Fonvizin Denis Ivanovich( Writer)
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Biography Fonvizin Denis Ivanovich
(1744 or 1745-1792)
. 'Die now, . Denis, . or at least nothing more no longer write! Your name is immortal, will this one play ', . - With these words, . tells the legend, . asked Fonvizin since his comedy 'Nedorosl' omnipotent favorite of Catherine II Grigory Potemkin,
. The premiere took place on Saturday, September 24, 1782 in St. Petersburg in the wooden theater on the Empress Meadow (now the Champ de Mars). Viewers have long been waiting for this show, which was postponed several times. There were even rumors that the actors do not want to play comedy, fear of possible trouble: censorship did not miss some of the scenes. How much had the courage and generosity to make this show a benefit to their ... This is what the 'Russia's first actor' Ivan Afanasievich Dmitrevsky, Fonvizin longtime friend and admirer of his talent. Friendship with 'comedian' seemed to be something shameful to many Russian nobles of the eighteenth century, but not Fonvizin Denis, the favorite hero, solemnly pronounced from the stage: 'Please take into heart, soul, and thou shalt bear a man at all times'. These words Starodum, which brilliantly played Dmitrevsky were the principle Fonvizin, tsenivshego people for personal dignity, regardless of their social status.
The inscription on the tombstone of the author 'Nedorosl' in St. Petersburg Alexander Nevsky Lavra reads: 'Fonvizin Denis Ivanovich, state councilor, was born April 3, 1745, died Dec. 1, 1792. Lived 48 years, seven months, 28 days'. Approved in calculating the error still causes debate, . when the same was born Fonvizin - in 1745-m or 1744? But be that as it, . For us this modest plate keeps the memory not of "Councilor of State ', . and a remarkable satirist, . about whom Pushkin said:,
. You were a famous writer,
. Famous Russian humourist,
. Scoffer, laurels povity
. Denis, ignorant and fear of the scourge
From his youth Fonvizin famous for his wit. 'Very soon appeared in my penchant for satire, - recalled the writer. - Acute my words ran around Moscow, but they have been for many sarcastically, that offended me was filled with evil and dangerous boy, and all those whom my words are sharp as soon as entertained, glorify me in a courteous and pleasant society '. In Moscow, were bound writer's childhood memories: a large and united family, the nobility gymnasium at the University of Moscow ... And then - Petersburg office of a translator in the College of Foreign Affairs, secretary to cabinet minister Catherine II IP Elagina. And at the same time - the lessons of literary translations, visiting performances, friendships with writers, actors. Young freethinkers enthusiastically recited audacious satirical poems Fonvizin, especially his 'Epistle to the servants of my Shumilov, Vanya and Petrouchka', which dealt with that, 'as these parts is bad light':
. Here I see squandering, and then I see the avarice;
. Wherever you turn around, everywhere I see the stupidity
. Yes, in addition, even I noticed that the light
. Such a lot of time living in unrighteousness,
. That there is already such Kashcheev in mind,
. B. Who will remember the truth in the world.
. Soon the writer was destined to be counted worthy of praise from the lips of most sovereign
. In St. Peter's Day June 29, 1769 he was invited to Peterhof, so there is a small and cozy building Hermitage read Catherine II and her entourage his comedy 'Foreman', which has already spread the rumor in the court. Foreman (so called military rank), . his wife wife,, . Counselor and Counc, . Other actors in the play - all were skillfully presented by the author, . possessed exceptional acting talent: he is remarkably able to pretty much mimic the familiar, . including the celebrated persons, . that always led listeners in raptures,
'This is our first comedy manners', - said of the 'Brigadier' influential Count Nikita Ivanovich Panin, head of the College of Foreign Affairs and tutor heir Paul Petrovich. Assessing the mind, talent and moral dignity of the playwright, Panin, invited him to his secretaries. Began arduous, intense diplomatic service. Have a family and care: in 1774 Fonvizin married a young widow Katerina Ivanovna Khlopova, daughter of merchant. Not just family approved the marriage (the bride was not a noblewoman), but his wife was a true friend of Denis Ivanovich, sharing with them and sorrows and joys. Together they in the years 1777-1778 traveled to France for treatment of Katerina Ivanovna. A sable coat with gold loops and tassels, with an ermine collar Russia nobleman confidently into the room with the French aristocracy, calling their surprise and delight. Zorkiy and intelligent observer, he gave a detailed account of his impressions of travel in letters addressed to his sister Fedosya Ivanovna, and Petr Ivanovich Panin, brother of the chief and other. Posts Fonvizin sometimes affect the sharpness, the rejection of foreign manners and customs. But condemning the evils of French society, the writer always thinks bitterly about Russia: "The local abuse and looting, of course, at least in our case. In the argument of justice, I see that one coming manner ... Neither breed nor external honors not condescend to prevent the least despicable deceptions, as soon as it comes to the slightest self-interest '. Remained alive in the memory of political intrigue at the court of Catherine II, surrounded by minions, flatterers and accumulators.
Not surprisingly, Denis Fonvizin was among those who made political opposition to the Government: brothers Panin, Princess E.R. Dashkova - notable people, striving for independence, well acquainted with court life, and who saw how easily flouted laws by the throne itself. Who they were - the personal enemies of the sovereign, political dreamers or potential reformer of Russia? Part of the one and another, and the third. Of course, these opponents had not intended to fundamentally change the system of government and to abandon the monarchy: their hopes for the ideal monarch they connected with the Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, who power-hungry mother never yielded to the throne. Some kind of mandate the future Emperor was written on behalf of NIPanin Fonvizin - 'Discourse on the essential laws of the state' (necessarily - that is mandatory for all, including the monarch himself). Zlonravie powers - that was the subject of accusations Fonvizin, essayist and playwright, who worked at the same time and over the 'Discourse', and over comedy 'Nedorosl'. With this play it to the palace had not been invited ... A writer's petition to dismiss, filed in the same in 1782, when he bustled about setting 'Nedorosl', Empress granted immediately, dismissing him 'from all cases'. However, from literature to dismiss him was impossible.
One year later, took wonderful Fonvizin dialogue with Catherine II in the pages of the St. Petersburg magazine interviewee fans Russia's words'. Kolka 'Questions' Fonvizin were published in the journal together with the responses of the sovereign - and both anonymous. 'Why in the age of the legislative one in this part does not think the differences? " - Ask a poisonous matter and followed exasperated response: 'Because these things do not have it all'. Reproach 'voprositelya' in 'svobodoyazychii', the Empress did not pursue him, are not repressed.
His comedies, especially 'Nedorosl', continued to be placed in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and many other cities in Russia. 'My grandmother shew me, . - Wrote Pushkin, . - That in the representation of 'Nedorosl' in the theater was a crush - the sons of Prost and Skot, . arrived at the service of the steppe villages, . present here and consequently saw before him his relatives and friends, . his family '.,
. But to publish his new works Fonvizin became increasingly difficult
. Writer planned to publish their own 'periodical essay' - 'A friend of honest people, or Staro' and wrote to him a few satirical articles. In February 1788 in the 'St. Petersburg Gazette' appeared the announcement of this journal, which, inter alia, stated: '... All entries will be entirely new, but is familiar, because some of them in the audience go hand-written '. But on April 4 of that year Fonvizin reported PI Panin: "The local police forbade the printing of 'Starodum'.
The writer, barely passed 40 years, and his health was already undermined. Twice he was struck by apoplexy, he hardly move. Much time was spent in a long but futile treatment.
Yet 'playfulness of mind never left him and a painful condition of the body', - recalled the poet Ivan Dmitriev, who saw Fonvizin on the eve of his death. The playwright continued to write until the last days, . despite, . that attempt to publish his collected works were in vain: a new ban! He felt, . that is not much time, . and he wanted to talk about his life, . their thoughts and hopes, . about people, . which brought his fate,
. 'Frank confession in my doings and thoughts' - the so-called memories Fonvizin that he was not destined to complete.