Rö¦kö¨czi Ferenc II( Head antigabsburgskoy War of 1703-11 the Hungarian people. Since 1704, Prince of Transylvania.)
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Biography Rö¦kö¨czi Ferenc II
. By the time the scion of a noble prince's kind of - future Ferenc II Rö¦kö¨czi - came to light, from Hungary, yet not so long ago a large country, a strong, visible in Europe, with high culture, there could be almost anything
. Habsburgs sought not merely to conquer this rich territory, made him the granary of the empire, but to subordinate the Hungarians morally, spiritually, depriving them of their national identity.
. In a severe tax burden and political discrimination, Vienna led a course on the Germanization of the Hungarians, is being introduced in this Protestant country Catholicism
. Widely used a tried and tested principle of 'divide and rule': in the counties (regions) is almost unchecked sway of local tycoons, . shifted the burden of taxes on the peasant serfs; consciously maintained and intensified hatred between Hungarians and other nationalities, . who lived in this territory, for example, . German-Saxons, . inhabiting a large part of Transylvania, . enjoyed many privileges, . than Hungarians, . and Vlachs, . Serbs, . Slovaks, . opposite, . seen in Hungary oppressors,
. The Habsburgs were not willing to unite with Hungary, once part of its composition Transylvanian principality, . which in the XVI and XVII centuries (during the Ottoman rule), . skillfully using the fragile balance of forces between the Turks and Austrians, . retain their autonomy, . sometimes even reached peak, . remain key to the continuity of the Hungarian statehood and culture.,
. Almost all the people of Hungary, except for a large part of the nobility, who served the Habsburgs, was in dire straits
. Uprisings occurred almost constantly, but quickly suppressed.
. Ferenc Rö¦kö¨czi, still emerging from childhood, was for the Hungarians, who did not want to endure the Austrian domination, the embodiment of hope, a symbol of struggle against the oppressors.
. He was a direct and sole heir of a princely dynasty, whose representatives have repeatedly chosen by the great princes of Transylvania were known for uncompromising hostility to the Habsburgs, often speaking out against them in arms
. Yes, and stepfather Ferenc Imre Tekeli, also Prince of Transylvania, desperately resisted Vienna, and therefore ended his life outside the homeland, Turkey. The mother Ferenc, Ilona Zrinyi, left alone after her husband's exile, almost three years, besieged by the Austrians held the ancestral castle of the family Rakoczy - Munkachi (now Mukachevo). In the fortress it was small and Ferenc. Uncle Ilona Miklos Zrinyi, the captain and the leading Hungarian poet of the XVII century, fought against the Turks and acted in strict opposition to the Habsburgs.
. In addition, Ferenc belonged to the most - without exaggeration - wealthy Hungarian family of the time (her eighth of the land occupied by the present territory of the country)
. Any war requires weapons, ammunition, food, clothing, that is, money, money, and money ... Some were serfs in Rö¦kö¨czi was in an army. From their midst came a peasant leader, the hero of the liberation war (1703-1711) Tamö¦s Ese, one of the most famous kurutsev (kurutsami - distorted Latin crutiatus, crusader - called fighters against the Austrian oppression).
. Vienna, too, tried not to lose sight of this, let them have the potential, the enemy ..
. When Munkachbyl delivered, Ilona Ferenc Zrinyi with his son and daughter, Iuliano was taken to Vienna. Here, the family separated: his mother and sister, Ferenc was sent into a monastery, and arrange the fate of the boy took Kolloniä- Bishop, a Jesuit, who attributed the threat to convert the Hungarians, first in slaves, then - in the poor, and, finally, to the Germans. Kolloniä-, . with the blessing of the Emperor, . set a truly 'Jesuit' goal: to educate Ferenc fanatical Catholic, . eventually led him to take orders and go to the monks, thus would eliminate any potential enemy of the Empire, . a great possession type Rakoczy moved to the property of the church.,
. Apparently, the fate of each is determined not only the conditions of life: genes, or, if you will, the heavenly fish, also play a significant role in who and what will be the man ..
. Yes, . closed in a Jesuit school in the Czech Republic, Ferenc Rö¦kö¨czi almost forgotten their native language, . wore German clothes, . devoutly Catholic rites performed (although, . and school, . and then, . at the University of Prague, . He was attracted to him not so much theology, . as the exact sciences: mathematics, . Physics, . architecture),
. He was not bored, as the first time, his mother and sister, and moreover, he believed the calumnies, as if his sister, who was then already married, is trying to sue him part of the inheritance. He seems to be imbued with devotion to the emperor and gratitude to Kolloniä-, who so carefully 'peksya' about his upbringing and property. Yet one day it leaped something lurking, which was much stronger than the loyalty of acquired. Not yet attained 20 years, . Ferenc sharply and imperiously, . as befits a man of his rank, . refused 'paternalistic' protection Kolloniä-, . amicably split with her sister inherited, . took over the administration of estates, . I went to Italy and, . Finally, . married, . without asking permission of the emperor.,
. Rakoczy transformation from a naive boy to separate husband happened quickly, even rapidly
. Rakoczy part of Viennese high society, balls and receptions, with a passion for playing cards, Acquires staff of servants, a luxurious departure, etc.. And in 1697, sent to Hungary - to view the estate, . bring them, . as possible, . order (income, . which he lives, . all reduced: peasants, . unable to endure the oppression of the corvee and tax mayhem, . flee to the forest); Well, . and just hunt ...,
. He was not, of course, to blame for the fact that just at this time in the north-eastern Hungary, peasant revolt broke out
. Spontaneous, . uncontrollable, . lacking the support of the nobility, . it was rather confused state of affairs; rebels united, . but despair, . perhaps, . one - the appearance Rakoczy, . which can not respond to people's grief, . can not lead them to a, . his grandfather and great-grandfather, . a stepfather,
. By Rö¦kö¨czi sent messengers from the peasants with a request to lead them ...
But Rakoczy then not only agrees with the rebels, but in the full sense of the word runs from them. Believing, . that it can not fall suspicion of complicity, or at least in sympathy with the rebels, . he hastens to Vienna, . and then asks me to give the emperor his humblest proposal: to exchange all of his Hungarian possessions to something equivalent to the Duchy of Austria or in the Germanic lands, . that he could live there, . not bringing on even the shadow of the highest dissatisfaction.,
. Whether the Emperor and his advisers are smarter, podalnovidnee, they grasped at the chance to save himself from further trouble many
. But Rakoczy denied the request ...
So Vienna once again pushed to the Rö¦kö¨czi to become its worst enemy ... But encouraged by this and other circumstances, the subjective and objective. First was particularly important friendship with a neighbor in the country Miklos Bercheni, military leader and politician. He was convinced that it is necessary in an organized, armed to oppose the Habsburgs.
From the objective points in the first place, of course, covering nearly the whole of Europe War of Spanish Succession. Bourbon, opposed the Habsburgs in an effort to seize the Spanish throne, naturally, presented the allies of the Hungarians.
. Rakoczy already in 1700, enters into a secret correspondence with Louis XIV, offering mutual assistance in the fight against the Habsburgs
. King-sun in the first response message assured him of their support ... (Looking ahead, we say that this support was not particularly what, besides French monarch often found excuses: maybe he belonged to the prince's not entirely serious, though not without sympathy).
. Kuruts on horseback
. The first letter, sent Rakoczy in Paris, got him into trouble
. French officer, who Rakoczy chose courier delivered the paper to direct the course of the Reich Chancellery, where they carefully made copies. In the end, that Rö¦kö¨czi was arrested, taken to Vienna and imprisoned - while awaiting trial - in jail. With friends 6 November 1701 the first da Rakoczy commits a romantic escape and to save lives (for his capture had been promised a reward: ten thousand forints - for a living, and six thousand - for the dead), throws in Poland. Escape it finally decided the fate Rakoczy: it definitively becomes an enemy of Vienna and, logically, the leader antiavstriyskogo movement in Hungary.
But before the open statement - almost another two years. Rakoczy Bercheni and prepare the ground for the armed struggle: communicate with colleagues Te-keli in Turkey in search of support are intensive diplomatic correspondence with the European courts. By Rakoczy arriving delegations from Hungary: mostly runaway peasants, who persuaded the prince that should give a sign - and all the Hungarians as one would follow him against the oppressors. Rakoczy has called for patience: without foreign aid, they can not overcome the Habsburg ...
Living in Poland for Rakoczy and Bercheni was cloudless. We had to hide from the secret agents, assassins, send for a purpose Vienna. They found refuge on the estates of magnates Sieniawska the ownership, where impersonating architects, and even took part in the reconstruction of the castle. Sieniawska the ownership helps them to seek supporters in Poland, in particular does a lot for the Helena Rakoczy Senyavskaya, as it were, unofficially represent its interests in Poland,. She became the great love of the Hungarian prince.
In the spring of 1703 Rakoczy decides: it's time to act. He sends in Hungary banners on which are embroidered with his initials and motto: 'Cum Deo pro patria et libertate' (With God for the Fatherland and Freedom). In towns and villages in Hungary read his appeal to his compatriots.
In mid-June 1703 Rakoczy comes to Hungary.
Proponents assured him: the army is assembled, ready and awaiting orders. Rakoczy can not wait to conduct the first review, but at the border, he sees a crowd of ragged, they shout greetings and waving who braids, who just sticks. Prince is waiting: now this crowd shlynet, and behind it seems the army.
Troops were this crowd.
So I had to start from scratch. We had to create a regular ar-Mia, clothe, educate and equip it to place the soldiers gentry officers, without which all would reduce to the peasant revolt. Service had to make an attractive deal for the serfs, guaranteeing them after winning his freedom, but it was impossible to put a damper and landlords: if the peasants shaft collapsed into the army, the estate will be left without workers.
. Raise and lead the nobles were to Rö¦kö¨czi particularly important because that is what class is then given the job of the state mechanism ...
. And it had yet to set in motion
. Decrees ( 'patents') Rakoczy, deprived of legislative framework, as it were, is not binding on ... The situation changed only Riigikogu, . convened in 1705 in cross section, . where representatives of the estates and the magnates decided to create a new (new to Hungary - defined here is an example of Poland) form of state organization: 'confederation of the estates',
. The powers it was not too great, but the credibility is high.
And shortly before that, in the summer of 1704 the State Council of Transylvania called him the Grand Duke. So he became Ferenc II Rö¦kö¨czi, the second - after his father, Ferenc Rö¦kö¨czi I.
Rakoczy gained the status of the two heads of the Hungarian State. However, formally the rulers of Hungary and Transylvania were still the Habsburgs, and then it was a significant nuance ... For example, Louis XIV recognized Rakoczy, he found it difficult to negotiate, enter into an agreement with someone who was like a usurper ... Only in 1707 the state assembly in Onoda decided to deprive Joseph I Habsburg Hungarian throne.
But before things happened in the country. Detachments kurutsev, gradually attains the form of this army, was released almost the entire territory of what was then Hungary from Austrian. The authorities 'ruling prince', which helped the court, the Council (Senate) and the court office, becoming stronger. Administration, subject only to Rakoczy, invaded ma-lo-little, in all spheres of politics and the economy. Have you seen the new laws governing the relationship between the supreme authority, the estates, the army and the peasantry.
Rakoczy did much for the Hungarian Culture. In his court painters worked, one of them, Adam Manoki, left the famous portraits of the prince. In April 1705 on the orders of Rö¦kö¨czi starts out the first Hungarian newspaper 'Merkurius Veridikus ex Hungaria' ( 'The True Mercury from Hungary'); printed it, albeit in Latin, and was intended for foreigners.
. Forged ties with the European powers: the court Rakotsi were ambassadors of many countries
. In 1707, for Rakoczy arrived Ambassador Peter I. Russian Tsar gave Rakoczy his wish to see a Hungarian prince in the Polish throne, at this time vacant. After long hesitation Rakoczy abandoned Polish crown: he did not want to leave Hungary and in addition, . agreeing to this proposal and in general establishing closer ties with Russia, . He doomed himself to a cool relations with Sweden, . which maintained so revered Rakoczy France.,
. But by the time when Hungary gained its like stability, political and military situation has changed dramatically for the worse
. In the War of Spanish Succession Austria won several major victories, and could now throw more troops against the rebellious Hungarians. Hungarian same population, especially the peasantry, exhausted from the burdens of protracted war. Army kurutsev, the highest positions in which held, as a rule, people with no abilities as a general, and with the splendid title, lost morale, suffered defeat after defeat. The magnates, generals and even many of the companions Rakoczy ran into the camp of the Habsburgs.
In February 1711 Rakoczy went to Poland to take new steps for the organization of foreign aid Hungary. But in his absence, commanders concluded with Austria shameful Satmarsky world, bordering on the surrender. This happened April 29, 1711, and the next day the combat units kurutsev lay down their arms. Rakoczy now there was no need to return home, he becomes a fugitive.
In May and August 1711, meetings were held with Peter Rö¦kö¨czi I, passing through Poland. Rather, they are imbued with sympathy for each other. But this time the king had not yet finished with the Swedes, already mired in a failed him for war with Turkey. In these circumstances, go further and against Austria, he could not. Peter Rakoczy proposed allotment in Ukraine, where he calmly and without worries would have lived to the end of his days. Rakoczy, thanked him and refused. In August, he and Peter went down the Vistula to Torun, where the Russian Tsar went to Carlsbad, and Rakoczy - in Gdansk. There he lived a half years, then moved to France, from there in 1717 - in Turkey, where he spent among a few of his faithful companions, the rest of life.
. Rakoczy had done a miracle, could not pereshibit whip butt, not overpowered with his freedom-loving, proud, but not much discipline recognizing kurutsami military machine of the Habsburg Empire
. And yet, he made a great deal for Hungary to strengthen their national identity and forcing the Austrian imperial elite in Hungary to treat with respect or, at least, with caution.
. Abilities, talents Rakoczy never revealed until the end, but maybe that's why his name has acquired a certain aura of majesty and mystery
. Curious fact: among the many legends that have surrounded the occult genius of the XVIII century the Count Saint-Germain, and was this: he is - whether a son Rakoczy, whether himself famous prince, forced into hiding under an assumed name.
. On the depth and talent of his nature shows and the fact that - already in exile - have Rakotsi manifested literary talent
. The best known of his 'Memoirs' (1716), written in French, and 'Confessions' (1716-1719) in Latin.
. The magnitude and originality of this person, . apparently, . and explain, . Why Rakoczy, . eventually lost the war of liberation and not create a strong and independent Hungarian state, . Nevertheless, for the Hungarians as great, . Peter I - for the Russians.,