Carlo Goldoni (Goldoni Carlo)( Playwright)
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Biography Carlo Goldoni (Goldoni Carlo)
When a country is in decline, it sometimes is beneficial to the art. So in any case has happened to Venice. Once it was a great power, but in the XVII century shared the fate of the other Italian states, came under alien influence. With one, however, except. 'Queen of the Adriatic' has long been one of the most important centers of Italian culture. In the XVIII century was also an attractive destination for holiday-maker of Italy (Venetian carnival lasted longer than any other), and then for the whole of Europe. Of the public spectacle is still most attracted to commedia dell'arte - dell'arte, although the best company, who worked in this genre, long absent in the city, traveling throughout Europe. It was headed by the inimitable Truffaldino - Giovanni Antonio Sak-ki, but he was at home already criticized. Italian theater experts have increasingly noted that the masks came down from the past, outdated. People have changed, and the manner of playing all the actors remained the same. Playwrights began to imitate European comedies of manners, but the theatrical tradition was always the same, old, and to convert it, he needed one of the biggest comedians of the world Carlo Goldoni.
Neither the dramatists, nor even in the actors he was not prepared. Carlo was born in a well secured cultural family. His father was a physician, mother - actress. He finished Law School and was going to become a lawyer. But this prevented all, and especially the house where he grew up. His grandfather was a great lover of theater, especially actresses, which spent a considerable state of. The theater was the main entertainment of the family, and with eight years of a child already written to their loved ones Comedy. He once played a female role in the school play, and learning in another school, drop out and swam away with the actors from Rimini in Chioggia, where she lived at that time his mother. That he this escape is simple - one of the actors explained to her that the boy had simply missed it.
In 1731 Goldoni, obeying the will of his father, became a lawyer, but customers, and hence the earnings were not enough, and the young man planned to write the libretto for the opera in Milan. The first of them was rejected. In 1733 Goldoni first wrote comedy for professional actors, and then began to regularly earn extra writing plays, which were one or two written role, and the rest were given to the will of litsedeev-improvisers. Life at this time he led a scattered, more wandered from town to town. But one day in Genoa saw a beautiful girl in the window, bowed to her, she responded to the bow, the next day the same thing happened, and he was soon to woo her. Offer accepted, and Goldoni has gained a devoted wife, with whom he lived until his death.
Now I had to settle down solidly. He settled in Pisa, where got a law practice and firmly decided to permanently leave the theater. But once appeared to him under the guise of a client known Pantalone - Cesare Darbes, . one of the main actors in the troupe Girolamo Medebaka, . and offered a contract for five years, . according to which Goldoni had written eight scripts a year and accompany the troupe during her summer tour,
. He flatly refused. But Darbes not go. Slowly he pulled Goldoni in the game, and 40-year-old lawyer suddenly realized that his place in the theater. And nowhere more.
Actually, he could come to this conclusion much sooner. He had already written an entire comedy 'The woman that we should' (1743). He already had gone through almost a decade trained in the Venetian Theater of San Samuele, where the troupe has played Giuseppe Immer, for whom Goldoni wrote scripts and even somehow remade tragedy 'Vilizary' marching with great success. About the same time he composed for the Sacchi script 'Servant of Two Masters' (1745). Seeing Sacchi as Truffaldino, Goldoni used findings of this wonderful actor to work on the comedy of the same name. It is now over and over again resumed on the stage.
But of course, that Carlo Goldoni, who all know and love, came to us really, after Darbes managed to inspire a successful lawyer. Goldoni's creations begin on the European continent comedy of manners. In Venice, a no-go, however, found one rival - the Abbe Chiari, but man he was incompetent, and compare them to except the enemies of Goldoni, such as Carlo Gozzi.
It is believed that the comedy of manners comes from the early Moliere, the author of 'Funny prude', but it was only the first steps. It soon turns to Moliere comedy characters, established the basis of such great works as 'Tartuffe', 'Don Giovanni', 'Misanthrope'. In a comedy of manners task at first glance, the modest. It depicts not so much eternal human type (such as 'stingy' or 'hypocrite'), how much exposed to changes in social environment. Large, impressive human images in it are rare (although they are not excluded), but life is presented in its entirety and diversity. Goldoni called his play 'collective comedies', they are densely populated, they did not lose a single home details. For the same Venice, thought upon their chief dramatist, he himself is still a figure almost home. At one of the Venetian sites (the area in the city, only one - St. Mark) is on a hill monument Goldoni. Right beside them - a tiny market. And when the ladies who came for shopping, you want something gossip, they simply put shopping bags on a pedestal, and discuss their affairs in a society of the great countryman.
A truly great Goldoni. Comedy of manners born, again, far from Venice - in France where he worked the young Moliere. But of Moliere Goldoni long known only by hearsay. In the second half of the XVII and the beginning of XVIII century in England was set up his own comedy of manners. Its authors, primarily Wycherley, Congreve and Farquhar, are considered classics of the English drama. But Goldoni had not even heard the names of the playwrights. He did everything himself. And if anything it helped, then perhaps life itself.
. Comedy of manners alleged tog, yes, when the writers have what is called 're-discover their own country', in other words, when in her life comes a decisive turn, new people and establishing a new relationship between
. This happened in England after the restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660, it was in Russia, where merchants and elevated it began to peer A. Ostrovsky. Something similar happened in Venice.
Pantalone, Brighella, Columbine, Harlequin, Tartaglia, Doctors once came out of their provinces and reflect the public mood of the time. They are easy to learn and with them were friends. But since then everything has changed, they have become abstract figures and were only interested in their antics ( 'Lazzi'), many of which have long been familiar to all. Yet comedy masks had not yet sunk into oblivion. Actors improvisational troupes vain traveled the globe and can even reach the very distant when Russia, . not to mention Austria, . Germany (hence Gansvurst, . German Harlequin - being rough, . primitive, . but beloved by several generations of Germans, . Austrians, . after them and the Danes),
. We visited them in England, quite jealous of other people's art. In France, the Italian comedians twice opened his own theater. The first time they settled in Paris in 1645, but in the 1697-meters for the fact that 'spill the beans', they were expelled from the capital. In 1715 they returned and established one of the main French Theater - Theater of Italian comedy, existed for many years. They both settled down in this country, that even went to the French. Short, comedy masks gave a lot for the development of comedy in Europe, especially in Italy.
Of course, it was a great disadvantage: first European comic improvisers were. But in England, the more committed Shakespeare. In the Italian commedia dell'arte is strictly kept improvisation. From a certain point it became attached to it a certain provincialism - in fact in other countries had already become established literary comedy. Yet away from old style was not easy. Actors were trained to pronounce the 'others' words'. Reform in this regard, the Italian theater and took Carlo Goldoni.
He has worked with actors, teaching them almost a new profession. Preferred, of course, those who pointelligentnee. So in his plays have appeared at first some unwritten role, and then the Continuum a written text. From improvisers he, however, until the end never refused. Goldoni's got too many of them (the best example - the story of the Sacchi), always had the reputation of a decent man and grateful, and even up and down the Italian, and even in the most mature of his plays now and then appeared the usual mask. (In modern performances of their sometimes neglected, . sometimes the same show as a kind of a matter of national pride.) But they are gradually overgrown by today's trappings, . same Pantalone more like a Venetian merchant, . lived longer in the XVI and XVII century, . and in the middle of XVIII in the country, . which in many respects has changed,
Mask based images created by Goldoni, did not prevent him to work on a comedy of manners. Instead, focus on leadership traits of a character, she helped him to do 'collective comedy', or 'comedy environment', as he sometimes called it, yet the characters and comedy, with characters developed by social.
Good education has helped transform Goldoni in a new way Italian theater, which had previously been (as a farce) original comedy at the heart of Europe, and is now a European comedy, as such. Henceforth, he won stage one country after another. In the same performances in France's own classic Moliere went far fewer than before, and Voltaire (and that in those years a great honor), wrote a letter Goldoni. He, like Lessing, very highly of him spoke. Goldoni has influenced and Diderot.
Only a few Western European playwrights so lucky in Russia, as Carlo Goldoni. He started to transfer an additional 70-ies XVIII ve-ka, he successfully walked on stage and downs of interest in him has always compensated by new surge in popularity. It attracted Gogol. Three of his comedy translated AN Ostrovsky (preserved, unfortunately, only a translation of 'Coffee'; translation 'Impostor' and 'true friend' did not reach us). In the great Italian comedies, playing the best actors, and some of them, such Karatygin themselves became his interpreter. Interestingly, on two copies of books published in his old age 'Memoirs of Carlo Goldoni ...' signed Catherine II.
Goldoni's comedies, has created 267. It was the season when he was competing with rivals, he wrote, with considerable damage to health, 16 pieces. Of course, not everything can be called masterpieces. But one of them stands. This 'Innkeeper' (1753), the heroine of which Mirandolina's favorite characters and most Goldoni, and the actresses who played that role, and countless generations of visitors.
Mirandolina flesh and blood of their environment. Goldoni admired his heroine is not for her immaculate. She knows, as if reluctantly, to accept an expensive gift. She deftly raises hope and jealousy. It confronts the latter-day Marquis and ruined the graph, and then married her servant, in which will take the business acumen. Writes the same, and counts it better than any clerk in the shop. Really, nothing sociological sketch of burzhuazke not lost and does not want to lose their folk roots. But the sociology of this special - education. For Mirandolina all obedient mother-nature, which has created in her face such a wonderful example of women. This is one of many in the XVIII century examples of 'natural rights', moreover, is entirely rooted in the present. Mirandolina is as natural as it is folk. And for this reason alone can not have ties with the Italian folk comedy - commedia dell'arte. Goldoni simply return the mask to the type of. He generally turned masks Role.
In the same period Goldoni creates' coffee '(1750),' Crossroads' (1756), 'Kodzhinskie skirmish' (1762), the trilogy 'Dachnoe madness',' Summer Adventures', 'Return to the Cottage' (1761), 'Fan '(1765) and some other comedies environment'. He became the chief representative of educational drama in Italy. Gradually, the audience accustomed Goldoni Venice, and followed her and other cities not only to follow the action, but also listen to the text. But the victory was not complete Goldoni. After the Lisbon earthquake in 1755 from the Portuguese returned to touring troupe Sacchi, who at first needed in his old repertoire - the comedy of masks - and asked for it to Carlo Gozzi. First is his play Gozzi drew the audience, and resentful Goldoni soon accepted the offer of Italian comedy theater in Paris to become a full-time playwright. February 23, 1762 he said goodbye to the audience Venetian comedy 'One of the last evening of Carnival', where the artist painted himself Andzoletto to emigrate to Russia. The audience warmly pursued his favorite playwright. 'Come back soon' - they shouted to him. Goldoni wept and promised to return, but never saw his beloved city.
In Paris, he had no luck. Theater Italian comedy expected him to scenarios, but with this kind of work he had long since parted. One of the two full pieces, . which he composed for the Italian comedians (in French), . 'Grumbler-benefactor', . written on the occasion of the wedding of the future King Louis XVI in 1771, . was a huge success, . which gave Goldoni regard to the royal family, . where he became a teacher then fashionable Italian language and received a lifetime pension,
. After the Revolution it was confiscated, and half-blind old man Goldoni was in distress. Then he returned to retire. The decision of the Convention was adopted on the day after the death of Goldoni. At the Paris house of the great playwright strengthened plaque: 'Here lived Carlo Goldoni, author of' fuddy-duddy-benefactor 'and other plays'. Other pieces not mentioned. After all, they were not written in French.