Tung Chung-shu( Ancient Chinese philosopher and statesman, who gave Confucianism character of state ideology.)
Comments for Tung Chung-shu
Biography Tung Chung-shu
(190 or 179 BC, Guanchuan, modern. county Hengshui prov. Hebei - 120 or 104 BC)
Occurred from a noble family. A minister and initiated the introduction based on the Confucian precepts gos.ekzamenov to bureaucratic positions, beginning the examination system - a crucial social and ideological institutions of the Chinese state until the beginning. XX in. He taught at the Imperial High School, was a teacher of Sima Qian.
D.CH. created within a highly developed natural philosophy of Confucianism, which used the ideas of Taoism and the yin yang jia. By D.Ch., all happening in the world of the "ultimate beginning, similar to tai chi, qi consists of subordinated and unchanging Tao. Effects dao primarily manifested in the consistent dominance of opposing forces of yin yang and circulation of "vzaimoporozhdayuschih and vzaimopreodolevayuschih" five elements "(in sin). For the first time in Chinese philosophy binary and quinary classification scheme - the yin yang and a sin - were reduced D.CH. into a single system covering the entire universe. Qi fills heaven and earth as an invisible water in which a man is like a fish. He - a microcosm, to the smallest detail similar to the macrocosm (Heaven and Earth) and directly interacts with. D.CH. endowed Heaven (Tian) "spirit" and "will", which is not saying and not acting, takes over the sovereign, "sovershennomudryh and natural signs.
Solving the fundamental problem for the Confucian "individual nature" (syn) Rights D.CH. put forward three ideas:
Subject to the dualism of the universal forces of yin and yang, human nature is divided into dobrotvornuyu (yang) and the nature zlotvornuyu (yin) sensuality.
"Welcome" on human nature: it can be considered good in comparison with the nature of birds and animals, but not with nature "sovershennomudryh".
"Welcome" potential inherent in human nature, which are born with "good beginning".
D.CH. acknowledged the existence of two kinds of fateful "predestination" (min): coming from the nature of the "great predestination" and coming from the man (society) "changing predestination". History D.CH. represented as a cyclical process consisting of three phases ( "Dynasty"), symbolized by colors (black, white, red) and virtues (loyalty, respect, culture).
An important step in the development of Confucianism was owned D.CH. holistic ontologo-space interpretation obschestvennogosudarstvennogo device based on the doctrine of mutual 'perceptions and responses of Heaven and Man ". By D.Ch., "Tao comes from Heaven," serving as a bridge between Heaven, Earth and Man.
Bykov F.S. Doctrine of the primary element in the outlook of Tung Chung-shu. / / China. Japan. History and Philology. - M., 1961.
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