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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

('s greatest poets and the universal genius of German literature.)

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Biography Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
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His works he called 'fragments of a huge confession'. Autobiographical of his works, in t.ch. Poetry and truth (Dichtung und Wahrheit), . tells the story of childhood and youth of the poet until 1775, Journey to Italy (Italienische Reise), . Report on a trip to Italy in 1786-1788, the French campaign in 1792 (Die Campagne in Frankreich 1792) and the Siege of Mainz in 1793 (Die Belagerung von Mainz, . 1793), . and the Annals and Diaries (Annalen and Tag-und Jahreshefte), . covering the period from 1790 to 1822, . - All were published in the belief, . it is impossible to evaluate poetry, . did not understand the first of its author,
Goethe was born on August 28, 1749 in Frankfurt. 'In my father went to the stern / way of life, figure; / In mother - temper is always alive / And tales attraction' (Lane. D. Nedovicha) - he wrote in one of the later poems. The first verse of Goethe experiments related to the age of eight. Not too strict home schooling under the supervision of the father, . and then three years of a student's liberty at the University of Leipzig leave him enough time, . to satisfy the urge to read and try all the genres and styles of the Enlightenment, . so that by age 19, . when illness forced him to interrupt their studies, . he had already mastered the methods of diversifying and drama and was the author of a fairly large number of works, . most of whom subsequently destroyed,
. Especially poetry collection was saved Annette (Das Buch Annette, . 1767), . of Anna Catharina Shenkopf, . daughter of the owner of the Leipzig tavern, . where Goethe usually ate, . and pastoral comedy vagaries of love (Die Laune des Verliebten, . 1767),

In Strasbourg, where in 1770-1771 Goethe completed law school, and in the next four years in Frankfurt, he was the leader of a literary rebellion against the principles established I.Kh. Gotshedom (1700-1766) and theorists of the Enlightenment.

In Strasbourg, Goethe met with the IG Herder (1744-1803), a leading critic and ideologue of the movement 'Sturm und Drang', replete with the establishment in Germany of a great and original literature. Enthusiastic attitude of Herder to Shakespeare, Ossian, ancient monuments of English poetry T. Percy and folk poetry of all nations opened new horizons for the young poet whose talent just beginning to unfold. He wrote Gotz von Berlichingen (Gtz von Berlichingen) and, using Shakespeare's 'lessons', began work on Egmont (Egmont) and Faust (Faust); Herder helped to collect the German folk songs and composed numerous poems in the manner of a folk song. Goethe, Herder shared belief that true poetry should come from the heart and be the fruit of his own life experience of the poet, rather than rewrite the old samples. That conviction was for life its main creative principle. During this period, passionate happiness, . how it was filled with love for Friederike Brion, . daughter zezengeymskogo pastor, . translated into vivid imagery and intimate tenderness of poems, . as Rendezvous and separation (Willkommen und Abschied), . Majskaya song (Mailied) and painted with a ribbon (Mit einem bemalten Band); same pangs of conscience after parting with her reflected in scenes of abandonment and loneliness in Faust, . Getse, . Klavigo and a number of poems,
. Sentimental Werther's passion for Lotte and its tragic dilemma: love for a girl already betrothed to another - part of Goethe's own life experience. Lyrics to Lily Sheneman, a young beauty from the Frankfurt society, tell the story of his temporary infatuation.

Eleven years in the court of Weimar (1775-1786), where he was a friend and adviser of the young Duke Carl August, radically changed the life of the poet. Goethe was at the heart of court society - tireless inventor and organizer of balls, masquerades, jokes, amateur theatricals, hunting, picnics, Trustee parks, architectural monuments and museums. He became a member of the Duke's Privy Council, and later - Minister of State, was in charge of roads, levy, public finance, public works, mining projects, etc.. and spent many years studying the geology, mineralogy, botany and comparative anatomy. But most of all profit earned him a long daily contact with Charlotte von Stein. Emotionality and revolutionary iconoclasm period of 'Sturm und Drang' of the past, but now the ideals of Goethe's life and art become self-restraint and self-control, balance, harmony and classical perfection of form. Instead of the great geniuses of his heroes are quite ordinary people. Free stanzas of his poems are calm and serene on the content and rhythm, but gradually becomes more rigid form, such as Goethe prefers octave and elegiac couplets great 'troika' - Catullus, and Propertius Tibull.

Numerous duties seriously impeded the completion of the Goethe started his major works - Wilhelm Meister (Wilhelm Meister), Egmont, Iphigenia (Iphigenie) and Tasso (Tasso). Taking the year and a half vacation, he goes to Italy, is engaged in modeling there, makes the landscape more than a thousand sketches, reads the ancient poets and the history of ancient art I. Winckelmann (1717-1768).

Upon his return to Weimar (1789) Goethe did not immediately passed to the 'settled' lifestyle. During the next six years, he took second trip to Venice, accompanied by the Duke of Weimar in his trip to Breslau (Wroclaw), participated in a military campaign against Napoleon. In June 1794 he established friendly relations with Schiller, who asked for help in publishing a new magazine 'Horae', and thereafter lived mainly in Weimar. Daily conversations with poets, discuss plans, joint work on such designs as the satirical Xenia (Xenien, 1796) and ballads 1797, was for Goethe's great creative stimulus. Been published writings, which he had in his desk in t.ch. Roman Elegies (Rmische Elegien), the fruit of nostalgia for Rome, and love for Christiane Vulpius, which in 1806 became the wife of Goethe. He graduated from the school-Wilhelm Meister (Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre, 1795-1796), continued to work on Faust, and wrote a series of new works, in t.ch. Alexis and Dora (Alexis und Dora), Aminta (Amyntas) and Hermann and Dorothea (Hermann und Dorothea), the idyllic life of a little poem from the German town in the wake of the French Revolution. With regard to the prose, that Goethe wrote at the time a collection of short stories Conversations of German immigrants (Unterhaltungen deutscher Ausgewanderten), which entered and inimitable Tale (Das Mrchen).

When he died in 1805, Schiller, thrones and empires shudder - Napoleon redraw Europe. During this period he wrote sonnets to Minne Hertslib, a novel selective affinity (Die Wahlverwandtschaften, 1809) and autobiography. In 65 years, wearing a mask, Hatem east, he created the West-Eastern Divan (West-stlicher Diwan), a collection of love lyrics. Zuleyka this cycle, Marianne von Villemer, was herself a poetess, and her poems are organically included in the Sofa. Proverbs, profound observations and reflections about the wisdom of human life, morality, nature, art, poetry, science and religion, poetry lit up the West-Eastern Divan. The same qualities appear in conversation in prose and in verse (Sprche in Prosa, Sprche in Reimen), Orphic pervoglagolah (Urworte. Orhisch, 1817), as well as in conversations with I. P. Eckermann, published in the last decade, the poet's life, when he finished Wilhelm Meister and Faust. Goethe died in Weimar on March 22, 1832.

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