Hastily Nikolai( Supporter of utopian communism, a member of the circle Petrashevists.)
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Biography Hastily Nikolai
1821 - 17/29.3.1882
Overview In 1849, arrested and sentenced to death, commuted to penal servitude. Set the task of preparing the uprising to destroy serfdom. Materialist and atheist, a supporter of sensationalism in the theory of knowledge. / Philosophical views in a letter to Hoetskomu /. Recognizing the pattern of social development, has not devoted his main factors.
. Teaching Metaphysics
. 'Metaphorical sense suggests, . that the law of origin of the real world is the inverse of abstraction to the law of mind, meaning, . that of the concept or abstaktsii simpler and more poor determinations <You can go up> to more complex and richer definitions,
. Any metaphysics afraid of reality, she felt really real something other than the very thing (the essence of the idea and t. etc.); the real world is for her great masquerade, and her fantasy world - the true reality. All this is completely contrary to common sense. Any metaphysics takes the quality of things for real substance, embodied in things, almost for their chemical elements. Any metaphysics is a poem, depressed deductive logic and the fantastic chemistry. It's rather ambiguous thing, . which is neither genuine poetry, . neither positive science, . which owes its origin and existence of the insatiable human desire for knowledge, not having yet been able to know everything exactly, . he is deceiving it is the desire, . giving instead of truth hypothesis, . just as a stopgap measure to drown the pain through '.,
. and commonly polit .-. Random. Petrashevists. , 1953. S.480).
Positive and the metaphysical point of view
"We are still in a fairly wide area. You all know her, . is the sphere of science, . Arts, . Industry, . social forms, . sphere mind, . imagination, . Labor, . stories, . world of human creativity, . which is far from, . to be completed, . which in general is growing and developing, . albeit slowly, in my opinion,
. We do not know a positive start, . but we know the names of dozens of people, . have advanced the science and, . and industry, . and Society, . brought them to the state, . in which they are now, . - We know the names of Copernicus, . Galileo, . Kepler, . Newton, . Hershel, . Columbus, . Cook, . Genero, . Davey, . Watt, . Fulton, . Euclid, . Archimedes, . Lavoisier, . Shakespeare, . Goethe, . Schiller, . Byron and, . my god, . hundreds of other people's names, . which gradually advanced the science, . created art, . invented the production processes, . names of historical figures, . which one after another, . changed the social forms, . those, . who devoted themselves to the destruction of slavery, . those, . who defeated feudalism and established the State, . and t,
. d. and t. d. You positively know many names, and yet you are wrong, this is not greater than the effect of optical illusion, scientific and industrial discoveries, works of art, social forms - everything is a product of the absolute, absolute "human nature". That is really the difference is a positive point of view of metaphysical '.
(Ibid.. S. 483).
'I do not intend to deny that humanitarianism, the deification of humanity or human antropoteizm is one of the doctrines of modern times. You are right: the entire German idealism п?1п? century - the "great" German philosophy, . from Fichte (in Fichte leave it I, . which is only another name of spirit, . not-I, . which represents only a synonym for nature, . - Fichte, . from the school which came Schelling and Hegel, . which, through its absolute or absolute idea <removed> the contradiction between his self and not-I, and thus complement his system), . aiming only antropoteizm, . until it, . reached in the person of its last bearer and coryphaeus - Feuerbach - its peaks and calling a spade a spade, . together with him cried: Homo homini deus est-man is a god,
. I have seen further, as this doctrine has spread from Germany and distributed to other nations - certainly not as widespread as in their homeland. And while I do not mean slavish copyists of Hegelian philosophy abroad, and independent minds - Proudhon in France and Comenius in Poland. Both emerged from the school of Hegel, . and the best proof, . premise that the deification of humanity were already in Hegel and Feuerbach that the school was his true successor in Germany, . is, . that these two neighbors of the Germans and at the same time, . that in Germany, . Hegel's doctrine emerged as antropoteizm and they came to this, . knowing Feuerbach, . as Feuerbach did not know them '.,
. S. 494).
. Disadvantages antropoteizma
. 'Course, . If the Christian God was only a partial abstraction of human, . it is composed only of certain properties and functions of human, . which flavor of the time declared the most "noble" (I say - the taste, . for such categories, . both beautiful and ugly, . good and bad, . noble and low, . always been and will always remain a matter of taste),
. In fact, God was not a facsimile, replica man - he was endowed with the spirit of abstraction of humanity. Corporal has disappeared - leaving only the properties, . functions and acts of human, . who received the general name of "soul", . and from then, . that the most consistent taste (not madness, . and reason, . no ill-will, . bringing harm to people, . and kindness, etc.), . was removed, . connected, . increased to infinity (absolutized), . brought to apotheosis,
. In this one-sidedness of taste, . this error reason, . consists in making things taste in the principle of thinking and an inability to see the narrow one-sidedness, . rooted practice harmful to people asceticism, . contempt for all the carnal, . disgust and hatred of him,
. This, of course, the greatest difference between Christianity and antropoteizmom. This latter, . at least in the perfect form, . what he is Feuerbach (for Hegel too many of the exclusive interpretation of the spirit, . and although he had no aversion to corporal, . but in this respect it, . I think, . went no further than the Christian-Lutheran perspective), . pulls the whole "man" without the rest to God. ",
. S. 498).
Major works 1 / V kn.: Petrashevsky Circle. Sb.materialov. V.3. Leningrad, 1928, 2 / philosophical and socio-political works Petrashevists. 1953.
Works 1 / In the Prince.: Petrashevsky Circle. Sb.materialov. V.3. Leningrad, 1928, 2 / philosophical and socio-political works Petrashevists. 1953.
Literature Semevskii VI. M.V.Butashevich-Petrashevsky and Petrashevists. MA, 1922; Leikina V.R. NA Speshnyov / / Past, 1924. ? 25; She also. Petrashevist NA Speshnyov in the light of new materials / / History of the USSR. M., 1978. S. 128-140; first Russian socialists. Memoirs of participants Petrashevists circles in St. Petersburg. , 1984; Evans J. The Petrasevskij-circle, 1845-1849. The Hague; P., 1974; Alexander M. Der Petrasevskij-Prozess. Wiesbaden, 1979.