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Pypin Alexander

( The well-known scholar of Russian literature and the public.)

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Biography Pypin Alexander
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Born in 1833 in Saratov, a noble family. He studied at the Saratov school in Kazan (first course) and St. Petersburg University, where he graduated from the course in 1853, the candidate of History and Philology. Another student, published his first work - "Dictionary of Novgorod Chronicle", in "Collection of the Academy of Sciences" (1852,? 3). It was involved in the work on a dictionary of ancient Russian language, undertaken I.I. Sreznevsky, and where other parties were NG. Chernyshevski, P.A. Lavrovsky etc.. The first magazine article Pypin was a study of the XVIII century playwright Lukin (Fatherland Notes, 1853, repeated at a meeting op. Lukin and Elchaninova, St. Petersburg, 1868), this was an excerpt from his dissertation. Since then, he took very active part in the "Fatherland Notes reviews and articles on the history of literature. By focusing their studies on ancient Russian tale, Pypin in 1857, defended his master's thesis "Essay on the literary history of ancient stories and fairy tales Russian". Here is the first time given the history of the Russian novel, beginning with borrowings from the Byzantine and South-Slavic sources and ending with the stories that emerged under Western influence, and the first attempts at original household tale of XVII century. The author used the manuscripts of the Public Library and the Rumyantsev museum, while still little known. Some old story for the first time investigated Pypin, and some ( "Devgenievo act", "Tale of Woe-misfortune"), even first discovered them in the study collections. "Essay" Pypin was an era in the development history of the Russian novel. Further work in this area is very extended study of the subject, but work Pypin was the starting point for new researchers. In 1858 Pypin was sent to two years abroad for the preparation of the department of history of European literature. During this journey he visited, among other things, and in the Slavic lands (2 travel essays - "From Venice" and "From Florence," appeared in "Contemporary" in 1859). On his return he was appointed to the post of extraordinary professor in the 1860/61 academic year he lectured on the history of Provence and the French medieval literature. In November 1861 he resigned (in conjunction with Kavelin, . Spasovich, . Stassiulevitch and Boris Anatidae), . the violation of normal life after the university student unrest, . caused by the introduction of new rules (matriculation) and compulsory for all students fee for listening to lectures,
. Since 1863 Pypin took an active part in the "Contemporary". He was a member of the editorial board, and somewhat later (from 1865 until the suspension in 1866) - managing editor of his (along with Nekrasov). The 60-ies include the work of Pypin Apocrypha, which he is one of the first Russian scientists drew attention. The fruit of their study was the publication of "false and renunciation of books Russian antiquity" (1861), in III T. "Monuments of Russian Literature. Explanation of the publication are placed in the "Russian Word" in 1862, and the study of the ancient statues of true and false books printed in the Chronicle study Archaeography Commission "(1862, No.. 1). Graduating Pypin scientific work in the field of Old Russian Literature, . to which he returned only in passing in the 80-ies, . having published books: "Summary Old Believers synodic" (Saint-Petersburg, . 1883), . "From the history of folk tale" (St. Petersburg, . 1887), . "For lovers of old books" (Moscow, . 1888) and "falsification of manuscripts and folk songs" (Saint-Petersburg, . 1898),
. Since the mid 60-ies, and especially after the closure of Contemporary, Pypin some time diligently engaged in translation work. Part under his editorship, a part of his translation appeared historical and literary and historical works Scherr, Hettner, Draper, Lecco, Taine, Rohan, Bentham. However MA. Antonovich, he translated the History of Inductive Sciences "Uevelya. In the 90 years under the editorship Pypin out "History of German literature" Schairer and "Art from the standpoint of sociology," Guillot. In 1865 he published original member addition to the "General History of Literature" Sherry, a joint labor Pypin and VD. Spasovich (the latter belongs to the outline of the history of Polish literature), "Review of the history of Slavic literatures". In 1874 - 1881 he. This book came 2 nd edition in substantially revised and enlarged form, under the title "History of Slavic Literatures". This major work (translated into German, . Czech and French), . are the only so far a detailed description of the fate of thousands of years of literary history of the Western and Southern Slavs, . extremely remarkable, not only as a set of the, . has been done in studying the spiritual life of the Slavs, . but in a truly scientific method to his,
. While a significant part of our Slavic, . gladly call themselves the theory Slavophiles, . actually falls into Russophilia and extremely one-sided imposition of Slavs around the same faith and one "Common Slavonic (and in fact Byzantine) world view, . Pypin treated with great respect and with complete tolerance to the spiritual cast of each of the individual Slavic peoples,
. He is a staunch opponent of the absorption of one nation and another based on the ideal of joint development of universal culture and national identity. With the founding of The Messenger of Europe Pypin (since 1867) became one of the biggest and most prominent figures of his, and as a member of the editorial board, and as the most prolific contributor. In a rare book, throughout more than 30 years of existence, "Messenger of Europe, there is one or more articles Pypin. Most of these articles, . in processed, . became part of the separately published writings Pypin: "Social Movement in Russia under Alexander I" (St.-Petersburg, . 1871; 2-ed., . 1885), . "Characteristics of literary opinion from 1820 to 50-ies" (Saint-Petersburg, . 2 ed., . 1890), . "Belinsky, . his life and correspondence "(St.-Petersburg, . 1876), . "History of Russian Ethnography (4 tons, . St.Petersburg, . 1890 - 91), . "History of Russian Literature" (St.-Petersburg, . 1898; has happened 3 t., . all will be 4),
. Particularly published in manuscript form and in a few instances, "Chronological index of Russian boxes, from the first introduction of Freemasonry to ban it" (St. Petersburg, 1873). From Pypin articles in the Journal of Europe ", were not included in some compositions, more remarkable:" Russian Freemasonry in the XVIII Century "(1867, t. II - IV), . "Russian freemasonry to Novikov" (1868, . ? 6 and 7), . "Krylov and Radishchev" (1868, . ? 5), . "Theophanes Prokopovich and its opponents" (1869, . ? 6), . "Pan-Slavism in the past and present" (1878, . ? 9 - 12), . "Literary Pan-Slavism" (1879, . ? 6, . 8, . 9), . "The Polish question in Russian literature" (1880, . ? 2, . 4, . 5, . 10, . 11), . "The history of the text works of Pushkin" (1887, . ? 2), . "New explanation of Pushkin" (1887, . ? 8, . 9), . "Review of Russian Slavic Studies" (1889, . ? 4 - 6), . "Idealism M.E,
. Saltykov "(1889, No 6)," Russian Slavonic studies in the XIX century. "(1889,? 7 - 9)," journalistic activity M.E. Saltykov "(1889,? 10 - 12)," Literary Reminiscences "and" Conversation "(1890,? 10 - 12)," Herder "(1890,? 3 and 4)," New data on the Slavic affairs "(1893, ? 6 - 8). Several articles and notes about the current phenomena of literary life is printed in Pypin Literary Review "The Messenger of Europe". All these works Pypin are a valuable contribution to our literature. "Social Movement under Alexander I" is rich with new material and gave the first complete picture of the era, before the well-known for sketchy data and the official documents of the impersonal. It paints a bright light of hope began changing the time of Alexander the reaction-pieticheskimi aspirations Baroness Kryudener era, Prince Golitsyn and Arakcheyev. In early 1870 the Academy of Sciences elected Pypin his fellow members of the Department of Russian History. But due to the vigorous opposition of the then Minister of Education of Count DA. Tolstoy - opposition, led to higher spheres - adoption slowed and Pypin to stop embarrassing agencies, refused to elect. "Characteristics of literary opinion from twenty to fifty years" is the history of Russian literary and social trends. Therefore, here considered, mainly representatives of our theoretical thought: unconditional apologists for Russian state system, then Chaadayev Slavophiles, Belinsky. Of the artists by analyzing only the activities of Zhukovsky, Pushkin and Gogol, but not with the aesthetic point of view, but from their socio-political views. The merit of "characteristics" is the systematization Slavophile teaching and lighting theory of "official nationalism". This term was created Pypin and established in our historical literature to determine its origin from the Minister of Education Uvarov's theory of complete isolation of Russia, . component, as it were a special part of the world, . is completely inapplicable to the requirements and aspirations of European life and that strong foundations of its immobility state system,
. The main objection, . which the author contrasts the limitations of Slavophilism and the theory of "official nationalism", . is, . "national, . as the element of historical, . capable of modification and improvement, . and this is an opportunity and the hope of national success ",
. When immobility foundations Russia would not borrowed from Byzantine Christianity, and Moscow autocracy is not changed to a resistivity-veche life. Biography Belinsky, for often printed in the Journal of Europe "1874 - 1875 gg., At one time attracted the attention of emergency. It gives a detailed and completely new information not only about the Belinsky, but also his friends - Stankiewicz, you. Botkin, Herzen, Bakunin and many others learned from their correspondence, made public for the first time here. The determination and systematization of correspondence Belinsky constitute a major credit to the history of Russian literature. Belinsky's letter, find Pypin, injected into the world of unprecedented beauty of soul and made a strong impression. Everyone knew still Belinsky-criticism, and now emerged a radiant image of the man-fighter for his ideas, which it was impossible not to love even more Belinsky-writer. The result is a view that Belinsky traced Pypin letters, toll free here in all its purity and the ideal of his lofty spirit, which was perhaps more valuable than in their articles, where his embarrassment printing conditions of the time. - "History of Russian Ethnography gives much more of his special title. The author includes a striking work of erudition not only ethnographers in the narrow sense of the word, . but all scholars of Russian folk art - Sakharov, . Buslaeva, . Afanasyev, . Veselovskogo etc., . and even all the theorists of the question of nationality, . up to the publicists, "populists" 80-bit and 90-ies, . like the late Kablitsa-Hughes,
. In conjunction with the fact that here are the extensive background and characteristics of a long series of Russian scholars and journalists, labor Pypin is one of the most historical and literary capital benefits of our. In the "History of Russian Literature" is not customary in the works of this kind of narrative elements. Brief biographical details are set forth in the notes to individual chapters. Objective compositions - note the major literary currents. The merit of it is that this is the first set of huge number of special studies the past 20 - 30 years, often do not come to any general conclusions. Pypin interested only in general outlines, the overall picture of the Russian literature, the first time here presented with such vividness. Much eluded special studies, to go into detail here to highlight. Such, for example, in III T. picture of mental excitement in Moscow on the eve of the Petrine reforms, showing that this reform was not at the sharp turning point, that it is only a spectacular conclusion of a number of preliminary attempts. Each of the 7 capital works Pypin, . together make up 15 volumes (collected together magazine articles Pypin amount not less than the number of volumes), . it would be quite enough, . to provide him a very prominent place in the history of Russian scholarship,
. Membership is all these works, so highly respected, a person is a phenomenon almost unprecedented in our scientific world. That is why public opinion, without distinction of trends, with special sympathy met at the end of 1897 the news that the Academy of Sciences, after 26 years, again elected Pypin his fellow members. At this time the election Pypin ordinary academician (Department of Russian Language and Literature) has received approval. Died in 1904. S. Vengerov.

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Pypin Alexander, photo, biography
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