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Simeon of Polotsk Yemelianovich

( The famous church figure and writer.)

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Biography Simeon of Polotsk Yemelianovich
Secular name is not known, he was called Simeon was a monk, and the name of Polotsk was subsequently awarded in Moscow at the place of its original service. Born in 1629, Mr.. in Belarus (according to some - in the Polotsk). He studied at the Kyiv-Mohyla College, then became a monk and became didaskalom sister school in Polotsk. When you visit this city in 1656, Mr.. Alexei Mikhailovich, Polotsk could personally bring to the king of welcome "Metro" of his work. In 1664, Mr.. He moved to Moscow. The king asked him to teach young scribes secret order, appointing a place of training for the Spassky Monastery icon next. In 1665,. Polotsk brought the king "of blagoprivetstvovanie novodarovannom son," and this has secured the favor of the king. At the same time, Polotsk diligently ran errands Paisija Ligarida, requiring special knowledge and clever pen. As authorized by the Eastern patriarchs, who came to Russia in the case of Nikon, said before the king Orazio the need "vzyskati wisdom" (ie, to strengthen the educational resources in the state). On behalf of the Cathedral of Polotsk was a refutation of petitions Lazarus and Nikita. In late 1667, Mr.. This work was published and issued on behalf of the king and the cathedral, under the title: "The baton of the Board on the Government of mental herd Orthodox Church of Russia, . - Approval of adoption of wavering in the faith, . - Penalties to punish disobedient sheep, . - Executed to defeat a stubborn and ravenous wolves, . the flock of Christ the attackers ",
. The book is a typical example of scholastic rhetoric. Theological scholarship, . good for its time processing forms, . subtle argument - all this turned out to be quite convincing to the untrained mind "simple", . little external rating the literary merit of the treatise, and did not find an answer to "its sumnitelstva",
. "Rod not only had no effect, but the arrogant attitude to the opponents of Polotsk, in connection with some sharp expressions, extremely offended petitioners and increased their hostility to the ecclesiastical innovations. Although the council commended the work of Polotsk with high praise, . recognizing "the wand" made of pure silver, the word of God, . and from the scriptures and the right vinoslovy structures ", . however, there were many points of contact with Western theological views, . that was subsequently pointed out one of the opponents of Polotsk, . Chudovski monk Euthymius,
. Since 1667, Mr.. Polotsk was placed on the education of royal children, . for whom he wrote several works: "Vertograd Multicolor" (collection of poems, . intended to serve "a book for reading"), . "The Life and teachings of Christ our Lord and our God", . Book summary of questions and answers catechetical ",
. In the "Wenceslas of the Catholic faith" Polotsk organized the entire amount of knowledge, which gave him a school and reading from the Apocrypha and ending astrology. The basis of "the Crown" to an apostolic character, and Polotsk uses the text of the Vulgate Bible, and when referring to church authorities most readily cites Western writers (Blessed Jerome and Augustine). There is no doubt that in due time "Crown" was supposed to bring readers interesting and novelty. His independent position at the court of Polotsk used to revive a long-extinct in Moscow live church sermons, instead of which then prevailed reading patristic teachings. While preaching Polotsk (number 200) represent a sample of strict compliance gomileticheskih rules, but they are not overlooked and life goals. It was in those days unheard of phenomenon and not without results for the charity of church life. Sermons Polotsk published after his death in 1681 - 1683 gg., In two compilations: "Lunch of mind" and "Supper psychic". Verse experiments Polotsk denied the slightest spark of poetic talent, and partly explained by the influence he passed the school, partly its acceptance of the role of court poet. In the poetic arrangements of the Psalms (published 1680), . Polotsk wrote many poems (a compilation of "Rifmologii), . which celebrated the various events in the life of a royal family and courtiers, . and a host of moral and didactic poems, . included in "Vertograd Multicolor",
. Polotsk also wrote two comedies for the emerging theater: "Comedy of king Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, about the body of gold and about trieh otrotseh in the furnace is not burnt" and "Comedy parable of the Prodigal Son"; particular success enjoyed last. The value of Polotsk should not be measured in many written by him, much more important than the impact that had on life in Moscow feverish activity of his. Appearing in Moscow conduit of ideas, perceived in a converted Peter Mogila of Kiev Collegium, Polotsk served alive and active rejection of the rigidity and immobility, which froze the Moscow church life. No softening in everyday conveniences, . what gave him the position of tutor the royal children, . He did not stop in word and deed to call for the spread of education, . enriching to the best of Moscow bookishness gleaned in Kiev from Western sources, the treasures of knowledge,
. His work met with a blind hatred of the representatives of ecclesiastical authority and its minions, but the high position of Polotsk made him invulnerable. Polotsk died in 1680, Mr.. and buried in the monastery Zaikonospassky. After his death his works were published: "Testament of Basil, the Greek king, his son, Leo Philosophy and History, or the story of the Life of St. Barlaam and Joasaph, the prince Indian". Collections of his poems remain unpublished and subsequently published of which only excerpts. Polotsk created in Moscow literary and scientific school, which was representative of his disciple Sylvester Medvedev. The best study of Polotsk - L. Maikova "Simeon of Polotsk (in the" Ancient and Modern Russia ", 1875, in amended form was included in" Sketches from the history of Russian Literature XVII and XVIII century ", St. Petersburg., 1889). Wed. Tatar "Simeon of Polotsk" (his life and work, Moscow, 1886); In. Popov, Simeon of Polotsk as a preacher "(Moscow, 1886); of" Rods "- article in the Nile" Christian Reading "(1860, Part II). K. Hranevich.

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