Jean Paul Marat
- one of those famous French Revolution era of the late XVIII century, who rarely leave anyone indifferent. For some it is an ardent revolutionary, friend of the people and a martyr for freedom. For others - disgusting executioner, misanthrope, who called for no mercy to cut the head. At a certain picture ZH.L. David's 'Death of Marat
' depicts a beautiful and sublime character that can cause admiration and compassion for the audience. But some historians have called it 'Caligula' and 'gunnom', thereby emphasizing its barbaric cruelty. Such conflicting assessments are not surprising, because Marat
was a very complicated man.
He was born in the town of Boudry, belonging to the years of Prussia, now located in Switzerland. In this country lived a family of his mother and his father was a native from the island of Sardinia. Marat
Sr. was known as an educated man. He replaced several professions: he was a priest, an artist, a doctor, he taught foreign languages. He was earning enough to feed his large family (he had seven children), but the inheritance to his children can not count. Sons could only rely on their own strength, and my father tried to give them a good home and schooling, teaching various sciences, medicine, history, foreign languages. Jean Paul undoubtedly had the ability, work ethic and desire to learn. Knowledge him for later.
At the age of 16, after the death of his beloved mother, Marat
went to wander around Europe. He had lived in France, Great Britain, Holland, earning the lessons of foreign languages and practice. At the same time he was engaged in self-education and began to publish the results of their scientific Studies. Marat
investigated the nature of fire, light, electricity, optics problem. He was serious and industrious naturalist, but his works, many fellow scientists looked skeptical. However, he was treated biased, because this man had a truly amazing ability to make enemies. In 1773 he published in London, two volumes of scientific and philosophical treatise 'On Man', containing an attack on all the recognized authorities of the time, from Descartes to Voltaire.
Already in early youth manifested severe Marat
: his passion, verging on nervousness, and excessive ambition. He allowed himself arrogantly spoke of Newton, peremptorily styled charlatans his outstanding contemporaries, such as a mathematician and publisher of 'Encyclopedia' D'Alembert, astronomer Laplace, the chemist Lavoisier. The value of her own discoveries, he, on the contrary, an excessively exaggerated. But some of his research, above privacy on the nature of fire, were seen and appreciated by other scientists. B. Franklin, who was present at his experiments using a microscope, they became interested and joined with Marat
in scientific correspondence. Some of his works were translated into German. About them praised Goethe. Marat
interest and politics. In 1774 in London, he published in English book 'The chains of slavery', which was made by a follower of his compatriot Zh.Zh.Rus-co, denouncing the tyranny and praising justice and freedom. Distinguishing essay Marat
in the flow of political journalism in those years, was a call for the overthrow tyranny by violent means.
In 1777 Marat
was a prestigious place in the doctor's staff stables, and then guard the Comte d'Artois (the younger brother of the king). Adoption of Marat
to the post indicating that he was already well-known and well-respected physician. During these years the situation of Marat
was quite safe, although it could not satisfy his ambitions - the official recognition by the French Academy of Sciences, Marat
never received. In 1784 he lost his place at the Comte d'Artois and collided with the present poverty and hardship.
When the French revolution started, Marat
, with his characteristic passion plunged into politics. Marat
's revolutionary activity was mainly in words rather than deeds. He personally did not participate in popular uprisings, and other important political events of the time, but wrote about them, expressing public opinion and influencing it. September 12, 1789, he began to produce the newspaper journalist of Paris', which soon became the famous' Other people, or the Paris publicist '. Three years later, in September 1792, Marat
again renamed it - in the 'newspaper of the French Republic, published by Marat
, a friend of the people'. The words 'one nation' from the name of the newspaper became a part of the name of the author. And for most of Marat
, and for his readers, he and his child were inseparable. The newspaper became the main business of life, life itself, Marat
. From the very first issue fiercely attacked the aristocrats, the yard, the queen, ministers, most members of the Constituent Assembly, Lafayette, Mirabeau. Marat
rarely about who spoke approvingly or even dispassionately. Anyone who has attracted his attention and found themselves on the page 'Friend of the People ", branded as a traitor and the worst enemy of the revolution. Articles Marat
's very emotional, but the content of monotonous and written by the same scheme.
A deep impression on his contemporaries and some historians to produce what at first seemed absolutely incredible revelations Marat
sometimes have property to come true. Thus, it is very early revealed the connection with the royal court and the venality of Mirabeau, predicted an attempt to escape the royal family, betrayal, and Lafayette Dumouriez. However, Marat
saw conspiracies everywhere, all the accused and all exposed. There is nothing strange in that sometimes he guessed correctly. There were mistakes, but they did not count.
By themselves, the sharpness of speech, incitement to violence, resounded from the pages of 'Friend of the People', not at that time were something out of the ordinary. All journalists, both revolutionary and counterrevolutionary usually not shy in terms. Unlike some of them, Marat
did not allow himself profanity and cynicism. His accusations were purely political in nature, although sometimes sounded just horrible, since he called traitors to the most influential politicians of revolutionary France.
His task Marat
saw that, like a sentry to warn people about the dangers and expose his enemies. He maintained a certain political theory that is necessary for the salvation of society dealt ruthlessly with his enemies, just as the surgeon cuts a patient infected gangrene of the hand. An effective tool in the fight against global counter-revolutionary conspiracy, according to Marat
, may be only repression. Thus, from the pages of 'Friend of the People' sounds more than a sharp political charges. Language newspaper Marat
- is the language of terror, and he spoke to him ahead of many other French revolutionaries.
won great popularity. Constant calls to violence have created him many enemies and at the same time, many enthusiastic admirers, especially among the people. Denunciation of the conspirators, attempts to explain all the political and economic difficulties by enemy machinations clearly impressed by the revolutionary crowd. Marat
in Paris knew and loved. His opinion was respected.
Not surprisingly, Marat
, betrayed ministers and deputies and urges the people to rebellion, has been repeatedly harassed, was forced into hiding, go underground, and even run in the UK. But every time he returned with renewed vigor and accepted for publication of newspaper.
In September 1792, Marat
of persecuted journalist became an authority. He was elected a deputy from Paris in the National Convention, where the two competing political factions: the Girondins and montanyary.Marat
joined the more radical Montagnards, although among them kept apart. During the debate in the Convention it is usually served as a target for attacks by the Girondins: the reason for this was enough. One deputy even proposed to wash the podium every time, after her played Marat
In April 1793 the Girondins have court over Marat
, who signed a manifesto demanding to destroy Girondist deputies of the Convention. Marat
accused of trying to split the Convent, of sedition and slaughter. To give the deputy a court required a special decree of the Convention, which is to address this issue resorted to the solemn roll call vote procedure. Previously, such an honor awarded only to the deposed King Louis XVI. The majority of deputies voted for the trial of Marat
. It took one and a half weeks later and turned into a triumph of the defendant. The Revolutionary Tribunal unanimously acquitted him, and rapturous thick-pa Parisians transmitted his idol back to the Convent. Encouraged by the victory, Marat
intensified attacks on the Girondins, who is now considered the most heinous enemy homeland.
By this time, Marat
was already severely ill. In the nervous system had worsened eczema, his tormented fever. The food he could only take in liquid form and, to cheer up, constantly drinking coffee, and it only intensified the inflammatory process in the body. In the last weeks of his life he always wore a vinegar compress on her head and often take baths, so as soon as they brought him relief.
Known episode of the murder of Marat
July 13, 1793 Charlotte Corday, an enthusiastic fan of the Girondins. Marat
was sitting in the bathroom and galley proofs of the rules of the next issue of the newspaper.
After the death of Marat
's popularity grew into a cult. At his funeral was the Convent in full. At the request of the revolutionary Cordeliers Club ( 'the Company's human and civil rights'), an activist who was Marat
, he was buried in the garden of the clubhouse, but his heart was placed in the Conference Room. In Paris, Montmartre was renamed Monmarat
. Across France, busts and altars erected in honor of Marat
declared 'martyr of freedom'. September 21, 1794 the remains of Marat
was formally transferred to the Pantheon, though not for long. Came to power in the moderate wing politicians felt uncomfortable formally memorialize the man known for its constant appeals to chop heads. February 26, 1795 Marat
was carried out of the Pantheon and reburied in the cemetery of St.. Genevieve.
FROM 'PORTRAIT Other peoples, painted by himself'
'... From an early age I was devouring the love of fame, passion, in different periods of my life change targets, but not for a moment, I remain. In five years I wanted to become a schoolteacher, in fifteen years - a professor, a writer - at eighteen, a creative genius - in twenty, whereas now I thirst for glory to sacrifice themselves to the fatherland ... I know that my work is not designed to appease the enemies of the fatherland: crooks and traitors, nothing so afraid, as the exposure. Therefore the number of villains, vowing to destroy me, huge. Forced to conceal their hostility, their low revenge, thirst for my blood, under cover of love for humanity, respect for the law, they are from morning till night unleashing against me a thousand pathetic and disgusting fabrications. Of these, only some of the deceived and kept them distributed is that I - a madcap, gall lunatic, bloodthirsty monster or bribed a villain ... They believe a crime that I demanded of heads of traitors and conspirators. But I demanded ever popular punishment for these criminals before, . as they were with impunity to express contempt for the sword of justice, . and legislators undertake to ensure their impunity? Then, . is it really so great a crime to require five hundred criminal goals, . to save hundred of thousands of innocents? For most calculations did not indicate whether the wisdom and humanity? .. ' January 14, 1793,
. Charlotte Corday and Marat's death