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Nadir Shah

( The ruler of Iran since 1736)

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Biography Nadir Shah
photo Nadir Shah
Openwork lattice palace is easily missed in the rooms cool in the night. At carelessly scattered satin pillows leaning drunk on success and wine menacing Iranian ruler Nadir Shah.

. Not so long ago otshumel kurultai in the Mugan steppe (Southern Azerbaijan), where the offspring of commoners afsharskogo sort by fate and by various artifices became the ruler of the empire.

. Nader was born in the family of Imam-Kuli, belonged to the community qizilbash - 'red-': men are wearing a hat with 12 purple stripes in honor of the 12 Shiite imams
. Afshar-Qyzylbashs were Turks, similar in language and culture of the Azerbaijanis.

Father, life hunted dressing sheepskins, Nadir does not have neither wealth nor titles, and ambitious young man just had to make himself. With a small detachment of desperate thugs he hired to serve the small lords, on the merits of engaging in robbery. Detachment was increased, and at the same time more and more formidable became his enemies. After an unsuccessful struggle with Mahmoud Sistanskim Nader was forced to turn to search for allies and in 1725 led three thousand of the detachment came to the Shah Tahmasp, offering their services. At that time, Iran was conquered by one of the Afghan tribes, and the once mighty Shah possessed only small areas near the Caspian Sea. That is why the alliance was profitable and the Shah and Nadir. With the help of the Shah's troops, he easily captured Khorasan (historical region in north-eastern Iran), and then its capital Meshhed - a favorite place of pilgrimage for Shiite Muslims, who flock to the shrine of Imam Reza. For five years, Nadir managed to restore the empire had disintegrated, and after the expulsion of Afghans from the former capital of Ghilzai - Isfahan, erect the throne of his ally, under the name Tahmasp II.

. Nader was undoubtedly talented, brave and intelligent commander
. When his soldiers were defeated, he not only did not punish them, but on the contrary, incessantly praised, calling the heroes. And, moreover, the troops inspired by personal example.

With the support of the Russian general VY Levashov Persians freed the western areas of the country. Yet in the empire was troubled. In the north, were harassing Daghestan, on the east rebelled Afghans. Nader went to Khorasan to suppress another rebellion, and Tahmasp II led the fight against the Turks. However, the shah's troops were defeated, and the Persians had to sign a humiliating treaty. Enraged Nadir hastily returned to the capital and has deposed infamous Shah. The throne was erected his eight-month son, Abbas III, and became the de facto ruler Nadir, now Khan.

Another nearly five years of military campaigns nearly emptied the treasury. Then Nadir Khan conceived invasion of India. Enlisting the support of the Iranian elite, receiving at Mugan kurultai unlimited powers and the title of the Shah, Nadir some time indulged in revelry, gradually preparing for a long march. Although the Mughal power in decline, its treasures are still stored untold wealth and glitter and luxury of the court summoned the neighbors envy.

Nader did not immediately go to India. In 1737, he moved his troops to Kandahar. After the siege of the city was captured and destroyed, and Nader sent the Great Mogul - Muhammad Shah - asking to block the path of the retreating Afghans, who were enemies of India. Without waiting for an answer, Nadir almost without resistance captured Kabul, having won at the same time lived nearby tribes, and thus strengthening their position. Since the Iranians have stepped on land Moghuls, Indians tried to repel the invasion, but the intelligence immediately reported all steps Moghul rulers. Nadir Shah was in no hurry, and again sent a letter to Muhammad Shah, asserting in their friendly feelings, and stressing that he is motivated by a desire to pacify Afghans. Thin politician and diplomat, he is a step by step closer to its goal, and eventually little or no loss came to Delhi. March 20, 1739 at the celebrations in his honor recognized Muhammad Nadir Shah, the only sovereign India. It seemed it was all over the world, but no such luck: people suddenly decided to resist. In response, Nader gave a real massacre lasted six o'clock. It killed about 20 thousand. residents. Outrages continue as long as Muhammad Nadir Shah was persuaded to stop carnage. And in the next few days, it was announced the confiscation of valuables and property. Money and valuables collected then a huge amount - about 700 mln.rupy. A May 12, Nadir Shah, solemnly laid on the head of Muhammad Shah, the Crown of India, for which, as we are assured Persian chroniclers, Great Mogul asked Nadir to take possession of the country west of the Indus.

. After 57 days stay in Delhi by Nadir Shah went to way back, carrying the treasures of the Moghuls, among whom was the famous diamond 'Koh-i-Noor' ( 'Mountain of Light'), and luxurious, studded with jewels 'Peacock Throne'
. He led away with him thousands of skilled craftsmen, gunsmiths, weavers, builders, jewelers. Continuing to show friendship Muhammad Shah, Nadir left the Mogul empire on the brink of ruin.

Significantly adding to the government, for most of the Cen-let property for their personal needs and the maintenance of the troops. Screaming luxury yard work alongside abject poverty, the common people. Over time, the Shah had to seek new means of maintaining a huge army - the central plank of its policy, and thus impose the peasants and townspeople new taxes, which naturally led to discontent everywhere. Here and there arose the movement impostors. Thus, in 1743-1744 years in Shirvan someone pretended to be miraculously escaped the Safavid prince himself-Mirza. In 1744, reappeared in Kars Safi Mirza, had the support of the Ottoman Turkey at the head of a hundred thousand troops tried to defeat Nadir. And the son tanner, who became ruler of a vast country, was forced to abandon his army to crush rebellions in Georgia, Armenia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan, Baluchistan. Do not abated and court rivalries.

After the Indian campaign of Nadir became morbidly suspicious and extremely cruel. The mass executions followed one after another. Someone explained this witchcraft Indian sorcerers, but most likely affect the years of constant struggle, which has become for the Shah, surnamed the Conqueror of the World, the main business of life. It was during his Iran withdrew the land is not only India but also in Central Asia and Transcaucasia.

In 1746 an uprising began in Sistan overlaid with exorbitant taxes. Sent for its suppression relative Nadir Ali Kuli Khan suddenly defected to the rebels. Nader himself sailed. He pitched his camp under Habushanom (eastern Iran) and then found out about the next plot. However, it failed to prevent: Nadir was stabbed to death in his tent.

After the death of Nadir's extensive state broke up into separate domains, and powerful army in the gang, who were able only to plunder.

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