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Defoe, Daniel

( Writer)

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Biography Defoe, Daniel
photo Defoe, Daniel


(ca. 1660-1731)

Unusually the life of Daniel Defoe. This enterprising bourgeoisie was involved in nearly all the attractive commercial and political enterprises of its time. Defoe sold absolutely everything: from tobacco and vodka to public opinion. He himself admitted:

. Trial of one variable
. not experienced
. Thirteen times I was rich
. and once again become poor.

. Writers classicists A. Pop, Dzh.Addison seen in Defoe not fellow writers, and 'ignorant', 'shameless adventurer'.

. Creativity is not inspired by Defoe classic rules, but his great life experience, it was not drawn to the subtle taste of connoisseurs, but to the common sense of the common man.

. From the beginning in 1688, 'glorious', . otherwise 'bloodless' revolution, . vozvedshey to the English throne the ruler of Holland William of Orange, . husband, daughter of the deposed James II, . who tried to restore the country's absolutism and the Catholic Church, . Dafoe serves a fervent supporter of the new dynasty, . protecting it from attack supporters of the Stuarts, . who considered, . that the alien has no right to be king of England,
. Defoe wrote a pamphlet in verse, 'Thoroughbred Englishman' (1701), which mocks the very notion of this. He recalled that the English nation historically as a result of mixing of many tribes (the Normans, the Anglo-Saxons, Germans, Danes), and therefore, 'pure blood' of his countrymen - only the fiction. Defoe derides aristocratic genealogy, encourages its citizens despise titles, foreign tinsel and appreciate only personal valor. Defoe has attracted favorable attention of the king, was closer to the court, and even managed to add to his true name and Pastry particle 'de'.

. However, shortly after the death of William III, under Queen Anne, the last of the Stuart dynasty, the political course in the country has changed
. Nobility was zealously protect their rights, not allowing open mockery of the titles, and official church representatives began a crackdown on the opposition to it religiously - dissidents. Once again Defoe - in the center of events. He made a pamphlet 'The quickest way of dealing with dissidents' (1702), which did not immediately recognize a caricature of the reactionary clergy. This brochure has led to confusion and the friends and enemies Defoe. The writer pretended to be righteous clerics attacked the dissidents with exaggerated rage, demanded the gallows and whip the rebels - young and old. 'We must put an end ... cackling of Christian duty, moderation and mercy '. 'We must crucify all' in the name of the dominant church. Initially welcomed by the pillars of its new ally, the dissidents were confused, but soon everyone realized the true purpose of the author. Defoe was arrested and three days - from 29 to 31 July 1703 stood in the stocks on the square in the pillory. However, this triumph of the writer did not know: he was pelted with flowers, post uvili garlands in honor of Defoe singing. Hand in hand passed his pamphlets, including a new, written in prison 'Hymn to the pillory' - passionate defense of freedom of speech and press.

. However, Defoe's strike was severely: commercial affairs of his upset, threatened by poverty, and possibly link
. To avoid this, Defoe had agreed on a dubious proposal to the Prime Minister to become a secret agent of the Conservative government, and only superficially to be 'independent' journalist. Thus began the double life of a writer, he has repeatedly changed its orientation, more than once found himself in a difficult position. Role of Defoe in the backroom intrigues of his time to the end is not clear. But it is obvious that the political hameleonstvo Defoe finds himself, if not an excuse, the explanation in the peculiarities of political life in England. The two parties that alternated in power - the Tories and Whigs - were equally unprincipled and mercenary. Defoe understood perfectly the essence of parliamentary system: "I saw the underside of all parties. All of this visibility, the mere pretense and hypocrisy disgusting ... Their interests prevail over their principles'. Defoe was aware of and how enslaved his people, even though he lives in a country where there is a constitution. In his pamphlet, 'Please poor', he protested against the new deities - gold, to whom the law is powerless: 'English law - the web, means small flies are caught, whereas large easy to break. "

. In Defoe's journalism and sound economic reasons
. He - a supporter of the development of foreign trade of England. 'What is England without trade? - Nothing! " English merchant seemed to him the embodiment of the prosperity of the business and even a model of human nature. The pamphlet 'Full English merchant' Defoe wrote: 'This merchant - a universal scientist ... He knows the languages without the aid of books, geography - without the aid of maps. His trade ischertili travel the world, its foreign transactions, bills and attorney say in all languages'.

. In some of the best pamphlets Defoe glorification of private initiative reaches the heights of universal enlightenment humanism
. In the 'Essay on the projects' (1697) Defoe proposed a system of economic and consumer innovations, which have become an integral feature of our day: the savings bank, insurance against disasters, expanding the network of schools, etc.

. But Defoe had received strict religious upbringing, combined business acumen with the Puritan piety
. He sought to justify the emergence of new forms of social life references to the Bible, the divine and loved fishing, sometimes tedious, moralizing.

. So, by the time Defoe created a 'Robinson Crusoe' (1719), he was already a prominent figure among the writers and politicians of England
. Most of the life left behind. Vast experience attraction to the documentary, a passion for adventure, delight at the sight of infinitely expanding commercial horizons are reflected in his novels. They brought Defoe deserved glory and overshadowed by the works of his contempt for the British classicists. In the novels 'The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe amazing', . 'Captain Singleton "(1720), . 'Moll Flanders', . 'History of Colonel Jacques' (both - 1722), . 'Happy Courtesan, . or Roxanne "(1724) and other Defoe wrote about, . that attracted the average Englishman, for example, . on polukuptsah-polupiratah, . opened the unknown land, . about, . how easy it is for the sea to amass untold wealth, . of extraordinary human fates ..,
. However, in an entertaining form of the wing serious philosophical and social content, perhaps even deeper than suspected that he Defoe. In particular, this applies to 'Robinson Crusoe'.

This book - the prototype of modern European novel. It combines several future prose genres: an autobiographical novel, Bildungsroman, as well as travel, a political treatise. Towards a 'Robinson Crusoe' Defoe led various circumstances: the desire to generalize their own experience, the true story of the Scotsman Alexander Selkirk, who spent four years on an uninhabited island in the Pacific Ocean, reading religious literature. The main character, as well as the author - is both a sober practitioner, the bourgeois and humble devout Puritan. Gradually, however, a rational attitude to the world won him the fear of God. The novel is valuable because it clearly reflects this historical turning point in the minds of the English bourgeoisie. Should Robinson confronted with something unexpected, strange, he was ready to explain the strange phenomenon of interference of Providence, but soon the mind prevails. Seeing sprouted on the island of ears of barley and wheat, he fell on his knees. But then he remembered that he shook out the seeds: 'Miracle disappeared ... cooled down considerably and my gratitude to the Fisheries'.

From the novel 'Robinson Crusoe' in the literature for the first time is truly bourgeois hero, whose adventures are inextricably linked with a thirst for the enrichment. He does not shrink from any slave nor plantatorstvom, he is ready to dart away at the edge of the world to sell more expensive and less expensive to buy. Robinson likes to dream, but a prudent practices invariably wins it philosophizing dreamer. Hero breaks tirade against the gold remaining in the wrecked ship, but, on reflection, take it with. In Robinson's highly developed sense of ownership; beautiful exotic nature of the island fascinates him because, . that he feels is a complete master: 'I went down in this charming valley, and with secret pleasure thought, . that all my, . I - the owner of the land, . my rights to it are undeniable! " With pleasure, he lists his property,
. As many as 25 years, it has replaced it a human society, and it is not too grieved. Things just came to life in the novel Defoe. Robinson's relationship with Friday reproduce in the form of an idyllic relationship of employer and employee. Having deprived Robinson's social environment, and leaving him alone with nature, Defoe tries to prove that the 'natural man' and the bourgeoisie - it is one and the same. He felt that the feelings and thoughts brought to life by the bourgeois nature.

However, this 'natural man' is unthinkable outside of civilization, even on the island, because Defoe provides his hero with all necessary ship. Robinson Crusoe - a classic example of what is meant by the Enlightenment 'natural man' and that he was a really.

For us, Robinson first great creator, the worker. We admire them, seem poetic, even those episodes where Robinson burn clay pots, invents a bogey, tames kids, roasts the first piece of meat. We see how frivolous and headstrong youthful-sha transformed under the influence of labor in tempered, strong, fearless man, which, of course, has great educational value. The famous Jean Jacques Rousseau's philosophical novel "Emile" called SOI-gu Defoe 'good treatise on natural education' and recommended it to the boys for the first reading. Rousseau drew world attention to the depth of the content of the novel, and from that moment Defoe received universal recognition.

. The other two parts of the novel 'Further Adventures of Robinson Crusoe "(1719) and' Serious Reflections of Robinson Crusoe" (1720) are less significant
. Robinson returned to the island, but he had already lost its former charm. The old man of harmony with the surrounding world comes to an end as soon as the island appeared Society. 'Natural' equality of states violated irreconcilable differences, contrary to economic interests, caused the development of the economy. A period of unrest. Then the inhabitants of the island entered into a compromise Union. Defoe paints in the future prosperity of the idyllic island, but Robinson has not decided to hand it to the residents brought the gun.

. Subsequent novels of Defoe's interesting description of London life, depicting the English folk declasse
. The most famous of them - the novel 'Moll Flanders', a kind of female Robinson Crusoe, alone among the crowd. Memorable words of the girl: 'Poverty ... - True bane of virtue '.

Defoe's novels are well written and very well perceived by readers. A writer once said: 'If you asked me what I think is the perfect style and language, I would have said ... one that would be understood by all '. 'Robinson Crusoe' is understood and accepted so that the law was 'a book of generations'.

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