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Pnin, Ivan Petrovich

( poet-essayist)

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Biography Pnin, Ivan Petrovich
1773 - 1805
poet, essayist. After studying in Moscow university hostel, and then in the artillery and engineering corps, Pnin (illegitimate son Repnin) served in the artillery, then in the Department of Education. 15 years he wrote the first "ode", followed by a number of other. In contrast to the contemporary "odnopistsev" Pnin sang it on "moral perfection of man," protested against the violence, humiliation and slavery. In the ode "Man", directed obviously against Derzhavina Pnin demands release of man from the shameful name "worm":

. What the mind is weak, humiliated,
. You dare to give the name of the worm?
. That wretched slave, prisoner,
. Which feelings do not have

In contrast Derzhavin, Pnin, referring to the man, said:

You are the king of the earth - you are the king of the universe,
Although nothing compared with her
Although you dust one vozzhenny,
But his idea of the great.

In the odes: "In Justice" and "Hope" Pnin in vivid colors depicts the plight of the serfs. In 1798, Mr.. Pnin, together with п-.пг. Bestuzhev, published the "St. Petersburg Journal", which, along with the sentimental novel in the spirit of the time were printed as pamphlets in defense of good notes the need for broad education. In the form of conversation caliph and his vizier Pnin leads and breaks all the objections to education, inspired by the French Revolution and were distributed in the Russian society. Development of literary activity Pnin in this direction especially contributed to the beginning of the reign of Alexander I. He joined the group of young writers of the St. Petersburg, from which provide a "Free Society of lovers of literature of Sciences and Arts". His view on the mode of government Pnin expressed in the fable "The king and the court". The court compares the king with the upper stone of the pyramid, and the lower basic rocks - with the people, created for him. At the flattery of the court king meets with the words:

That stone, that its brightness drops from a height
B. crashed in the dust - parts of it do not find it;
When used at least one minute,
To support his other longer.

In his book "The experience of enlightenment in regard to Russia," Pnin, based on the idea that enlightenment can not tolerate slavery, in favor of emancipation of the peasants, that "landlords do worse than the cattle, they belong". The overall goal, which should seek education, was, according to Pnina, "to prepare the children of the fatherland Russia helpful, but not those who would disdain the fact that there are domestic and despised by their own language". Pnin offered to teach farmers - agriculture, the nobility - the legal sciences, the military - the military, the priests - recitation, rather than an ancient language, useless and t. d. Pnina book sold very quickly, . but when, . the same year (1801), . the author has submitted its, . complemented, . in censorship for the new edition, . it stopped, . as, . According censor, . author "with fervor and enthusiasm complains unhappy state of the Russian peasants, . whom property, . freedom and even life are in the hands of a capricious Pasha ",
. In this regard, Pnin written dialogue between the "Manchurian" censor and writer, in which the censor vainly trying to persuade the naive author that "not every truth must be printed". Having experienced the brunt of illegitimate, . Pnin turned to Alexander I with a note: "The Cry of Innocence", . which requires the advancement of illegitimate children, . committed unjustly condemned by the law on the material and moral punishment,
. Pnin's untimely death caused universal regret, expressed in a number of speeches, obituaries and poems, with praise for open and honest character of Pnin, his kindness and civic virtues. Society of Lovers of literature, opting Pnin in 1805. its chairman, paid tribute to its special meeting. Wed. Article H. Prytkova ( "Old and New Russia", 1878, "9) and" Compositions "KN. Batiushkov (ed. P.N. Batiushkov, St. Petersburg, 1887, t. 1). V. Botsyanovsky.

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