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Chernyshevski Nicholas Gavrilovich

( materialist philosopher, economist, socialist, writer and critic.)

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Biography Chernyshevski Nicholas Gavrilovich
12/24.7.1828 - 17/29.10.1889

Trivia Graduated from the historical-philosophical branch Petersburg Zap / 1850 /, taught literature in the Saratov school. 1853-1862 - member and head of the journal "Contemporary". In 1862 - arrested and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress. After the ceremony citizen penalty sent to penal servitude / 1864 /. Shortly before his death he was allowed to return to Saratov. Basic Fixes. D: thesis "The Aesthetic Relations of Art to Reality" / 1855 /, "The Anthropological Principle in Philosophy" / 1860 /, "Criticism of the philosophical bias against communal ownership" / 1858 /, "The nature of human knowledge" / 1885 / etc.. In conclusion, the fortress has written novels, "What to do?" and Alferev ". "Anthropological principle", according to Charles, is an expression of the requirements of "human nature" and because it coincides with the principles of socialism. "The law of progress" is "purely physical law. Non-capitalist development is possible using the formula: patriarchal community of the achievements of science + + large-scale machine industry. The path to a new society is through a peasant revolution and the violent overthrow of the autocracy. In developing the morality of "new people" defending the idea that "rational egoism" person includes acts of noble self-sacrifice for the achievement of universal human happiness. In the aesthetics of the thesis that "Beauty is life. Had an enormous influence on the minds of Russian society.

Characteristic views of the conceptual direction Chernyshevskogo Dobrolyubov and Pisarev, t. e. in philosophically, . not of much interest, . and ridiculed them Jurkiewicz, . opponent of materialism, . undoubtedly, . more significant and profound, but in Russian intellectual life Yurkevich not left an imprint, . while, . as Chernyshevsky had a very great influence and importance until the present time ",
. (Radlov E.L. Outline of the History of Russian Philosophy. Sverdlovsk, 1991. S. 112)

Teaching scientific direction in the philosophy of 'People say: science has not yet reached such a development in order to satisfactorily explain all the important phenomena of nature. It is - quite true, but opponents of the research direction in philosophy make of this truth is not a logical conclusion, . when talking, . that gaps, . remaining in the scientific explanation of natural phenomena, . allow retention of some residual fantastic outlook, . the fact, . that the nature of the results, . delivered to the analysis of unexplained phenomena and science often, . already enough evidence of the nature of the elements, . forces and the laws, . operating in other parts of the phenomena and, . not yet fully explained: if in these parts, and unexplained phenomena have been something else besides, . that found in parts of the unexplained, . then the explanation would have no part of such a nature, . What are ',
. (Chernyshevski NG. Vol.: In 2 m. M., 1987. T. 2. S. 177). Ethical and science 'by its current form the moral sciences differ from the so-called natural, . proper, . only those, . that have begun to develop a truly scientific way for them later, . and therefore developed escha not in such perfection, . they,
. Here the difference is only in degree: chemistry under the age of astronomy and has not yet reached such perfection; physiology are under the age of chemistry and even farther from perfect, psychology as an exact science, even younger physiology and even less developed. But, . differing among themselves on the number of acquired exact knowledge, . chemistry and astronomy are not distinguished either by the authenticity of the, . they learned, . either by the method, . which go to the exact knowledge, . their subjects: the facts and laws, . opened himieyu, . as authentic, . as the facts and laws, . offered by astronomy ',
. (Ibid.. S. 187-188) 'Relation of physiology to chemistry can be compared with the ratio of national history to the general history. Course, . Russian history is only part of the universal, but the subject of this part is particularly close to us, . because it is made like a peculiar science: the course of Russian history in schools is read separately from the general course, . students receive a special examination on the ball from Russian history, but should not forget, . that this external separateness is only for practical convenience, . not based on the theoretical differences in the character of this branch of knowledge from other parts of the same knowledge ',
. (Ibid.. S. 199). Thinking 'thinking is, . to different combinations of sensations and perceptions, . produced by the imagination of memory, . choose such, . which correspond to the needs of a thinking organism at the moment, . in choosing the means for action, . in the choice of representations, . through which to reach a well-known result ',
. (Ibid.. S. 209). 'They say, if animals do not talk. This is pure nonsense. You raise a stick for a dog, . dog's tail is short and runs from you, why is this? Because, . that her mind construct the following syllogism: when mnya beaten with a rod, . I sometimes unpleasant, this man wants to beat me with a rod, . So, . remove him, . not to get a painful omission from his stick ',
. (Ibid.. S. 210). 'But we have forgotten: they say that animals have no consciousness that they are not aware of their feelings, their thoughts, conclusions, and only have their. How to understand this, how can we take these words themselves are the people who say they have always been a mystery to us. Not aware of his feelings - tell, . there any sense in this sentence? Tell, . how to draw a clear idea of the combination of concepts, . that she wants to bring? The sense because it is called the phenomenon, . which is felt, have an unconscious sense would be to have a sense nechuvstvuemoe, . would mean the same thing, . that see invisible objects or, . the famous expression, . "hear the silence ',
. (Ibid.. S. 211). The purpose of man 'The purpose of all human endeavor is to get pleasure. But sources, . from which we receive pleasure, . There are two kinds: one family owned and fleeting circumstances, . not depend on us, or if they depend, . then pass without any lasting results, a different genus include the facts and state, . located in us a strong way or without us, . but always with us a long time ',
. (Ibid.. S. 222). 'Of what good are called very strong sources of long-term, permanent, very many pleasures of itself due to the importance attributed to the good of all flinty-eyed people who talk about human affairs. If we think that "good above benefits, we can only say:" very useful above is not very much use "- we say only a mathematical truth, like the fact that 100 is greater than 2, that oleander is more colors than violet '. (Ibid.. S. 224). Beautiful 'is defined as the complete manifestation of the excellent ideas in a separate substance, . We need to come to the conclusion: "beautiful in reality only a ghost, . puts in carrying nasheyu fantasy "; this will follow, . what, . "Strictly speaking, . created a wonderful fantasy nasheyu, . but in reality (or, . <According to Hegel>: in nature) truly beautiful no "; from the, . that in nature there is truly beautiful, . will follow, . that "art has its source in man's striving to fill the shortcomings of the beautiful in real life" and that "great, . create art, . above the beautiful in real life ", . - All these thoughts are the essence <Hegelian aesthetics, and are there> is no accident, . and by strictly logical development of the basic concept of beauty ',
. (Chernyshevski NG. Vol.: In 2 m. M., 1986. T. 1. S. 81). 'If an artist has taken to his brow with a sculpture of a person's nose with another mouth to a third, he would prove that only one thing: their own lack of taste or, at least, the inability to find a really beautiful face for their model. Based on all the above considerations, we think that the beauty of the statue can not be higher than the beauty of a living individual rights, because the image could not be more beautiful than the original '. (Ibid.. S. 131-132). Quality Russian man 'Will there ever be a good Russian masters of the farmers, . still poor former masters? Course, . will; this assurance is not based in any kind of hypothesis about the transcendental qualities of the Russian people, . not at a high notion of his national capacity, . his superiority over others in intelligence or hard work or skill, . simply on the, . that it is Russian need the farmers to conduct their business smarter and more calculating maintenance ',
. (Collected Works: A 2 t. T. 2. S. 229).

Works 1 / Poln.sobr.soch Vol.1-16. M., 1939-1953, 2 / Izbr.filos.soch. V.1-3. Leningrad, 1950-1951.

Literature Struve B.P. The history of our philosophical development / / Problems of Idealism. M., 1902; Spц╓th i.i. Anthropologism Lavrov in light of the history of philosophy / / Lavrov P.L. Sat. Articles. Pg., 1922; Plekhanov GV. Op. M., 1925. T. 5-6; Steklov YU.M. NGChernyshevsky. His life and work. M., 1928. T. 1-2; Florovsky G. Ways of Russian Theology. Paris, 1937 (Vilnius, 1991), Rosenthal MM. Philosophical views Chernyshevsky. , 1948; Aznauri AA. Ethical teachings Chernyshevsky. , 1960; Belik A.P. Aesthetics Chernyshevsky. Moscow, 1961; Vodolazov i.i. From Chernyshevskogo to Plekhanov. M., 1969; Zenkovsky VV. History of Russian Philosophy. L., 1991. T. 1, h. 2. S. 127-143; Kotlyarevsky H. Sketches from the history of societies. sentiment the 60-ies. N.G.CH. and a new faith in Philosophy. apparel Vestn. Europe, 1912, dec.; Cheshihin-Vetrinsky VE. N.G.CH. Pg., 1923; Pantin IK. Socialist. thought in Russia, the transition from utopia to science. Moscow, 1973; N.G.CH. in the memoirs of contemporaries. , 1982; Randall FB. NGChernyshevskii. NY, 1967; Scalan JP. Nicholas Chernyshevsky and Philosophical Materialism in Russia / / Journal of the History of Philosophy. Berkely and Los Angeles, 1970. Vol. VIII. ? 1; Woehrlin WF. Chernyshevski. The Man and the Journalist. Cambridge (Mass), 1971; Lampert E. Sons Against Fathers. Studies in Russian Radicalism and Revolution. Oxford, 1965; Pereira NGO. The Thought and Teachings of NGCh. P., 1967.

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