Yosef Dobrovskij( Scientific.)
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Biography Yosef Dobrovskij
After Belogorsky Battle (1620) Czech Republic, defeated by the Habsburgs, lost independence. Broken Czech culture (in Latin script prevailed as the language of the Catholic Church and in secular life was time Germanization), begins to wake up in the last decades of the XVIII century. The reforms of Maria Theresa and Joseph II, the ideas of Locke, Hume, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, Lessing find fertile ground among Czech intellectuals, who creates a Private Community of Science (1774), which was later in the Czech Society of Sciences (1784). Using the material support of the nobility, it has contributed not only to the development of industry and agriculture, but also research past the Czechs, their language, literature, culture, contributing to the awakening of national consciousness. Hence the local name of Czech educators - 'buditeli'. The most prominent of them was a philologist and historian Joseph Dobrovskij.
He was born in the Hungarian lands near the slave in the family Germanize. In Czech began to speak only during my school years, thanks to communicate with their compatriots (the studies were in German). Choosing the most accessible to the lower strata of the way up the ladder of the hierarchy - the spiritual field, he studied theology in Prague. After graduating from seminary (1776) he became a tutor in the house of Count Noshtitsa. His salon, which was dominated by ideas and tastes of 'enlightened age', was one of the focus of scientific and artistic elite, which immediately became beginner scientist. All the growing thirst for knowledge for a long time kept him from taking holy orders (Dobrovskij be decided on this in 1786). The reforms of Joseph II (in particular, . subordination of the church and religion, the State, . transformation management, . Legislation, . Economy and Finance in the spirit of enlightened absolutism, . elimination of serfdom, . establishment of public schools, etc.), . Dobrovskij appointed vice-rector and rector of the seminary (1787-1790),
. After the closure of the institution, he returned under the hospitable roof of his benefactor, who provided him with ample opportunities for study. Dobrovskij traveled Czech lands, visited Sweden and Russia (1792-1793), has established extensive contacts with scientists from different countries (one of whom it was addressed was the famous Russian scholar A. Kh East). Conversation with them, reflecting the endeavors and discoveries of the first Slavic is still of interest (in 1885 a famous scientist IV Jagic were published in Russian 'Letters DobrovskÃ½ and Kopitar in time-based order').
From Bible studies Dobrovskij went on to national history and philology. He collected and endowed with a sharp analytical mind, rationally - in the spirit of the latest developments in European science - analyzed the documents of the national past, separating the facts from the legends and myths. In time, . when the national language was eliminated from the sphere of high culture, . enormous scientific and cultural and educational value have had such fundamental work DobrovskÃ½, . as 'History of the Czech language and literature' (1792), . "Detailed System of the Czech language '(1809) and the two-volume' The German-Czech dictionary '(1802, . 1821),
. To revive the Czech language, return it within the scope of the written culture Dobrovskij proposed on the basis of standards established by the XVI century Czech humanist. At the same time, advocating for intelligibility, consistency and clarity of speech and writing, Dobrovskij not dissociated himself from the modern living language. These concepts are learned, as well as developed his principles of prosody (1795) - system syllabic-tonic verse, is not alien to the nature of the Czech language, were accepted by the then writers.
Dobrovskij himself wrote in German - the language of education, science and international communication in a multinational Austria and abroad, as well as in Latin - with the universal languages of the Middle Ages-tion of religion and science. In German, he published and magazines: "Czech Literature in 1779 ',' Czech and Moravian Literature in 1780 ',' a collection of literary Bohemia and Moravia '(1786-1787).
Studies of the Czech past and present naturally injected DobrovskÃ½ in a broader range of problems, one way or another covering all Slavs. His work in this area, in particular, such works as 'Glagolitika' (1807), 'Fundamentals of the Old Slavonic language' (1822), he was one of the first laid the foundation of the world of Slavic Studies. Common Slavonic themes characterizes his magazines 'Slavin' (1806, 1808) and 'Slovanka' (1814, 1815). Certificate of recognition DobrovskÃ½ - introducing him to members of many scientific societies, among them Russia and the Academy (1820).
For the awakening of the Czech national identity Dobrovskij made a particularly large. His research, he laid the foundation not only of modern Czech historiography and philology, but also the artistic, cultural and educational activities. Even during his lifetime appear DobrovskÃ½ Czech theater (1786), . Department of Czech Language at the University of Prague (1791), . emerging national journalism and publishing, . there are literary society and develop creative writing in their native language,
. Since the end of XVIII century, a prominent Czech 'educators' AY Puhmayer and his associates produced literary anthologies, embodying in his works, created Dobrovskij concept syllabic-tonizma. At the beginning of the XIX century scholar and poet J. Jungmann followed Dobrovskij forms the program of development of modern and original Czech literature, and Slavonic studies DobrovskÃ½ will continue in the writings of the famous scientist PI Safarik
. Prestige and glory DobrovskÃ½ were so high, . over time he even became a literary hero, . like, . story in AV Shmilovskogo 'In the morning time' (1875), . where on the basis of documents and memoirs of a scientist at the people walking, . about, . as, . recognizing and educating its, . Dobrovskij believed in the future of the Czechs,
Thus, scientific thought has found expression in the popular movement, and the scientist has emerged as a national idea.