FRIEDRICH II( Russian king from 1740)
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Biography FRIEDRICH II
. At the end of the eighteenth century, Goethe exclaimed: 'Germany? Where is she? Where can I find such a country? " Really, . Germany as a single political entity did not exist (some principalities there were more than three hundred, . excluding other smaller holdings, . actually subordinates the central government),
. Every decade, map of the Holy Roman Empire, Germanic nations (though Voltaire said that it was neither holy nor Roman nor Germanic) changed because of wars, dynastic marriages and redistributed for other reasons. So Germany had yet to create, and the list of its artists a place of honor rightly belongs to Frederick II Hohenzollern King of Prussia.
The fate of this man bestowed a lot of luck, but began his life far from cloudless. Friedrich I, . 'sergeant on the throne' and 'crowned sergeant', . meticulously followed, not only for its soldiers, . but above all for his son, . which, . seemed, . preparing to become a sophisticated secular idler, . poet, . musician and threatened the very foundations of the Prussian state talk about the misconduct of the powerful, . its educational dreaminess,
. In short, his father saw him as a wayward scion of an old family. Later, Frederick II, himself admitted: father considered him 'test, from which you can slap whatever'. It is not surprising that the son, which has experienced despotic habits of the parent, sometimes hated him 'as the worst enemy'.
On top of Friedrich Wilhelm I, having decided to marry his successor, he picked a bride for him, piously believing that the mere filial piety makes Friedrich love 'narrowing'. 20-year-old prince complained bitterly to a friend: father wants to stick a hammer in his love, forgetting that it has still not with the ass. But married Friedrich suddenly felt a sense of relief - now he has become master at least in my house and I may have to continue the literary and musical studies.
. These lessons were not just a tribute to fashion - Frederick were good and syllable, and light pen
. However, he wrote mostly in French, in an atmosphere of admiration for French culture. The German national literature was seen as Frederick certain 'promised land', which he - as a once and Moses - not allowed to enter, but you can only admire from afar.
In August 1736 Frederick concluded a friendly alliance with perhaps the most revolutionary writer of the century - with Voltaire. King freethinker will contribute to the publication of his works in Berlin (in French), to exchange messages with such content, that they become aware of the Prussian censorship provoked little surprise to officials. There is, . example, . as Frederick spoke of the European monarchs in 1738: "If anyone dared to tell them, . that among their ancestors are not really flourished virtue and often came across people, . despicable, . then they would have inflicted such an insult, . they would never have forgiven '.,
. No revolutionary writer of the French Enlightenment is not judged harsher than Frederick II, of 'tyrants and those atrocities, which have filled the annals of history'
. It is no coincidence pious Austrian Archduchess Maria Theresa will curse Frederick as the Antichrist.
Young Prussian king was very worried about what will be said about him descendants. It is likely, he said, that Alexander of Macedonia was merely a robber, and only a brilliant pen Quintus Curtius made him great. And Julian the Apostate Christian historians obviously been so misrepresented - no one even wanted to think about its merits. Voltaire, Frederick sent his book on the reign of Peter the I, and the King once again convinced how powerful the word historiographer. Emperor of Russia appeared in it as 'heroic phantom' - not a great monarch, . a weak man with fantasies so strange, . that they sometimes even bought some luster - the king, . lovivshy applause of strangers and hated by their own people,
. Fearing historiographic experiments of this kind, Friedrich himself writes later, a multi-volume history of his reign, not devoid of objectivity, but not free from the usual drawbacks of memoirs.
After becoming king, Frederick very quickly understood why my father, liking making music and verse, so a lot of time and gave the care of the army. The burden of responsibility for the destiny of Prussia did not have to daydream. In 1739, Frederick wrote to Voltaire, that father was for him an example. Although he has not forgotten him inhuman treatment.
The young Frederick II Europe was composed of senile and degenerate states. For example, France. This is before she had the power to conquer their power, but today it all goes in vain. She did not remain a powerful rivals any in Rome or the Holy Roman Empire or the Madrid or in London. Throughout her natural boundaries: the Atlantic Ocean, the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean Sea. Only in the east it is opposed to Germany. France took a Lorraine and Strasbourg, and in fact for Germany Lorraine - the same as Thermopylae to Ancient Greece. France has the Rhine, and one can only hope that he will stop it.
Another opponent of Prussia was Austria - the core of the Holy Roman Empire. Since her Frederick and began: retook the eyes of the astonished Europe richest province - Silesia, thereby entering into the war of the Austrian Succession. Right Frederick II of Silesia was no more than that of other German princes. Any lawyer could justify the middling legitimacy of such claims, that by order of Frederick II and was executed
. Later, some historians have called the attack on Silesia 'sensational crime stories of modern times', for others it was the first step in the ascent of Prussia to a powerful state, and hence in the union of all Germany.
. All except the Prussians thought of Friedrich betrayal of Germany: Germans are fighting against the Germans, and when there is no way I will save from the French in the west, the Turks in the south-east and the Swedes - in the north
. During the Second Silesian War (1744-1745) Austrian ministers called by Frederick II 'the enemy of mankind', as Francis Stephen, husband of Maria Theresa, wanted "to crush that devil one blow '. And this was the opportunity - in alliance with the Austrians on this occasion were the Saxons, the French and British. Frederick II is able to capture Prague, then had to flee, and his case was not once looked definitely lost. As later in the Seven Years War (1756-1763), he helped miracle - only now it was a brilliant victory in the battle of Hoenfridbergom. Dresden world confirmed rejection of Silesia from Austria.
Over 11 years of peace before the Seven Years' War in European international relations, much has changed. Empire had fought against France, defending the border of the Rhine, but now it has entered into an alliance against Prussia: it was all forgiven, even given once the French Lorraine.
. And two German states clung to each other, spending a lot of force to have to deprive the enemy a few dilapidated villages
. The noble Prussian nobleman, and three noble Austrian nobleman, was dragged by the arm and the Silesian Poles unfortunate that one or the other side, and this 'home' German war were drawn into all major European countries.
. In 1756 the Austrian Chancellor, Count Kaunitz concluded an alliance between Austria and France
. It was rumored that it was not without Madame de Pompadour, who maintained close contacts with foreign diplomats at the court of Louis XV. Maria Theresa herself wrote her letters almost humiliated tone and appealed to the King as the favorite to 'dear friend' - it's too needed a powerful ally, . as France, . the coalition of Austria, . several German principalities, . Russia, . Sweden and Spain became the invincible,
Frederick II, it seemed only provoke: he decided not to defend, and hit 'for rounding territory of Prussia' in a neutral Saxony. This is particularly angered neighbors. Now more and Saxony! Voltaire wrote that his attack of Frederick II was canceling those honor and glory, which he first won as a hero and a philosopher.
'The war in advance' is only partly succeeded Frederick. Saxon army was surrounded, captured and placed under Prussian flags, but the next trip to Prague failed. All the power of the united opposition collapsed on Prussia: the Austrians regained the Czech Republic and Silesia, and almost reached Berlin, East Prussia occupied the Russian, from the southwest, attacking the Germans and French from the north - Sweden.
Salvation Frederick wait was nowhere - allies of the British were much fight in the most money. Remained to rely on their soldiers. And his grenadiers did not disappoint at the end of 1757 they gained the upper hand in the battles of Rosbahom, where troops defeated the French and the German princes, and under Leuthen. After half a century, Napoleon Bonaparte, only gradually completed what began Friedrich II: if the empire to-do was not to win, but to abolish.
. Two years Frederick II, with difficulty, but kept the boundaries of their possessions (without East Prussia), and then the force has already started to prevail
. The population of Prussia is reached 6 million. people, and the opponents were behind nearly 100 million. Frederick himself always said that God and the fortunes of war - on the side of someone 'strong battalions'. He was still able to repel the enemy's country, to take the baggage to cause damage here and there, but to achieve complete victory ... Besides England, left him - has dried up the source of money. And military success, alas, left Frederick: Russian troops together with the Austrian went to Berlin, and nothing prevented them captured the king. Only the differences between do the Russian and Austrian command suspended the complete destruction of the Prussian army.
Although by the end of 1761 by Frederick II was no 'strong batallions' God still came to his rescue. After the death of Russia's Empress Elizabeth's throne, the most dangerous opponent of Prussia became Peter III, in love with Frederick II, his country and the army. He concluded with Frederick Union, and the enemy's army on imperial will in a moment had become friendly. Peter III was not kept on the throne, his successor, Catherine broke the alliance with Frederic, but hostilities continue not become.
King of Prussia could claim victory, but just was not far from a complete rout. It is no wonder that the inhabitants of his country were covered by the enthusiasm, despite the loss of East Prussia, swore allegiance to the Empress of Russia: 'Old Fritz' opposition to the whole of Europe, and it was not dislodged from the saddle, or more precisely, he retained the throne. It is interesting that Frederick II to the end of his days - and it is not so little - overriding foreign policy aims are the establishment and maintenance of good relations with Russia Empire
. However, Frederick was left for the Germans not only a military leader and thinker, . but careful use of 'master' of the kingdom, . protect the welfare of each farm and the dissemination of education (introduced in its universal primary education - not trifling matter for the XVIII, . Anyway, . and not only for this century),
. He even abolished censorship of the time, guided by a very 'reasonable' principle: 'arguing about anything but obey. "