successful in his works from the life of cultural classes. The general spirit of morality, developed in a peasant world "cruel fate", is consistently higher depressing atmosphere "Boyarschiny" or "rich husband". Placed in 1863. Alexandrina on the stage drama Pisemskiy had extraordinary success and to "Power of Darkness", was unique peasant drama, attracting the attention of a vast audience. The end of the fifties and early sixties were the apogee of fame Pisemskiy. By the fame of a talented writer joined a remarkable reputation as a reader, a brilliant and respected critic, Pisarev, devoted to him laudatory sketches, he was the editor of a large log. The fundamental contradiction between the spirit of this era and world Pisemskiy was, however, lead to a sad end. Pisemsky not belong to any particular group, and not trying to reconcile their views in any eclectic building, was inclined to see the weak side of. Stranger to a new literary trend, Pisemsky even think to fight it easy and fashionable weapons - irony, satire, pamphlet. This weapon has successfully mastered his opponents strengths other parties of its activities and, above all - his wide popularity, but a completely different situation was Pisemskiy. When the magazine Pisemskiy, . had very poor success, . started, . the end of 1861, . a number of satirical articles, signed "WAS feuilleton nag Nikita Bezrylov", . is innocent and complacent sneers first feuilleton of literary evenings and Sunday schools were quite, . to print, . the "spark" at the head, . Pisemskiy broke out against the storm of indignation,
. Further controversy has led to the editors of Iskra Pisemskiy summoned to a duel, and the authoritative edition of "Contemporary declared itself solidarity with furious article" Iskra "on Bezrylove. Deeply affected by all this, Pisemsky broke ties with St. Petersburg and in early 1862. moved to Moscow. Here in the pages of the Russian Messenger "appeared in 1863. his new novel, conceived abroad (where Pisemsky, during the London exhibition, met with Russian emigres), launched in St. Petersburg before the rupture with the progressives and finished in Moscow under the fresh impression of this rupture. Conventional wisdom about the "troubled sea" as a work of grossly tendentious, polemical, even libelous, requires some reservations. The modern novel, the critic saw in it "abuse of the young generation" (Zaitsev in "Russian Word", . 1863, . ? 10), . "personal bile, . desire to take revenge on the author's outraged opponents, . not recognizing his talent "(Antonovich in The Contemporary, . 1864, . ? 4), but all applicable, . to a certain extent, . only the last part of the novel for the recognition of the author, . "If this did not affect the whole of Russia, . but then carefully collected all her lies ",
. Opponents Pisemskiy not deny it, . however, . talent: Pisarev after the incident with the "spark" set Pisemskiy above Turgenev and found, . that the older generation is depicted in "Troubled Sea" in a much more unattractive as, . than representatives of the new,
. Evpraksiya - positive face of the novel, written off with the author's wife - a contrast between the young idealists of the hero, who, in all its idealistic and aesthetic restless, is a gross materialist. In general, the novel was written poorly, but not devoid of interesting images (eg, Jonah-cynic). From Moscow Pisemsky sent to the Fatherland Notes' new work, printed in 1864. This "Russian liars" - "purely Rubens collection of live and bright types of Russian provincial plaguing". Pisemsky has been in charge fictional department of the Russian Messenger, but in 1866. again entered the public service. Since moving to Moscow the same turn in the direction of creativity and the apparent weakening of the artistic forces Pisemskiy. Since that time, they possessed "pamfleticheskoe to the plot, penetrating not only fighting an image of modernity, but also pictures of the outdated way of life. The latter include drama, appeared in 1866 - 1868 years in the magazine "World Work": "Lieutenant Gladkov", "Samoupravtsy" and "White Falcons". In 1869, Mr.. appeared in Slavophil "Dawn" novel Pisemskiy: "People of the forties". The artistic value of the novel modestly bright and interesting are the only person in it minor, even in technical terms, in connection and the location of parts, it is significantly below the previous works of the author. Social ideas of the forties and representatives of the two opposite directions, . Westerners and Slavophilism, . not found in the author of compassion, social preaching of George Sand and Belinsky think his favorite - the aesthetics, . mystic and idealist Nevedomovu - "writing with someone else's voice", . and at the Slavophiles, . mouth sensible Zimin goes reproach of ignorance of the people - reproach, . which Pisemsky repeated and subsequently, . seeing Slavophilism one "religio-linguistic santimentalnichane",
. Very important elements of the autobiographical novel on which Pisemsky repeatedly pointed out, as the addition to his biography. Here his father, in the person of Colonel Vikhrov, and his education, high school and passion for theater, university, student life, interest in the well-known side of Georges-sandizma "and many others, plays a role in the life of the author. Critics were, in general, disapprove of the novel, not had the success in the public. Appeared about the same time the German translation of A Thousand Souls "in Germany has caused a number of sympathetic critical reviews (Julian Schmidt, Frenzel, etc.). Two years later ( "Conversation", 1871), a new novel Pisemskiy: "No Entry", where the author was trying to "submit nihilism, implemented in the social environment". In its literary value of this novel is lower than the previous. Then Pisemsky turned to new subject matter exposures: a series of drum pamphlets draws in crude and little real colors, financial traders. "Horseshoe" (comedy, . in "The Citizen", . 1873) - pamphlet is so sharp, . that censors cut out of his magazine - devoted to senior management, "Baal", . "Enlightened times" ( "Russian Messenger, . 1873 and 1875) and "Financial Genius" expose the concessionaires, . traders, . capitalists in all sorts of crimes,
. Plays staged, and these were successful, but "financial genius" seemed to the editors of "Russian Messenger" is so weak in literary terms, that it had to be printed in a small "Gazeta Gattsuka". In a similarly small bodies appeared and the two recent novel Pisemskiy: "Philistines" ( "Bee", 1877) and "The Masons" (Ogonyok, 1880). The first is devoted to uncover all of the same vulgar and arrogant "Baal", . contrasts the old-nobility cult of conditional generosity, . beauty and exquisite taste; by unfamiliar with the true "philistinism", . because the negative images of the novel entirely devoid of the detailed, . intimate lines, . which alone can provide a poetic abstraction of vitality,
. In "Mason" by flashed rich historical information (in this respect him very much helped Vl.S. Solovyov), but entertaining little novel: interesting figures in it, besides the aforementioned Colonel Mareina, almost no. Success, he had no. "I'm tired to write, . and even more to live, . - Turgenev wrote Pisemsky spring 1878, . - The more so that even though, . sure, . age - no joy for all, . but I'm not, it is particularly good and filled with such gloomy suffering, . I would not wish what I and my worst enemy ",
. This is a painful mood Pisemsky owned since the early seventies, when suddenly committed suicide in his beloved son, a young mathematician, showing promise. Struggled in vain against a loving family with seizures increasing hypochondria, joined by more physical ailments. Bright spots in recent years have been the celebration of life Pisemskiy January 19, 1875, Mr.. (and a half years later than it should), the Society of Lovers of Russia's literature, twenty-five years anniversary of his literary activity and Pushkin Days 1880. Although the question of Pushkin as a historical novelist, delivered at Pisemsky Festival, has gone unremarked, the general mood of his elation honoring the memory of the beloved poet, it was not bad. New misfortune - a hopeless illness of another son, assistant professor of Moscow University - broke down his long-suffering body Pisemskiy. Regular fit of acute depression and hypochondria not completed quiet sadness and physical exhaustion, as has happened before, but moved to the death throes. January 21, 1881 Pisemsky died. His death seemed neither criticism nor a significant loss of audience for literature, the funeral of his presented a striking contrast with the funeral of the deceased at about the same time, Dostoevsky. In the memoirs of people who knew Pisemsky sharply imprinted his distinctive and powerful way in which the weaknesses outweighed strengths significantly. He was a good-natured, with a deep thirst for justice, envy, and strange, with all the consciousness of their merits and talents, and surprisingly modest. All the features of their spiritual edifice, from the inability to assimilate themselves to foreign cultural immediacy, humor and accuracy of judgments of simple healthy sense, he gave his closeness to the people, reminding Great smart guy. The main feature of his character has become the paramount virtue of his talent, it is - the truth, . sincerity, . absence, . observed them in the article on Gogol, . deficiencies dogogolevskoy literature: "the tension, . desire to tell more of his understanding, . create something above their creative forces,
. In this regard, he, . one of the great Russian realists, after Gogol, . defending the theory of "art for art's sake" and put his teacher criticizes the desire to "teach through lyrical digressions" and "to show the sample of women in the face of senseless Ulinka",
. Subsequently Pisemsky donated these views in favor of didactic intentions. There is, however, was the cause of the decline of his talent. Highly complex processes of social life that Pisemsky took the object of his later novels, required for a truthful, even if it is not exhaustive and the image is not a talent, but also defined and sufficiently elevated view. Meanwhile another Ap. Grigoriev, who could be suspected in a bad attitude to Pisemsky, notice of his early works, that they "always speak for the talent of the author and quite rare - for his world-view". But this talent was enough to give a remarkably faithful and vivid picture of elementary simple structure pre-reform Russia. Objectivity is so deep into the best creation Pisemsky that Pisarev called Goncharova - is the embodiment of epic literature - "lyric in comparison with Pisemsky". Septic treatment of the beautiful idle, . not rolling in it, . along with broad and gloomy images moribund life, . rendered indispensable service to the movement, . which was destined to break the link between first-class writer and the Russian reading public.,

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