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LeszczyŚLskie Stanislav Boguslavovich

( Polish king in 1704-1711, 1733-1734)

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Biography LeszczyŚLskie Stanislav Boguslavovich
photo LeszczyŚLskie Stanislav Boguslavovich
. The name of the Pole knew the whole of Europe from the Pyrenees to the Urals: King, . Salon lion, . thinker and translator, . opponent of Rousseau, in a dispute about the benefits of Sciences and Arts, . author of numerous philosophical and socio-political works, . written mostly in French,
. Sincerely described him Montesquieu and Voltaire. He was a member of the Roman literary society 'Arcadia', . a collection of his works (in one, . four and eight volumes) repeatedly issued for XVIII - early XIX century in France, . Holland, . Germany, . Italy, . and in Poland - until this century.,

. His life was like in those days a popular literary tales of magic, fantastic, and the gallant adventure novels

Descendant of an old family, he was already at 22 years voivod PoznaŚL. And soon the victorious Charles XII divides the troops of Peter I and his ally, the Elector of Saxony and king of Poland Frederick Augustus the Strong. In Poland, the Swedish monarch, military commander is not only enemies, but also supporters. Severe, ascetic and unsociable Charlemagne conquered charming Boguslaw Stanislaw LeszczyŚLskie, secular bon vivant, gourmet and ladies' man, a young, but had already managed to show himself a politician, a subtle diplomat with extensive contacts in the European capitals. In 1704, Charles XII organizes 'election' beloved his Pole at the now empty after the defection of Frederick Augustus the Strong, the throne of the Commonwealth.

After Poltava Victor Petrov LeszczyŚLskie with Charles XII rushes to Turkey, hoping to persuade the Ottomans to war with Russia. In preparation for this new fight, Charles XII of Sweden sends LeszczyŚLskie his regent and commander of the Swedish army, which was in Pomerania (Baltic coast of Poland) to rejoin the Polish borders. These plans went awry, . but they dragged LeszczyŚLskie in a whole series of truly romantic adventures: his travel incognito from Sweden to Bender to Charles XII, . capture by the Turks in Iasi, . attempt to organize the Tatar-Turkish campaign in Poland, . to win back the throne, . seek asylum in Hungary, . then return to Sweden,

King without a kingdom, he received the August patron of the one-but of the conquered German states on the Rhine - a miniature principality of two bridges. Here Stanislav LeszczyŚLskie with his family and the royal court, living under the protection of the Swedish garrison, which provides him with royal honors. In 1718, the dying Charles XII, and again reigned in Poland Frederick Augustus sends a strong one, the other assassins to get rid of a rival. LeszczyŚLskie seeking shelter in Landau in France, and a year later found a home in Alsace, where he lives for the maintenance of the French regent.

Time passes. It seemed that everyone forgot about the king-exile, when suddenly - and it's already 1725-th year - there are emissaries of Versailles and on behalf of the 14-year-old Louis XV hands asking LeszczyŚLskie daughter Mary, who was then 21-Year. From the unexpected and joyous shock ex-king faints. And then - after the monotony and the quiet of Alsatian Vissemburga - colorful and swift dance events: a magnificent wedding, . but-Wai's life in the residence of the King of France, . Order of the Holy Spirit, . rank of colonel in the French cavalry, . grand receptions ..,

But dying Friedrich August the Strong, and Stanislav LeszczyŚLskie with a fake passport merchant clerk secretly sneaks through Germany to Poland. Having reached Warsaw, he had some time hiding in the French Embassy, which is skillfully using the patriotic feelings of the Poles, wants the gentry supported countryman - a candidate for the royal throne. When the campaign reaches its climax, the French ambassador was introduced to the church of the Holy Cross LeszczyŚLskie in national costume gentleman. The explosion of enthusiasm! Deserted after the death of Saxon Polish throne returned to the Pole. But never sleeps mighty neighbor, . reserved the blackness of their own interests: at the same time, . September 1733, . Russian ar-miya crosses the border and organizes the 'election' to the Polish throne of the Saxon Elector Friedrich August II, . who oppose the majority of the Polish aristocracy and gentry,
. LeszczyŚLskie seeks salvation in Gdansk. Nearly five months, the city defended his king, but his strength was exhausted, but was nowhere to wait for help: France away.

Dressed as a peasant, leaves LeszczyŚLskie hospitable and heroic Gdansk before the inevitable capitulation and finds refuge with the King of Prussia in KŲTnigsberg. Meanwhile in Europe broke out 'howl-in for Poland', where each of the parties pursued not so much polish as its own interests. Two years later - in 1736 - in Vienna peace treaty was signed, . whereby LeszczyŚLskie, . abdicated, . received life tenancy in the Duchy of Lorraine and Bar in the city within France, . while at the same time, the royal title,
. Here, finally, he was able to implement many of the above in his writings, shot to fame 'philosopher-king'.

In their possessions LeszczyŚLskie launched a violent activities: contributed to the revitalization of crafts, agriculture and trade, held a number of charity events, has created a network of schools. He patronized the arts to people, especially architects. His yard has become an important center of Polish-French communication. Here, the Poles met with senior representatives of the French intellectual Eli-you: then there were Montesquieu and Voltaire, poets Zh.F.Sen-Lambert, S.de Bufle and other. From the famous Poles detained for a long time associate LeszczyŚLskie A. ZaŚ-uski - Bishop of Kiev, . Historian, . writer, . playwright, . Policies, . Publisher, . who together with his brother A. ZaŚ-uski - Chancellor, . Bishop of Krakow, . patron, . advocate of education reform - founded the first to Paul Hsi public library (1747), composer and theatergoer MK Oginski creates (author of the popular and we polonaise "Farewell to the homeland '); poet C. Trembetsky, . Ô¶Ô+Ô+Ô¶Ô¶ÔTÔ+Ô®ˇ-Ô¶ˇL F. Orachevsky and many others,
. At the court acted in the theater of the famous Madame Bufle. At Luneville in 1737 LeszczyŚLskie established a military academy, and in 1750-m - Nancy - famous academy and public library. In all these institutions, along with the French and Poles were trained, who then served in the Polish army, or proved themselves in the socio-political arena in Poland. Both here and in France, not only the memory of LeszczyŚLskie, but many of them created a lively and to this day.

It LeszczyŚLskie marked the beginning of patronage in the spirit of the era, which will play an important role in the cultural program of the Polish Enlightenment. The first attempts to reform an outdated system of government the Commonwealth had taken the party Princes Czartoryski, who supported LeszczyŚLskie on the Polish throne. Proceedings LeszczyŚLskie were from those that closing days of the Baroque, discovered during the Enlightenment. Religious principles, ethos and theological concept of XVII century are combined in his views with the teachings of the French philosophers of the XVIII century. Continuing the Renaissance ideas, he tried to seek a system of European security, which would exclude war as a means of conflict resolution. Reflecting on the program of peace, he paints a picture of human welfare, which respect individual rights. In the history of political thought of the Enlightenment occupies a special place of his treatise 'The voice of free, . freedom to defend '(1733), . that in Poland itself gives rise to the development of state-legal and social issues in the spirit of a new era,

For experiencing an acute crisis of agriculture LeszczyŚLskie vi-DIT access to the personal liberation of the serfs, the replacement of the barshchina dues, for cities are in decline - in the development of trade and crafts. Enemy absolutism, . he is conscious and disadvantages gentry democracy, . putting forward concrete proposals to improve the institutions of government, . order electing kings, . limitation of the principle of unanimity (liberum veto), . use of which since the mid XVII century led to disruptions in the regular meetings of the Sejm and the paralysis of the legislative,
. (Some historians have expressed doubt that the author of these proposals was LeszczyŚLskie. However, even becoming an editor, or letting them use his name, he said, thus its position in the mounting dispute advocates of the traditional system of government and reformers?) LeszczyŚLskie lived a long life. Until his last days he liked a good table, and beautiful women.

The old man 89 years in meditation standing before the fire, cracking a flaming piece of wood, sparks sprayed on coat ... The servants came too late.

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