Abelard PETER( The French philosopher and scholastic theologian.)
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Biography Abelard PETER
Born in the village of Le Palle (or Pale, from the Latin. Palatium) near Nantes in Brittany, and spent all his life, moving from one school and monasteries in others, and why he was nicknamed 'Palatine peripatetics' (peripateticus Palatinus). Initially, Abelard was interested mainly logic and dialectics, . who studied with the most famous teachers, . in particular - have Rostselina (representative of nominalism) in Locher, near Bath and at the William of Champeaux (representative realism), . head of school at the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris,
. Method Abelard, . subsequently brought to perfection in the book Yes and No (Sic et non), . gave him a huge advantage in disputes, . so that from the very beginning he was not so much a disciple of his teachers, . How many of them rival, . and last, not without jealousy reacted to, . that Abelard ca,
. 1101 opened his own school, first at Melun and later at Corbeil.
Onset of illness forced Abelard to return to Brittany, but then he re-joined Guillaume of Champeaux. Abelard was a very ambitious young man and wanted to take the place of the teacher, leading the cathedral school of Notre Dame, but at the time did not yet out of the question, and ca. 1108 he began to teach independently near Notre-Dame, Mount St.. Genevieve, and subsequently served as his school was the nucleus around which formed the University of Paris. Abelard appealed to theology, which he studied under Anselm Lansky. Although Abelard was extremely subtle and sophisticated theologian, . underlined his desire to rely primarily on the mind, . willingness to consider any viewpoint in a dispute, . his vanity, . as well as negligence of some of its wording antagonized his church community and made him vulnerable to accusations of heresy,
. In 1113, he still led the cathedral school of Notre Dame, though, and had no priesthood.
Abelard and Heloise. Abelard was at the top of his academic career, when his attention was attracted by the charming niece of the canon Fulbera - Eloise. Abelard made her uncle's permission to settle in their home as a teacher, and then easily won her feelings. Abelard Eloise invited to enter into secret marriage to soften the anger of her relatives. Eloise objected to the marriage - not only because it would hinder the academic career of Abelard, but also because she believed the Theophrastus, Seneca, Cicero, and St.. Jerome, was convinced (probably quite sincerely) that the study of philosophy is incompatible with marriage. But Abelard insisted. Eloise went to Brittany, where in the house of Abelard's sister gave birth to a son, Astrolabe. Then she returned to Paris, where Fulber without publicity to marry them in the presence of only the necessary witnesses. At this time, Abelard was about forty, and Eloise - eighteen. Relatives of Eloise are not satisfied that the marriage took place secretly, believing that it is better saved career of Abelard, Heloise than reputation. When Abelard, . Desiring to protect Heloise from constant reproaches and insults from members of her family, . sent it in Argenteuil, . Benedictine monastery where she took monk (but not yet vows), . her relatives, . bribing a servant, . broke into the home of Abelard and subjected him castrated,
. History of Abelard misfortune befell them was told in my autobiography, History of disasters (Historia calamitatum mearum).
Abelard in the Benedictine Order. Then Abelard took Benedictine robes and, apparently, brought the sacred vows at the royal abbey of Saint-Denis, where he continued to teach. However, his enemies, and expressed doubts about the orthodoxy of the teachings contained in his treatise on the divine unity and the Trinity (De unitate et trinitate divina), have ensured that Suassonskom Cathedral (1121), this treatise (but not the Abelard) has been convicted. The verdict of the cathedral Abelard spent some time 'to patch' in the Abbey of St.. Medard, after which he returned to Saint-Denis. Shortly thereafter, he brought upon himself the disfavour abbot of the abbey, Adam, condemned the negligence of the monks, as well as ridiculing the legend that was the founder of the Abbey of St.. Dionysius the Areopagite, according to legend evangelized by the Apostle Paul.
Abelard had to flee from Saint-Denis, and he found refuge in a small monastery in Champagne, where he lived a quiet life until the death of Abbot Adam. The new abbot, Abbot Suger, Abelard resolved to live as a monk in a place of his choice. Abelard lived as a hermit in the woods near Troyes, which gave a chapel dedicated to the Paraclete (Sv. Spirit - Comforter). In 1125 he unexpectedly received an invitation to lead the abbey of the monks of Saint-Zhilda in Brittany. When the nuns Arzhanteya accused of non-compliance with the statute and they were disbanded by the Holy See at the request of the Abbot Abbot Suger of Saint-Denis, . reactivated a long-standing claim to the lands of their abbey of the monastery, . Eloise and Abelard offered her expelled from the monastery of the sisters live in the Paraclete,
. Letters, amounting famous Correspondence of Abelard and Heloise, refer to the period after 1130, when Heloise became the abbess of a new nunnery in Paraclete. These letters, in many ways reminiscent of the correspondence of St.. Jerome with the pious women, the spiritual mentor who he was, - St.. Julia, Evstohiey, Marcello, Aselli and Paul - of the growing desire for holiness of Abelard and Heloise on intransigence to abandon the memory of her passionate love.
Abelard was not so abbot, which satisfies the tastes of the monks of Saint-Zhilda. About 1136 Abelard was again taught in Paris, where he appeared such promising pupils as Arnold of Brescia and John of Salisbury. However, his attitude to the conservative church groups remained as hostile, which prompted Bernard of Clairvaux appeal to the French bishops to the proposal to ban the teaching of Abelard. As a result, the estate Sansskom Cathedral (1141) a number of theses Abelard was condemned. Theologian spoke directly to Innocent II, in order to Papa himself considered his case. On the way to Rome he stopped in the Abbey of Cluny, where he learned that the pope approved the decisions Sansskogo Cathedral. The abbot of Cluny Abbey warmly received Honorable Peter Abelard, reconciled him with Bernard of Clairvaux, and has ensured that Innocent has softened its attitude to Abelard. Accepting the invitation of Peter Hon, Abelard remained in Cluny, where he spent the next two years, teaching young monks at the Abbey School. Abelard died at the age of sixty-three years in the monastery of Saint-Marcel, near Chalons April 11, 1142. Originally Abelard was buried in Saint-Marseille, but later his remains were moved to the Paraclete. At present, the remains of Abelard and Heloise lie under the tombstone in the cemetery of Pere-Lachaise in Paris.