Krasicki Ignacy( The Bishop and Senator)
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Biography Krasicki Ignacy
In the royal salon naturally sounded French speech. The common beliefs, literary tastes, secular dating, and intellectual inclinations tied three companions ties of mutual sympathy and goodwill. In the second year of his rule, Stanislaw August Poniatowski received the royal palace in Warsaw, arrived from Paris, Madame Geoffrin - maman, as he called the lady, still feeling 'pupil' of its most famous salon. The third companion was an old friend of the king, and now his chaplain Ignacy Krasitsky. Aristocratic manners, refined taste, brilliant erudition, subtle humor, and in addition an attractive appearance and courtesy priest, and writer Earl quickly endear friend of French philosophers and writers. Subsequently, they corresponded. Krasitsky commissioned by the King gave her (and through it - the French light), Polish news, and in 1769, and he visited Madame Geoffrin in Paris.
'He was the bishop and the senator - wrote to her shortly after the visit Warsaw Stanislaw August. - Now he is rich, and public opinion applauds his fortune. You know his handsome face, now it is happy, and all of my handiwork, in which I love to watch '. The rapid rise of a native Galician Rus' (he was born in the village Dubiecko), . offspring of an impoverished noble family was associated not only with the protection of VIPs, . and among them - the bishop and educator, . public and political figure, . Writers, . historian and publisher YA ZaÅ‚uski; uncrowned king of the Ukrainian lands, . willful and retrograde Prince F. C. Potocki, . the means which Krasitsky after seminary in Warsaw (and before that he graduated from Jesuit College in Lviv) continued his education in Italy (1759-1761), governor of Brest Prince Sapieha, . its promotion of the spiritual arena,
. Versatile talent Krasicki, his gentleness, strange extremes of nature and sobriety of thought - all this helped him to successfully lead the way in a society split into hostile political factions. Educational beliefs and faith in the saving for experiencing a protracted crisis in the Commonwealth of evolutionary reform rather than revolutionary upheaval brought together Krasicki Stanislaw Poniatowski. Subsequent to his election to the throne of public office and religious positions, . the highest order and the location were the highest award for achievements, . and a recognition Krasicki, . and promotion of further cooperation (which, . however, . not always consistent with the calculations and expectations of the King, . sometimes deplored in his discretion favorite - 'Ignateka', . 'Kotik' - Polish approximate and distant Madame Geoffrin),
European high culture XVIII century by bringing it closer to the camp Krasicki reforms, determined the style and nature of its activities priest, chairman of the MaÅ‚opolska Court, senator, the bishop and patron. Writers gift, . philosophical and political ideas of the Enlightenment and the aesthetics of contemporary classicism reflected in the magazine 'Monitor' (1765), . created on the model of English 'Spectator' Dzh.Addisona and R. Steele, . poetic creativity, . prose, . comedy, . encyclopedic opus, . Transfers,
Novels 'The Adventures of Nicholas Dosvyadchinskogo' (1776) and 'Ban under-table' (Volume One - 1778 and the second - 1784; the third - 1798) enjoyed an excellent reputation and translated into different languages. Reissued they still. These works are: first - on the vicissitudes of the Polish counterpart (and contemporary) of our Mitrofanushka, . only makes sense of life and wisdom, . and the second - and musing on the fate of good and has made wise by experience of the provincial gentry - have generally accepted 'Prince of poets' because the same major prose, . which gave rise to new varieties of Polish literary genre (prose real-household, . adventure, . philosophical and utopian, . didactic) and stylistic canons,
Regarding the novel 'Pan Podstoly' Stanislaw August wrote to the author that this book is likely to appeal to many readers of our people, who need to read even in villages spread. It should be fair to recognize that 'this is due almost exclusively the works of Your Highness ...' Thin connoisseur of art and sophisticated statesman, he further pointed out that 'policy ... their erroneous views are not one count thanks to this book will be able to fix '.
As a poet Krasitsky first famous 'Hymn of love for the motherland' (1774). Payable in gold on the wall of the Knights' School Cadets - the country's first secular institution in which the learned Kosciuszko and other future heroes of the era - he became something of a national anthem. The rich poetic gift Krasicki revealed in sparkling humor, . thin iridescent shades of intellectual, . full of historical allusions, . Political allusions, . satirical mock-heroic poem of images 'Mysheida' (1775), . where the classic sound of the octave combined with exquisite literariness in the spirit of the Rococo,
. In the history of the war in mice and cats dressed up allegory of the past and present Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, . its customs, . mores, . fashion, . and mindset, . as well as national historical representations and myths, . embodied in the medieval labor Vinzenz Kadlubeka, . ironic praise which completes the poem,
Storm of indignation among religious and secular traditionalists caused wisely published anonymously, but issued the style of the author's brilliance and sparkling humor mock-heroic poem 'Monahomahiya' (1778). 'Scientific' debate on ending the long-standing rivalry between the two monasteries, culminated in a spectacular scuffle. Voltairian sound of the Creation, risen like a curtain over the scene of the protracted Middle Ages in the monasteries, somewhat softened by the closing poem, 'Antimonahomahiey' (1780). Funny interpretation of the previous story (in all, they say, blame the witch of contention), it prints out a jug of wine (with whom the monks still do not break up) the truth (in vino veritas - the truth in wine!).
. It was she who resolves all disputes: if what has been said before - libel, because it is itself no longer required, and if it is true - as a reformed character!
. Brilliant poetic skill Krasicki reflected in the laconic style, . well-turned phrase and witty collection of fables (1779), . many of which have been translated into German, . Czech, . french, . Russian, . Serbo-Croatian, . Hungarian, . Italian and Latin,
. An incredulous looks by the world: there is always the strongest wins and a sovereign, self-interest takes precedence over friendship, powerlessness stronger law, and bigotry prevails over faith. Weaknesses and vices of human nature, morals, life, fashion, social and political conflicts of that time appear in two cycles of a satyr (the first - 1778-1779, the second - 1781-1784). Is a kind of distorting mirror of eternal values and modern ideas. The author, following Horace, do not criticize specific individuals, and the faces of the vices - hence Picturesque series of types, which together create a panorama of the national reality, which sought to transform the Enlightenment. The value of the works of talented Krasicki in its entirety is already aware of his contemporaries: he 'made a happy revolution in the minds and the manner of writing', - said a famous mathematician, astronomer, literary critic, poet and linguist J. Åšniadecki.
Inner world Krasicki, his mood and relationships with friends and acquaintances, inspired by their thoughts, views and aspirations are reflected in the poetic epistles' (1780-1783). His educational activities embodied in the encyclopedic works of 'collection of necessary data (1781), . 'On the Prosody and poets' (1803), . compilation and publication of 'Civil Calendar' (1794), . edition of the 'Weekly' (1798-1799),
. As a moralist he appeared in comedy writing, journalism, the cycle 'of the Eastern tales' and the philosophical novel 'History' (1779), translated into German, French and Russian. In the realm of pure politics as a writer, he invaded infrequently: coronation sermon, . Satire 'the king', . 'A poem about the proclamation of the Constitution on May 3' (on the order of StanisÅ‚aw August it was carved in gold letters on a marble slab at the Royal Vice-ke), . 'Song of the day of 3 May 1792' (her singing during the solemn procession of the clergy to the sounds of orchestras in Warsaw guilds), . allegorical 'True story about the corner house in Kukurovtsah' (1794) - a kind of propaganda pamphlet in support of the uprising Kosciuszko,
. Since the actual policy (Polish-Russian cooperation against the Ottomans), . the heroic past of the nation and the ideals of citizenship live forever linked the emergence of the epic poem 'Hotinskaya War' (1780), . which celebrates the brilliant victory K. Hetman Chodkiewicz over the Turks in 1621,
. The ordered Stanislas Augustus (who then ordered the kick to honor the poet's special medal), she modeled on the 'Iliad' by Homer, 'Jerusalem Delivered' T. Tasso and 'Genriady' Voltaire.
This work, as, indeed, an absolute majority of his other works, the greatest artists of the Polish Enlightenment wrote on Polish soil, but not within the Polish state. The tragic paradox of national history was associated with sections of the country by Austria, Prussia and Russia. After the first partition (1772) Krasitsky as bishop of Warmia was Prussian subjects. King of Prussia's Frederick the Great, the genius of organization and order, could not stand gentry democracy as well as all the Polish customs.
. Being a gifted commander, Frederick remained a philosopher and writer, and therefore, did not love the Poles, made an exception for Krasicki
. They often met in Warmia, Potsdam and Berlin. King liked his company, he made Krasicki archbishop of Gniezno and favored him before the end of life. After yet another reform, robbed the clergy a large part of income, Frederick, laughing, turned to Krasicki: 'I am relieved the priests from the cares of this world. This will facilitate the attainment of the heavenly Jerusalem, which is their real homeland. Anyway, I believe that after death you can not refuse me in his patronage. Under thy cloak proskolznu somehow in paradise '. - 'But you, Your Royal Highness, so cut my cloak, that he was too short to cover such an important person' - the answer. 'And so my grandfather brightened, and I was so amused that we laughed like children' - recalls Krasitsky in a letter informing them that pedantic and rasschetlivy King gave him after the 50 thousand. thalers to pay debts.
Favored Krasicki and the subsequent two Frederick. He was in constant esteem. Received the highest Prussian Order. The winter is always held in Berlin. In the spring of 1801 is not well. Until the end of the retained presence of mind. 'Excuse me, that still did not die' - he said, came briefly into the consciousness surrounding him representatives of the Chapter. He was buried in the Berlin church sv.Yadvigi, and a year before the national uprising in 1830 moved the remains to their native land. Since then, the greatest Polish writer of the XVIII century rests in the Gothic cathedral, overlooking the Gniezno - the capital of Polish Catholicism.