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KANT Immanuel

( Philosophy)

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Biography KANT Immanuel
photo KANT Immanuel
Likewise reached a very advanced age, he never missed his lecture hours. And this despite the fact that he was frail physically (his pupils replaced kindred circle - married Kant never been), and the weakness of health compensated by an exemplary routine of the day. The main fruit of his work - books, in particular, 'Critique of Pure Reason' (1781), 'Critique of Practical Reason' (1788) and 'Critique of judgments' (1790).

. Togo rapid philosophical movement, which was caused by their appearance in Germany prior decades, it would seem, there were no signs
. The Germans remain the most fragmented of the major European nations, universities selected small principalities and duchies were many, . but the teaching of philosophy in them were built poorly and not original, . should either French and (less frequently) in English and Dutch samples, . or the only German system, . Get up to Kant's pan-European resonance - the teachings of Leibniz (1646-1716), . systematic in the first half of XVIII century H. Wolf (1679-1754),
. Strictly, . and Kant in his early (before 1770) the works should this teaching, . identified three classes of substances (God, . objects of the physical world, . the human soul), and building relationships between the purely rational, . on the model of mathematical deduction - from general to specific,
. In one of his major treatises (1763) that 'subcritical period,' he argued that since there are many substances are not absolutely necessary, then there is something absolutely necessary - God. This is exactly the mindset that later Kant emphatically rejected and so famous, combining faith in God with complete rejection of attempts to prove its existence.

. Proceedings of the early period brought little glory to Kant, they were known mostly only in the walls of the University of KцTnigsberg, where Kant to 1755 he taught as a privat-docent, and only 15 years later received a professorship
. The exception is his "Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven '(1755), where Kant is it not devoid of relevance to the present day the hypothesis of the solar system from the vast chaotic accumulation of particles of matter. He explained, . Why planets have elliptical, . rather than circular orbits, . why any differences between the planets in the density and the number of satellites, . as slowing down the Earth's rotation under the action of tides, . caused by the Moon, . disclose the nature of extragalactic nebulae (like the other 'Milky Ways').,

. Prussia at that time was already the largest of the Germanic States, as a result of the wars of Frederick II annexed to itself Silesia and other Slavic territory, has a mixed population of East Prussia and
. Kant's parents were artisans, . but managed to give his son a thorough classical education, he hesitated for a long time, . do if he ancient philosophy, . natural sciences or medicine, . attended the same university in Konigsberg in 1740-1746 years in the theological faculty, . after which a decade served as a tutor,
. He almost never left Koenigsberg, who had traditional ties with Russia an empire, and the chief work of Kant's 'Critique of Pure Reason' was published in Riga. (Note that in 1794 Kant was elected a foreign member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, kept his letter of thanks to her head - Princess E.R. Dashkova.)

Soon after, like Kant in 1755, finally got the position of privat-docent at the University of Konigsberg, has started the Seven Years War. City almost five years as the Russian troops, residents, including Kant, writing, pledging allegiance to the crown of Russia, and only Peter III in 1762 is officially released them from Russian citizenship. A.T. Bolotov, known later memoirist and agronomist, was in charge of science at the University of KцTnigsberg. Kang-ta, he did not appreciate, but may be linked and it was so slow progress of the last service. But external circumstances have never been to Kant's critical. He continued hard work of laying the foundations of his system, . and 1770-m year once again been realized uncommon in the cultural history of turn of events: Update vast field of knowledge came not from the capitals and major cultural centers, . and from the periphery of its maloustoyavsheysya (for the relevant industry) tradition.,

. The impetus for the renewal of philosophy, effected by Kant, formed in 1760-ies, two events again, quiet and 'desk' - namely, his acquaintance with the criticism of the notion of causality, given in the writings of English philosopher and historian, Dr.
. Hume, and the reading of 'Emile' and other writings ZH.ZH. Rousseau, Kant's interest in exacerbating the problems of ethics and human freedom. In its homeland, both these authors used a well known, but their ideas have not led to a comprehensive theoretical synthesis of the type of Kantian and continuity with them. For this synthesis proved to be favorable soil preceding development of logical and organize thoughts in Germany: the development partly even pedantic, . with attention to the 'school', . to the subtleties and therefore have not yet caused a large resonance in the 'capital' of philosophical thought of XVIII - Paris and London,
. Kant creatively reworked all the heritage of European philosophy in general.

To some extent, this is not accidental Recycling coincided with the beginning of an increasing concentration of German lands around Prussia. Wrong to see in this coincidence of a direct causal link - though Kant based his German classical idealism 'expressed interest' political forces pursuing this concentration: for Kant, it was merely about finding the truth. German patriot, he was free from nationalism. Is also wrong to depict the construction of Kant and the subsequent German metaphysicians (supporters of the doctrine of supersensory principles of being), largely rejected the views of Kant as a kind of spiritual compensation for the fragmentation and weakness of Germany. This point of view H. Heine was picked up by many German authors, . were not satisfied with the pace or direction of economic and social development of Germany (Germany, the revolutionaries sought to translate the path of reform and 'enlightened absolutism' on the path of shocks, . such as the Great French Revolution, . partly succeeded in the twentieth century) or, . Finally, . like, . that Germany was unified not under the aegis of Prussia,
. In fact, the Prussian supremacy in Germany was accompanied by considerable hardship, since the defeat in the Napoleonic wars and ending backlog of Germany from many European countries in the sphere of democracy and civil liberties. Nevertheless, the country was united around Prussia and German classical idealism in critical moments objective is paramount to national recovery.

. In 1770, in his dissertation 'On the form and principles of the sensible and intelligible world' Kant expressed their thoughts about the fundamental difference between noumenami - things in themselves ( 'the thing in itself') and the phenomenon - 'things for us', . ie such, . what we represent them through time and space - the indispensable conditions of all experience,
. Then, Kant came to the conclusion, . the space organizes the data of experience outside, . a VRE-name - the internal, and added the category (unity, . multiplicity, . opportunity, . reality, . need, . causality, etc.), . without which the ordering of experience (sense data, . that is, the impact on us unknowable things in themselves) are also unattainable,
. But the experience can not remove the category (on the material category of causality to the conclusion reached by Hume). The requirement of prior critical analysis and classification of these forms, . their interactions with the experience gave Cantu, . and then his followers call the foundation of his philosophy after the 1770 critical, . or criticism, . whereas all preceding philosophy was a 'dogmatic', . ie has knowledge of how this, . without criticism of its a priori forms (this is the philosophy of Leibniz-Wolff), . or 'skeptical', . doubted the possibility of knowledge (Hume),
. This terminology is stronger after 1781 'Critique of Pure Reason'. In the 'Critique of Judgment' Kant brings (as to how all this is known and 'intuited') usefulness in the nature and scope of the beautiful in art. In both cases - and this is considered one of the important insights of Kant - revealed the limitations of the mechanistic approach, it becomes necessary to understand from the standpoint of a holistic and systemic. But here lies the lack of Kantian approach, . inmate in, . Kant is his discovery is considered to be conditional, . subjective, . portrays him - in the words of one of the most profound of his readers and critics of GWF Hegel (1770-1831) - 'only as a way to force our reflective judgments,
. Not very lively such as we are accustomed to consider it this way ... Kant unfolds the richness of thought always in the subjective form '.

. Similarly, 'the idea of' freedom, . soul, . God, . inevitably generated reason, . Kant regarded as something without regard to the real existence and knowability of the theoretical, but nevertheless they remain important practical rules,
. It analyzes the importance of Kant in "Critique of Practical Reason '. There the notion of the greater good as the unity of virtue and well-being derived its terms: freedom, . without which man can not aspire to the good, . hence, . presence of the soul - the bearer of this freedom, the immortality of the soul of the same, . for without this, any benefit would be defeated death, . and since the idea of immortality is related to the infinite world as a whole, . it is not so much about the immortality of the individual soul, . much of the unity of all souls in some sort of collective immortality,
. God stands at the same time as the guarantor of freedom and immortality, which makes it more possible directly to see whether it is a personal deity or an abstract circle.

. In man there is initially angry, but initially good, namely the desire to follow the debt and improve
. Kant raised to a higher theoretical level of Rousseau's belief in the good start man: he is good precisely because, . that can be guided by the principle of good, . and this ability is deeper, . than under the influence of kindness momentary impulse or even psychological factors,
. Own moral behavior Kant believed only a, . which is free from any inclination and sympathy, and should be only one debt ( 'the duty, you are sublime, . great word, . in you there is nothing pleasant, . be flattered that people ...') Kant is often criticized, . that his duty - the formal concept, . not substantiate: to what and to whom the duty,
. In the 'Idea of Universal History' (1784), Kant draws a public duty of man as a movement 'from rudeness to culture' and 'achievement of universal human rights civil society'. Human culture is the ultimate goal not only humanity, but all of nature.

Of all the fabric of society he preferred an enlightened monarch, Frederick II, often putting forward as an ideal. In the last years of his life Kant tried hard to define the goals of human aspirations for social and global levels: the creation of a world federation of free states, . maintenance of perpetual peace, . progress of science by achieving harmony between its different branches, . progress of society by giving people the conditions of freedom,
. In relation to the latter type of progress, Kant, . however, . skeptical and allows it only in very limited extent, in self-IOM to, . hope for him in the end of XVIII century Prussia was small, . given at least those censorship difficulties and pressures, . faced by the already world-renowned Kant, . when he tried to find the best way to coexistence between science and religion,
. This was a natural conclusion of one of the main trends of his entire philosophy, . which advocated not 'protivorazumnost', . a 'sverhrazumnost' religion, . lying in a different plane compared with science, . and at the same time indicated on the natural and moral necessity of religion,
. Not surprisingly, Kant later so highly prized by Leo Tolstoy, Vladimir Vernadsky, and other supporters of the religious freethinking.

. Kant completes a period in the history of philosophy of the Enlightenment, . speaking with the requirement to subject all aspects of religion and culture of the court of reason, . and yet, . criticism of the Enlightenment, . because it requires you to remove and dogmatic understanding of the mind, . rise to a holistic worldview,
. Kant's merit in creating such a world view - the development of the theory of knowledge, taking into account the subject's activity. The mind (not the individual consciousness, . and the total for all the empirical 'I' consciousness), . advantage, as it were located 'in it' space, . time and categories, . creates a world of chaos signals from the inscrutable 'things in themselves' and only to the extent it knows, . because he created, . created whole, . except the same 'things in themselves'.,

. Up to the present day science continues to develop and deepen the idea of the subject's activity, . widely applied, . example, . in physics (instruments and the role of observer in the measurement), . in the humanities (the factor of unconscious influence of a scientist on the course and findings of sociological, . ethnographic and other similar studies),
. IG. Fichte, . first fully developed the absolute measurement of universal subject, . then A. Schopenhauer, . developed the idea of his activity in the principle of the world will, . and F. B. J. Schelling tied Kantian criticism from ancient, . ascending, . at least, . to antiquity, . tradition of understanding the 'world soul' as the subject of the unfolding of the hierarchical ladder of evolution of the World,
. Large-Kantians philosophers have appeared in France (C. Renouvier, . 1815-1903), . in Russia (AIVvedenskij, . 1856-1925) and other countries, . including, . sure, . in Germany, . where, . however, . some time actually Kantian movement was stifled as if grown from the heyday of metaphysics (but then resumed in the neo-Kantianism in the second half of the XIX century about it cm,
. in a volume devoted to this century).

Hegel described the teachings of Kang-ta as the 'main transition to the modern philosophy', and this periodization still widely used by historians of philosophy.

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