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Derzhavin Gavrila Romanovich

( Poet)

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Biography Derzhavin Gavrila Romanovich
photo Derzhavin Gavrila Romanovich
Derzhavin - a noble son, studied (although not finish my studies) in the Kazan gymnasium. But not received a thorough education and a truly educated person has not become. A huge talent with clearly insufficient knowledge of foreign languages, world history, philosophy, art, literature. The first half of life - a difficult, full of deprivations. Service began as a soldier, an officer made only in 1772. Disposition was not a quiet, more violent: a warrior! Found himself in dangerous alteration, courting women, kropal rhymes, in poverty, having no lasting materiayalnogo wealth - in short, slovenly fellow.

Years Pugachev uprising (1773-1775) Derzhavin, seconded to his native Volga, held in the campaigns and battles, a lot of risk, was nearly captured by the hypnotherapy itself. In particular, it was an episode narrated by hearsay Pushkin. In one village converged many people deliberately go to hypnotherapy. Derzhavin came with two Cossacks, it 'had started to attack', but he 'ordered the two to hang, but the people sent for lashes and the whole village crossed' by persuading the audience that follow him three regiments.

. But the revolt is suppressed, and military career Derzhavina ends - begins a civil
. Rose to very high ranks, became a statesman, although he had to come to know and disruptions, and the royal displeasure, and the vicious jealousy of powerful nobles. Sometimes Derzhavina long exiled from St. Petersburg - to manage it Olonetsk, the Tambov province. Such a hectic life distract the poet from literary pursuits, . which became his main business is, . and at the same time filled the impression of being, . bestowed a keen sense of reality - that, . without which the poet is inconceivable that kidney, . as Derzhavin.,

. The poems he hooked back in 1760-ies, but as a truly great poet said of himself until the end of 1770, in what seemed most affected by the intervention of fate
. In the prime of life is dead friend Derzhavina Prince AI Meschersky, whose life was illuminated by careless gaiety and banquet lamps. Apparently stunned by this sudden and untimely death, the poet wrote an ode, which is in the final version is called 'On the death of Prince Meshchersky'. It refers to the impermanence of all things, about his imminent death. Relentless chimes herald the fact that we are one step closer to the abyss of nothingness. Piru, a 'pale death' looks at us ', and sharpens the blade scythes'.

We slip on the edge of the abyss,
Which fell headlong;
Acceptable to the life of her death,
In fact, to die, are born.
No pity all reeks of death:
And the stars of its broken:
And the sun extinguish it,
And all the worlds it threatens.

Poems such extraordinary force still did not know Russian poetry. Everything will come an end, all the decay and abandonment - this topic has become a cross-cutting Derzhavin, until his death poem. But before that, so far away, and our poet was not going to stop at just achieved: searches and finds new ways.

1780-m year dates Derzhavin poem, betrothed to a later edition of 'Rulers and sudiyam'. Eighty-first psalm of the Biblical King David in the transcription Derzhavina sounded terrible indictment of the powerful, unjust and evil, earthly gods, and as the championship of the weak and oppressed, the poor and unfortunate people, orphans and widows. The princes and judges do not heed the words of truthful and do not want to know the truth: they are 'tops' covered 'mzdoyu'. 'Villainy earth shake, / / true zyblet heaven' - vice grandiose and cosmic, truly universal scope. Boldly and defiantly poet rebukes the kings:

Kings! I had thought, you are gods have power,
None of you do not judge
But you, as I like, passionate,
And just as mortal as I.
And you like so you shall fall
As with ancient withered leaf falls;
And you like the way you die,
As your last slave die!

Derzhavin could be in serious trouble because of this poem. Bosses did not like it when talking to him in a similar vein. Many years later, when it died down the French Revolution, these poems were read and even more so as politically explosive, full of civil and revolutionary fervor. The author had to defend: this is shifting the psalm, and the psalmist King David was not a Jacobin, therefore, Derzhavin nothing wrong. As if true. There were no adverse effects. Meanwhile, the experience of civil lyric was significant for the poet (which later is most clearly reflected in his ode 'Grandee').

Meanwhile, revealed the ability Derzhavin and philosophize in verse. The poet-thinker in his ode 'God' offers profound vision of human nature, which is 'respectable middle of nature' - between the corporeal creatures and heavenly spirits, that is, apparently, between animals and angels. A man like him in linking the two halves of a whole universe - the scope materially and spiritual. He and the worm and God together. 'I have body rot in the dust, / / Mind thunder command'. And it is hardly possible to decide what Derzhavin as a lyric poet closer and more expensive - the dust of the earth or a heavenly light. He was captured in kind, it is a landscape and grocery ( 'Sheksninsky starlet gold ...'), admiring the charms of all earthly things, but in admiration of this clearly affects a kind of divinely inspired top, high noble spirituality.

In the 1780's poet often and with great pleasure to recall that in his veins and Tatar blood (in the clan was a noble ancestor Derzhavins - Murza Bagram), and this left a special mark on his work. Not only he himself, a native of Kazan, but all around as if acquired some Turkic flavor. Empress Catherine II - and she 'godlike princess / Kirgizkaysatskiya hordes'! She obeyed, and other 'hordes' - from zheltovlasyh Finns to narrow-eyed Huns. Her nobles, as well as himself Derzhavin calls Murzas as the Tatar feudal nobility. His songs - 'Tartar' he 'in the Tatar practiced Peц╠a' and prayed 'Great Prophet'. Which? Probably Muhammad: if Murza, then, therefore, Muslim. These motifs from different poems dedicated to Felice - the goddess of bliss, which means the Empress Catherine, in whose sofa (the Turkish equivalent of the Senate) sit Pasha and viziers. Where shines her throne? 'In Baghdad, . Smyrna, . Cashmere? " Togo supposedly does not know himself a writer, . but through this whole entourage of peeps East Petersburg, . Neva flows and heard by Russian affairs, . in the midst of which came 'Mirza' Derzhavin, . deafened by the roar of the Kazan and Astrakhan Bazaar origin, . densely mixing them with the Russian vernacular vocabulary and language in general, with unimaginable nonsense ( 'Desire winter'),

However, such 'Turkism' poetic thinking did not prevent Derzhavin sing Russian victory in the wars with the Turks. He glorified and Ochakov siege and capture of Ishmael, he admired the heroic feats of our military leaders (of the same AV. Suvorov), officers and soldiers. In this we can see a certain contradiction: the dreamy 'Mirza', moreover, inclined to fancy himself the all-powerful sultan - and suddenly he is glad that 'pale face of Muhammad' and calls 'Hagarites erased', that is to destroy the Turks. He, . as befits the Tartars, . devoutly in love with the moon (crescent - the symbol of Islam), and depict it in the marvelous poetry, . but 'srebrolunno State' (Turkey), he hated - and yes bend Russia eagle with its talons 'horns lu-HN'! About the same - in other words: 'Eagle moon eclipsed',
. Russian nobleman and descendant of the Tatar Murzas united in one person, and the dispute between them originally responded to Derzhavin poetry.

In the mid 1790-ies sharply the variable family life Derzhavina. His wife died, still young, with whom he was married 15 years, which is very loved and in verse called Plenira - forever captivated with its beauty. This sad event, he dedicated the poem 'On the death of Catherine Yakovlevna, 1794 July 15 day happened'. Discursive, non-classical and non-traditional rhythm of farewell poems, inspired by the direct experience of loss, conveys his hard-won sense of consternation. And in the future so do not forget his wife extinct and still call it Plenira. Nevertheless, in the same year he made his proposal to her friend and early next year he married a second time. New darling was conventionally poetic name Milena, from the word 'darling' (in reality - Daria Alekseevna). The marriage lasted until his death Derzhavina, the former for a whole quarter of a century older than his second wife. On the girls' he looked in his old age. On the vitality and ladies' man late Derzhavina useful to remember, turning the next page it's career, when he was preparing a collection of 'anacreontic dog-no', published in 1804.

. Anakreontika (on behalf of the Greek poet Anacreon [t] a) is often understood as a poetic hedonism, the cult of sensual pleasures: wine and women! This simplification; Derzhavin looked deeper
. For him, it is important that a drunkard and a lover in this case, a bald old man, who not long left to live. Therefore, in the festive spree in contemplation of girlish beauty rush motives infirmities of age and approaching death. Soon to be buried, so the sweeter to have fun in the end: a complex feeling, in which pleasure is inseparable from grief.

. Significantly, Anacreontic Derzhavin began composing songs in his youth, but a collection of them worthy to publish, when he was over sixty: ripe, but rather was old, like Anacreon
. Other Russian masters Anakreontika - aq. Cantemir, M.V. Lomonosov, NA Lvov - to such an advanced age just do not have survived, so that the true 'Russian Anacreon' was only Derzhavin. A lot of fire and passion in the late love lyric poet (forever wounded Cupid) and not at all masculine complacency.

In the coming XIX century apart Anakreontika Derzhavin creates and other lyrical masterpieces. One of them - 'The Swan', reminiscent of more famous 'monument' ( 'I have erected a monument to his wonderful, eternal', 1795) - both in explanation of the works of the Roman poet Horace - his immortality through the ages, in a multi-progeny. In other poems, 'domesticated' Derzhavin - inhabitants of the capital, . summer which usually holds in his novgorodskom estate Zvanka; hospitable, . cordial host, . loves good food and entertain friends, . but sometimes quarrelsome neighbor, in a wig (for 'gol Head') and Kurguzov coat, . when necessary, . and in the lap of nature - in the quiet of the countryside - is simple and natural,
. Due to the abundance of domestic details, expressive landscapes, still lifes and self-portrait sketches Gavrila Romanovich before us as a living. His dreams of immortality is not in vain, these colors do not fade with time. And indeed, a wonderful painting messages' Eugene. Life Zvanskaya ',' porter '.

He took a significant part in the literary struggle of the era. In 1811, the company formed 'Conversation amateurs Russian word', bringing together the literature of Old Believers, followers of classicism, the tradition of Lomonosov, the opponents of the novel, which introduced NM. Karamzin and his followers, sentimentalist, predromantiki and romance. One of the most influential leaders of society began Derzhavin, in whose house on the embankment were meeting 'besedistov'. They, convinced archaist, the venerable maestro seemed most worthy successor to the great odopistsa University, may well have liked the fact that tall fellow and delight Derzhavin able to combine with rough earthiness.

Sam Derzhavin not been intolerant to literary opponents' Conversations ...', rather opposite. He respected Karamzin, giving him his due, in VA Zhukovsky saw his successor, and Pushkin, in the words of the latter, 'in the coffin leaving blessed' by visiting the Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum. Subsequently, Pushkin remembered it: 'It was in 1815, at a public examination in the Lyceum. How do we know that Derzhavin will be to us, we were worried. Delvig went to the stairs to wait for him and kiss his hand, a hand written 'waterfall'. He entered the vestibule, and Delvig heard how he asked the porter: Where, my friend, are privy? This prosaic question disappoint Delvig, which canceled his intention and returned to the hall ... Derzhavin was very old. He was in uniform and boots, corduroy. Exam our very tired of his. He sat, propping his head with his hand. His face was pointless, dull eyes, lips saggy ... He dozed until the exam has not yet begun in the Russian literature. Then he perked up, his eyes sparkled, and he changed the whole.

Of course, his poems were read, examine his poetry, continually praised his poems. He listened with extraordinary vividness. Finally I was called. I read my 'Recollections in Tsarskoe Selo', stood two steps from Derzhavin ... When I came to the verse, which mentions the name Derzhavina my boyish voice rang out, and my heart thumped with intoxicating delight ... I do not remember how I finished my reading, I do not remember where escaped. Derzhavin was delighted, and he demanded that I wanted to hug me ... '

. Indeed 'in the coffin going down' - for three days before his death - Derzhavin wrote his last poem, . rather it began, . but the resulting stanza is perceived as a complete tse-LOE, . with rare expressiveness was of a sad and long nurtured the poet thought:,

. River of times in their quest
. Carrying all the deeds of men
. And drown in the abyss of oblivion
. Peoples, kingdoms and kings
And if that remains
Through the sound of the lyre and pipe
That mouth of eternity devour
And the total will not leave the fate of.

Here contains an acrostic. Read vertically the first letters of lines, we get: 'Ruin Honor'. What is 'Honor'? Perhaps an ancient form of the genitive case of the noun 'honor', ie 'a ruin of honor'. Perhaps extra message word with the likely continuation (if the poet finished the poem): something like 'ruin venerated heart'. We will never know. Derzhavin took his secret to the grave.

He is buried in Novgorod, in the Kremlin. On the headstone lists of high rank and position of the noble dead, many reached the arena of public service - and not a word that he was a poet (and at one time the greatest poet of Russia). Yes, I have, and the governor, and senator, and minister, and personal secretary to the Empress, and the ruler of the Imperial Council, but all of this together, of course, commensurate with the enduring value of his poetic

. It gromozvuchno ( 'verb times! Metal ringing') and a delicious multi-( 'Bagryana ham, . green soup with egg yolk, . / Ruddy-yellow cake, . white cheese, . crayfish red, . / / What pitch, . Amber - caviar, . and with a blue feather / There pike motley: beautiful! ", . can be tender and rigid, . happy and sad, . light-weighted and cumbersome,
. It and the intoxication of life and philosophy, and citizenship, and diversity of human emotions with their shades. Angry and flattered, eloquence mixes with the tongue-tie. Creates a multidimensional world with his lively discord and confusion of the internal tension of contradictions. Demonstrates an unprecedented wealth of stylistic figures and verse forms. Modern Derzhavin poets with him for the most part seem to be somewhat deflating.

In the Russian memory etched poetic 'formula' Derzhavina become aphorisms and proverbs. They are often cited, . included in our voice everyday life: 'I am the king, . I am a slave, . I am a worm, . I am God ', . 'Fatherland and smoke us sweet and pleasant', . 'Where the table was viands, . there is a coffin ', . 'Do not drink, . my dear neighbor ', . '... the truth kings says with a smile', . 'The donkey donkey will, . / / Although the overt and the stars; / / Where should act wisely, . / / It just pops ears',
. Pushkinskaya of 'Feast in the Time of Cholera' string 'and the dark abyss at the edge' - a paraphrase of verse Derzhavin 'slips, we on the edge of the abyss'. Literary sources of 'Reflections by the front entrance' Nekrasov found in ode Derzhavina 'Grandee': destitute asylum in the front, sweetly sleep sybarite-dignitary ... In the cycle 'Duma' in KF Ryleeva a poem about Derzhavin, who presented a model of civic virtue. And skeptical voices were heard to say: he was not a poet-citizen, a courtier, saint. But what about this: because he has 'Rulers and sudiyam' - tiranoborcheskie verses in defense of the oppressed, the highest rated Dostoyevsky and Turgenev! Not been forgotten Derzhavin and poets 'Silver Age'. VF Khodasevich written a whole book; Osip Mandelstam, himself a translator of Petrarch, admired Derzhavin sonnet 'Dreaming', also from Petrarch; Derzhavin poetic tradition of unrestrained emotional feelings in verse MI Tsvetaeva.

And what a proud, Sovereign name this poet! And the name arhangelovo: Gabriel. No wonder it seemed to him: 'there is one God, and one Derzhavin' ..

. -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------


. I erected a monument to his wonderful, eternal,
. Metals firmer and higher, he pyramids;
. Neither of his whirlwind, nor thunder will break fleeting,
. And the time his flight is broken

So! all I do not die, but part of me more
From decay escaped, the death will be a live
And glory be to increase my, not fading,
Until Slavyanov born universe will honor

. The hearing will be held for me from the White Sea to the Black,
. Where is the Volga, Don, Neva, with the Reef pours Urals;
. Everyone will remember that the nations neischetnyh,
. As from obscurity, I became so well known,

. What I first ventured into a funny Russian syllable
. On the virtues of Felitsa proclaim,
. In simplicity of heart conversation about God
. And the truth of the kings says with a smile

O Muse! merit of being proud fair,
And those who despise you, despise those myself;
Relaxed arm slow
Thy forehead dawn of immortality crown.


If cute girls
It could fly like birds,.
I sat on a branch,
I would like to be suchochkom,
To the thousands of girls
In my sit branches.

Let sit and be sung,
Nests and whistled
Taken out and the chicks;
Do I not bend,
Eternally they admired
He was happier than all the knots.

AT Bagrationi

Oh, how great, great on-field-he!
He is cunning, and quick and hard when attacked;
But trembled, as it stretched into battle palms
With bayonet God-rati-he.

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