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BUTASHEVICH-Petrashevsky Mikhail

( The sociologist, social activist.)

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Biography BUTASHEVICH-Petrashevsky Mikhail
1/13.11.1821 - 7/19.12.1866
Trivia Graduated from the Faculty of St. Petersburg University Press, served in the Foreign Ministry. From 1844 the house of AB-P. were "Friday", which addressed questions of the revolution Russia. His supporters have released two editions of Pocket Dictionary of Foreign Words / 1 st in 1846, 2 nd burned down in 1849 /. B.-P. was arrested and sentenced to death, which was commuted to hard labor for life in Eastern Siberia. He was a follower of Feuerbach's anthropological materialism and utopian socialist Fourier, fought for the elimination of serfdom.
. Characteristic views MV Petrashevsky, a Russian landowner, was a staunch Fourierist and built himself in the village phalanx, which the peasants burned as an innovation, contrary to their way of life
. Socialism it was peaceful, non-political and idyllic. It was the belief in the possibility of peaceful and just life. (About Russia and Russian philosophical culture. M., 1990. S. 130).
. Teaching Mysticism
. 'Total unjust it is that by rejecting the ordinary way of understanding, mysticism want us to consider eminently sensible that creates their imagination, that is not based on experience, which is contrary to all beliefs of the mind
. We can not accept that human knowledge is limited, as all human, but no matter how weak our reason, yet we can not have beliefs contrary to his arguments'.
(Philosopher. and commonly polit .-. Random. Petrashevists. , 1953. S. 146 - 147).
. Moral
. 'Taking in the sense of moralizing, there is a set of rules, recognized as true, in a society (or between the followers of its teachings) and serve to guide in determining the practical life of human affairs
. True morality, . or moral, . - One, it can be called only the, . which displays its provisions are not of the many assumptions aprioricheskih, . apparently, . necessary to calm the human spirit, . but from a pilot study of human nature and rigorous analysis of all of its needs, . - Ta, . which, . not rejecting any of its, . apparently, . opposite, . nevertheless normal (cm,
. word) the requirements, put into the sacred duty of every man full of development. That should be true human morality. But most of it is far much of the sermon in force in different societies. Thus, positive morality, or moral, are countless, and they all vary accordingly to local religious, political and social beliefs, and general direction of the times and social development. A distinctive feature of all positive moralistic, mostly based on religious teachings, there is one-sidedness, or exclusiveness and intolerance. Central moral teachings were: rationalism, eudemonism, stoicism, materialism, moderantizm and others'.
(Ibid.. S. 165).
Natural and naturalness
'All phenomena in nature occur according to certain laws. These laws are for the different genera of beings or things are different; them something, so to speak, by special laws and shape the life of the different creatures of nature. For the signification according to their life development, such special laws used the words natural and naturalness. The first is proper that such an object corresponds perfectly to the type of development to these laws, the second means in general the very idea of such, respectively, without regard to any particular subject '.
(Ibid.. S. 184 - 185).
. condition P> 'apparently normal person is usually called to, . in which all the forces of his nature, . passions, . harmoniously developed, . Being completely free-active, . awaken him to the activities, . directly lead him to the execution of his high purpose,
. This is the normal development, . least of all depends on the person, . enjoy it, . always involves a lot of money, . brought society to meet human needs (minimum de l "existence), . without which the act of his life or the life of development is impossible, . so that the normal development or the normal state of man is not only because, . but completely dependent on the normal development of the society,
. Normally Developed, . or landscaped, . society --, . be in good condition, . - Will then, . which gives every member of their funds to meet their needs in proportion to needs and supplies of every human being in such a position or relation to the whole society, . he, . indulge their natural inclination is quite motivated, . does not violate the harmony of social relations, . but will figure, . not only helpful to yourself, . but also the whole society without samozaklaneniya personality,
. Humanity is only then can honor attained the normal development or state where the spirit of unity and togetherness will penetrate all the people '.
(Ibid.. S. 238).
. Obscurantism
. 'The newest obscurantism, . like the ancient, . see education as a secret monopoly, . which ought only to use the close circle of the lucky ones, . Favorites, . and that people should be left in perfect nerazumenii foolishly, and all that, . that may relate to their interests. ",
. (Ibid.
. S. 257).
'But the idea is essentially unable to remain at rest. She finally gives up the impossible, down to the ground and taken for rigorous analysis of what is available to her that she had, so to speak, under the hands. This - the period of reasonably-positive, the period of analysis. Before the power of analysis are collapsing before the established start; authority, common places, dogmatic disappear. Faith is a fact that made out and endorsed the mind; enthusiasm excited by what the mind deliberately struck. No longer inaccessible to the mind: for it remains a miracle - "the beginning of all beginnings", but she refused to study it once and for all, all the rest it is available, it is available indiscriminately. Whatever the material is enormous phenomenon, the mind will find its starting point, and decomposed into constituent beginning - and Gromada disintegrate. Events, act human then just struck by the thought and arouse enthusiasm, if they have a deeply intelligent start '.
(Ibid.. S. 269).
'Man as an individual, placed face to face with nature, is negligible. Man, however, as a kind of powerful, and only one immutability of the laws of nature can be the face for his samozakonnogo Development. For him, . as for being intelligent, . as having the consciousness of the laws of nature, . nothing in the universe nepodchinimogo, . nothing <supernatural>, . such, . Why would not lay in his nature, and from it would not have developed: he had for himself and the microcosm and the macrocosm '.,
. 1 Main works
. Works, testimony. / / Case Petrashevists. V.1. Leningrad, 1937 2. Works, testimony, letters. / / Philosophical and socio-political works Petrashevists. 1953.

Works Case Petrashevists. M.-L., 1937. T. 1. S. 5-196, 513-577;
Philosophical and socio-political works Petrashevists. , 1953. S. 113-473;
Petrashevsky Circle: Sat. Materials: The 3 m. Moscow, Leningrad, 1926-28;
Philos. and obschestv.-watered. works Petrashevists. , 1953;
Petrashevsky Circle of atheism, religion and the church. M., 1986.

Literature Semevskii VI. M.V.Butashevich-Petrashevsky and Petrashevists. M., 1922; Nikitina F.G. Socio-political and philosophical views M.V.Butashevicha-Petrashevsky / / From the history of Russian philosophy XVIII-XIX centuries. M., 1952. S. 166-188; Prokofiev VA. Petrashevsky (1821-1866). , 1962; Evans J. The Petrasevskij circle, 1845-1849. The Hague; P., 1974; Alexander M. Der Petrasevskij Prozess. Wiesbaden, 1979.

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BUTASHEVICH-Petrashevsky Mikhail, photo, biography
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