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Fedorov Nikolai Fedorovich

( The creator of the philosophy of the common cause, the founder of Russian cosmism.)

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Biography Fedorov Nikolai Fedorovich
26.5/9.6.1829 - 15/28.12.1903
Trivia Studied at the Department cameral Richelieu Lyceum in Odessa, then a teacher. Since 1874 he worked in the catalog of the Rumyantsev Museum. Formulated the problem of "general resurrection", as the overcoming of nothingness for human. It requires overcoming nebratskogo, an unrelated condition among men that carried out through the combined actions of all living for the resurrection of the dead / fathers /. While agreeing with the definition of Slavophil destiny of the Russian nation, F. sees his lack of that slavyanfily not found out the purpose for which you want to unite all forces and means by which it is achieved. Major works - "The question of brotherhood, or kinship, the reasons nebratskogo, unrelated, ie. non-peaceful state of peace and the means to restore kinship. Note from the unlettered to the scientists, the spiritual and secular, to believers and unbelievers, "" Supramoralizm "," Museum, its meaning and purpose "- were published after his death. F. influenced Vl.Soloveva, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy. Eden F. Developed AK Tsiolkovsky, Vladimir Vernadsky, A. Chizhevsky.
. Characteristics of views "For philosophy FYODOROVA svoebraznoe characterized by a combination of a deeply religious metaphysics (eg, . in the doctrine of the Holy Trinity as the ideal of a friendly union of several persons) with a naturalistic realism (eg, . in the doctrine of the resurrection of the methods of our ancestors),
. N. Fedorov believes no sale of books. It was the Russian seeker of universal salvation. It reached a maximum severity of a sense of responsibility of all for all - everyone is responsible for peace and for all people, and everyone should strive for the salvation of everyone and everything. In view of all mirosozertsaniyaN. Fedorova lay Lamentations about the mountain people. And there was no man on earth who would be such sorrow for the death of people, this desire for their return to life. He felt guilty for the death of the sons of fathers. He called the children of prodigal sons, because they have forgotten graves of fathers, carried away their wives, capitalism and civilization. Civilization was built on the bones of their fathers ". (Berdyaev H. A. Russian idea. / / About Russia and Russian philosophical culture. M. 1990. S. 229). "Passive waiting for a terrible end is unworthy of man. Eschatology H. FYODOROVA differs sharply from eschatology Vl. Solovyov and K. Leontiev, and the truth on his side, he owns the future ". (Berdyaev H. A. Russian idea. / / About Russia and Russian philosophical culture. M. 1990. S.230)
. Teaching Disintegration of the human race
. 'Oblivion, . or removal from the forefathers, . and due to the disintegration of the genus distorted logo, . ancestry, the human race split into rootless, . low-born, . benefit of the high-or, . alien, . foreign, . not even connected to the general duty, . encumbrance, . and, . ceasing to be patrokratieyu, . lost the overall goal, . ceased to be combined, . sustained action by the power of restoring life to the species',
. (Op. , 1982. S. 143 - 144).
'People would not be finite and limited, if it was love between them, t. e. if they were one unified force, but because they are mortal and, therefore, are limited, that there is no unity between them, love '. (Ibid.. S. 144).
'Orthodoxy is the upper class in comparison with Protestantism and Catholicism, or is it - the one true learning, which is the straight path leads from the temple and the liturgy of the Passover and Easter liturgy vnehramovoy'. (Ibid.. S. 194).
'Rejecting the filial case, T. e. resurrection, . replace the actual resurrection of the imaginary - in knowledge; invalid, . or just like, . - In the arts; idolatry - in religion, . in the sense of ideal-olatrii or idololatrii, . and only in the latter form (in the form of idolatry) and is available until the resurrection of all, . whereas in the first two only slightly ',
. (Ibid.. S. 199).
Meaning of history
'Meaning in the history of the human race will not be until the story, as it obviously did not have our act is not proizvedanie our total mind and will, until it unconscious and involuntary phenomenon. But history and can not be our action, . our work, . as we live in strife, even when connecting to our tribal life will not be a matter of mind, . while a man depends on the blind forces of nature, . yet he will not make it an instrument of their total mind and united in the common will ',
. (Ibid.. S. 197)
. Wine nevoskresheniya
. 'Do not separating the resurrection of Christ from our, . from the universal resurrection, . guilt nevoskresheniya we must assign a, . as removing the guilt of Christ from the earth, . or His ascension to heaven, so also milostlivoe or threatening to return him to the ground, we can expect the same from its association in the resurrection ',
. (Ibid.. S. 146).
'Catholicism is a distortion of Christianity, t. e. resurrection, the replacement of the case, generating the resurrection, cases that do not produce revival, but only deserve immortality, or exemption from purgatory, Protestantism does not destroy the distortion, but only replaces the Catholic idea of the case '. (Ibid.. S. 214).
'Question psihokratichesky have a question about the general resurrection of all. Affected difficulties, . which for many will seem insurmountable, . we must not forget, . that in case of impossibility of complete reciprocity, we are condemned to a lonely, . for such dissociation, . that we can not even be sure, . outside world that he, . we only contemplate, . is a common to all of us, . t,
. e. can not be convinced even the mutual existence of each other, we are left to choose: either complete solitary confinement, or the general resurrection, in which the full and mutual learning. Otherwise: or no God, no peace, no people, or whether it is in perfect fullness! ". (Op. M., 1994. S. 91).
Freedom from blemish
'All of our vices - only the perversion of the virtues. No man has no good outcome of his thirst for action, . until then it will be wasted in exalting each other, . the envy, . hatred and anger, . on collecting wealth and waste of his enormous power even, . manifested in lust, . will find an equivalent expression in vossozidanii,
. Only the opening field for life-saving can free mankind from the evils. This, of course, until the assumption, but there is no doubt that until the field will be open for a noble and life-saving activities until the defect will prevail '. (Same place. S. 194).
'We have a sincere and insincere justify their personal existence to the need for children. But what kind of apotheosis of the journey-Efe-dimensional existence, even in terms of personal, selfish definition of freedom is not satisfactory '. (Ibid.. S. 130).
'Supramoralizm - a question of two of discord and the two associations, the question of the two discord, t. e. the external strife - the rich and the poor and the internal strife - on the learned and unlearned (two minds), razreshaemyhy through the replacement of the question of enriching the general question of the general return to life, t. e. through the replacement of our artificial life, artificial things natural thing, make us samoyu ppirodoyu, coming through in our minds'. (There zhe.S. 147).
'Completeness of kinship exists only in the divine trinity, but not in human mnogoedinstve. Church is also mnogoedinstvo, but in the destiny of the future, not the reality of this'. (Ibid.. S. 239).
'For the children there is only one system: the transformation of the ideal, subjective in projective, and the real, objective - in the case, the execution of this project. In the resurrection of spiritualism is connected with materialism, the history of several generations, as manifested in the totality of all worlds, . united in astronomy, psychology, . animating inanimate cosmology, . itself is a manifestation of theology, truth, or something, . that there, . becoming so, . that should be (good), . is blow aesthetics, . t,
. e. those that love that we love. Thus, for the sons of men have only one religion, one philosophy and one general, comprehensive business'. (Ibid.. S. 238).
Target resurrection
'Religion is a resurrection, if it does not distort, it is the cult of ancestors, which requires a profound union, brotherhood'. (Ibid.. S. 185).
'In the inability to combine these two concepts: Sonship and humanity, and to conclude the main disadvantage of the ancient world'. (Ibid.. S. 235)
. 'Do not be an immortal being removed from the world, . leaving the world of mortals, . imperfect, . as and should not be confused with the myth of God, . In no reigns blindness and death, the challenge is, . to the very nature of, . natural forces, . turn into an instrument of universal resurrection, through the universal resurrection of the Union to become immortal beings',
. (Op. , 1982. S. 128).
'Relations of things, beings born, tearing with their parents, with moribund or already dead, is disclosed, it is proved the treatment of birth in the re-establishment. Sons and daughters as a transient phenomenon, can discover their own reasons, that is, their parents, only a matter of recreating, through which themselves are made of timeless, immortal '. (Ibid.. S. 537).

Edition 1. The philosophy of the common cause: Articles, thoughts and letters Nikolai Fyodorov. T. 1. Semirechenskaya, 1906, 2. The philosophy of the common cause: Articles, thoughts and letters Nikolai Fyodorov. T. 2. M., 1913, 3. Op. M., 1972.

Literature Kozhevnikov VA. Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov. M., 1901, h. 1. M., 1908; Florovsky G. Ways of Russian Theology. Paris, 1937 (Vilnius, 1991); Pazilova VP. Critical analysis of the religious and philosophical teachings, NF Fedorov. Moscow, 1985; Semenova S.G. Nikolai Fedorov: creative life. Moscow, 1990; She also. Vera, who came in the mind of the truth "/ / Path. 1992. ? 2; Berdyayev N.A. N.F.F. / / Path, 1928,? 11; Bulgakov S.N. Mysterious thinker (N.F.F.) / / Two Cities: Studies on the nature of societies. ideals. M., 1911. T. 2; Lukashevich S. NFFedorov (1828-1903). A Study in Russian Eupsychian and Utopian Thought. Newarh - L., 1977; Hagemeister M. Nikolaj Fedorov. Studien zu Leben, Werk und Wirkung. Muenchen, 1989; Kornilov SV. The philosophy of consciousness and creativity (Portraits of Russian thinkers). SPb., 1998.

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