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KHOMYAKOV Alex Stepanovich

( The philosopher, theologian, poet, intellectual leader Slavophiles.)

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Biography KHOMYAKOV Alex Stepanovich
1/13.5.1804 - 23.9/5.10.1860

Trivia Graduated from an external physico-mathematical department Mosk.un-ta. In 1822-1829 - military service. Essay X. "On the Old and New" / 1839 / initiated the design Slavophil ideology. Formulated the idea of "catholicity": spiritual connection should be "collective" to unite members of the church "in love and truth". Preservation of the cathedral began in the life of Russian people or her counterpart in favor ancient Slavic Institute - Community / used for X. theoretical basis for the conclusion of world-historical significance of the Russian nation. The source actually believed "the will of the mind". Develop the concept of integral knowledge / life-knowledge "/, which implements the fullness of spiritual experience. Historiosophical part of the philosophy of X. includes the recognition of two principles: kushitstvo and Iranism, the last of which - the symbol of free spirit, and the first - an expression of dominance of the real beginning. Slavophile concept developed X. with I. Kireyevsky then joined by Samarin and KS Aksakov. Vol.: "The Church is one," "A few words of the Orthodox Christian," "Notes on World History", "On the Humboldt", "With regard to article IV Kireyevski", "On the modern phenomena in the field of philosophy."
. Characteristic views of history of philosophy Khomyakova is a unit of force in the history of the forces on the two main classes - iranstvo, . it is a religion of freedom and the free spirit, . and kushitstvo, . religion and the need to subordinate earthly top,
. Iranstvo most clearly manifested in the Orthodox East, kushitstvo - in the Catholic West. From our present point of view throughout the many naive and uncritical, odnoko mnogihotdelnyh in his discussion felt undeniable intuitive certainty which can not be refuted by any means - or science. (Losev п░.п╓. Russian philosophy. Sverdlovsk, 1991.S. 81

Teaching German philosophy
'We can say that we have experienced German philosophy, for they knew the one-sidedness is not a vague understanding is not a satisfaction of spirit, but a clear awareness of the mind. Dialectical development of Kant's school does not reflect fully knowable object, because it reflects a reality without '. (Khomjakov A.S. Poln. cit. cit.: At 8 t. 4 ed. M., 1990 - 1914. T. 1. S. 272)
. 'Reasonableness is not a necessity, . although they are mixed with it, . especially due to the Hegelian logic of the exercise: the wisdom is not a necessity, . it is only a condition for the possibility, . triangle is a triangle because, . that non-triangular triangle - is the sound, . not thought, but this law applies only to the idea of a triangle in general and does not entail the existence of any triangle was,
. Dvizhnie thought contains the possibility of this movement, t. e. brooks no contradiction to itself, but the possibility does not determine the actual existence '. (Ibid.. S. 333-334).
Grounds knowledge
'Freedom of thought and reasoning is impossible without a firm foundation, without the data that are aware of, or a distinctive activity of the spirit, without such data, in which he believed with firm faith, reason, with a warm faith of the heart'. (Ibid.. S. 33).
The problem of substrate
'Now, saying that the substance is infinite substratum of all existence, or vice versa, that an infinite substratum of all that exists is matter, t. e. connecting the two ideas completely opposite, whether we're talking something? Obviously, as little as uttering the words: all-square, green sound, loud pud or something of the sort. It sounds rather than words, it shocks the pharynx, but not the idea, or, as Schelling says, it is thought, in which nothing is thought '. (Ibid.. S. 303).
Criticism materialism
'Thought can not be a consequence of a real process of change and can therefore be adhered not only as peculiar substance altogether, t. e. not only as a reflection in it its entirety, t. is, as I said, immateriality. It is obvious, . What is the identity of the substance with the idea of leaving behind the thought of the positive, . and for the substance, only the value of a negative, . for the simple reason, . that all understanding of the issue occurs in the field of thought, . it can never in relation to herself to lose the character of positivity,
. But beyond that, we see that the substance (thing in itself), becoming the subject, t. e. basis of knowledge or concepts, t. e. basis of knowledge or concepts, thus believes understanding, without which the object (as object) can not exist, and, therefore, places itself as a positive thinking, to which is negative as the object '. (Ibid.. S. 308).
The reasons for the phenomena being
'The power of life or cause of every phenomenon is to "all". But this "all" is not the result of phenomena. You can say that the yard is part of a mile or radius of the earth, but can not say that the yard is part of the world width, applying this to the total width of Arshinov. Similarly, you can not say that the phenomenon is part of the "whole", oblivious of it "everything" in the outcome of events. Private not brought forth the result of an infinite "all", but the beginning of any phenomenon, apparently, is precisely this "all", t. e. in the conceivable, but not submitted and are not '. (Ibid.. S. 331).
'Science should expand areas of human knowledge, to enrich its data and conclusions, but it must be remembered that she herself had far too much to learn from life. Without it life as sparse as life without it, perhaps even poorer '. (Ibid.. P.22).
Space and time
'Willful definition of space and time is: time is a force in the category of causality, and space - in the category of reciprocity, t. e. time and space are categories of causality and reciprocity in the world of phenomena, independent of the subjective personality '. (Ibid.. S. 325)
Power is the will
'The substance is, we are always in space, into an atomic state, obviously, no particle of matter can not act outside its limits, t. e. act where it does not. Thus, no private forces can not be, and the force is not a fractional membership of substance, but still - the substance, T. e. longer matter, but the idea is not crushed, but overall, not slavery anything else, but freely creative force. Thus, the force itself is only another name-will '. (Khomjakov A.S. Poln. cit. cit.: 4 - ed. M. , 1900. T. 7. S. 35)
'I called the faith that the ability of the mind which perceives the actual (real) data transmitted by it to the analysis and understanding consciousness. In the only field data is in itself the fullness of its nature and characteristics of its early. In this area, pre-logical mind, and filled with a sense of life, not in need of evidence and arguments, is aware of people that belongs to his mental world and that the world outside '. (Khomjakov A.S. Poln. cit. cit.: 4 - ed. M. 1900.T. 1. S. 323).
'Faith is the beginning, by its very nature, the moral, the moral principle, which would have contained the desire for discovery, revealed to be thus its impotence or, more precisely, its non-being. The discovery of faith and a matter for prayer and sigh, barely conceived in the depths of a broken heart, there is the same thing as martyrdom '. (Khomjakov A.S. Vol.: In 2 m. M., 1994. T. 2. S. 97).
Score materialism
'Materialism, the tested logic becomes meaningless sound'. (Khomjakov A.S. Poln. cit. op. 4 - ed. T. 1. S. 304)
. 'So we see, . that philosophical thinking is rigorous findings back to the truths of faith, . and the reasonableness of the Church is a higher possibility of human rationality, . not shy of its original development, so warranted a separate note Kireevskoe, . that "true beliefs beneficial and strong only in the aggregate and in the development of social consciousness" so, . example, . science philosophy, . understood in all their live volume, . necessarily starting from the faith and returning to her, . At the same time give the reason freedom, . inner knowledge - force, . life - complete ',
. (Ibid.. S. 283 - 284)
. Errors and dostizheiya Hegel
. 'Gegelizm will, . as any error, . and now he lives more in everyday life, . than in science, but the phenomenology of Hegel will bessortnym monument relentlessly rigorous and consistent dialectic, . which will never speak without reverence they fortified and advanced thinkers,
. Amazing only that so far no one noticed that the immortal works have a strong conviction over his own rationalism, proving its inevitable outcome '. (Ibid.. S. 265)
. The nature of the need
. 'Did not condemn the infancy of the mind, . which subjects the external world and consciousness ascribes, . and will: he is quite right, he is faithful to the laws of reason is much more, . than imaginary thinkers, . who deny (or imagine, . deny that) and both,
. Error is his only one - that he was transferring his human subjectivity in the phenomenon of fractional equalizes them with him and gives a fractional is that belongs to all conceivable. Great is his truth is that, aware of external events such as the need in relation to himself, he recognizes the existing freedom, will, at their source. Here it expresses a deep awareness of the truth that the need is only a stranger will, as well as any objectification has been the alienation of the Free thought - not me, you will need to have displayed '. (Ibid.. S. 339)
. "Voluntarism"
. 'We have seen, . that the world of phenomena arises from the free power, . will, but this world appears as a combination of two facts, . "total" and the date or the "atom", . two conceivable, . and is not, . that, . however, . two calls only our subjective weakness, . Deceived by our representations of the world,
. Both have withdrawn from the world of phenomena, free from all, from the outside believe the signs and come together in a complete identity for a strictly logical mind '. (Ibid.. S. 342)
. 'So, . where we might go, . of whether their personal subjectivity and consciousness, . analysis of whether the phenomena in their global community, . one stands in the final output - the will of its identity with the mind, . as its active force, . nor inseparable from the concept of it, . nor from the concept of subjectivity,
. She puts all that exists, select it from the possible, or otherwise separating thought from the freedom of the imaginable creativity '. (Ibid.. S. 340-341)
. Integral knowledge
. 'So, . for a reasonable apprehension of being safe, . to understand its true and real life, . to feel movement dopredmetnogo vsesuschey thoughts, . Finally, . for the perception of all that, . that requires intelligence, . consonant with the laws of reasonably-existent not only in relation to dialectical reason, . but also in respect to all living and moral forces of the spirit ',
. (Ibid.. S. 279).
Law love
'From the world's law allows one reason or evident will (because this is the definition of the spirit) the first, highest, is a perfect undistorted mind the law of love. Consequently, the agreement with him for the most part can strengthen and expand our mental vision, and we must obey him, he ranks customize stubborn neustroistvo our mental powers. Only in the commission of this deed can we expect the full development of the mind '. (Ibid.. S. 280).

Literature Berdyaev N.A. Alex Stepanovich Khomjakov. MA, 1912; Zavitnevich VV. Alex Stepanovich Khomjakov. Kiev, 1902. T. 1, Kiev, 1913. T. 2; Rozanov VV. Alex Stepanovich Khomjakov: To the 50 anniversary of the death of his / Rozanov VV. About writing and writers. M., 1995. S. 456-466; Florensky P.A. About Khomyakova (Critical Notes). Sergiev Posad, 1916; Shaposhnikov L.E. Philosophical portraits (From the history of national thought). N. Novgorod, 1993; Lyaskovsky VN. A.S.H. His life and works. M., 1879, Brodsky NL. Early Slavophiles. , 1910; Tsimbal NI. Slavophilism: From the history of Russian. obschestv.-watered. thought XIX in. / Berdyaev. , 1986; Zenkovsky VV. Russian History. Philosophy. L., 1991. T. 1, h. 1; Lossky N.O. Russian History. Philosophy. M., 1991; Kemira VI. Historiosophy A.S.H. Moscow, 1989; Copleston FC. Rus. Rel. Philosophy: Sel. aspects. Notre-Dame, 1988; Rus. Philosophy. Chicago. 1969. Vol. 1; Kornilov SV. The philosophy of consciousness and creativity (Portraits of Russian thinkers). SPb., 1998.

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