(63 BC. - 14 AD)
As a young man name was Guy Octavio, as had the name of his father, who died in 59 BC. In 44 BC. August
, grand-nephew Gaius Julius Caesar, was in accordance with the will of being adopted, having received the name of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, and over the next fifteen years he was known as Octavian. Shortly after 40 BC. August
made his first name the title of Emperor, previously assigned to the victorious Roman general. And the Emperor called Caesar, which, apparently, invested in the title special meaning. Dropping the names of Guy and Julius, August
began to call himself Caesar Octavian. Finally, on 16 January 27 to BC. the decision of the Senate, he was awarded the honorary title of August
, primarily applies only to divine and sacred places and objects. However, the Roman tradition of the family name of Julio continued to be used for the name imposed by the laws, known as the laws of Julia. The generic name is stored as some members of the family of Augustus
, in particular his daughter and granddaughter, both of which was called Yuliyami.
Heir Caesar. Mother Octavia, Atia, was the niece (sister's daughter), Julius Caesar. We Octavia were sisters, both older than he is: The older sister Octavia and Octavia own younger. With Octavius Younger Octavius was very friendly until her death in 11 BC. In the last years of his life, Julius Caesar showed an obvious location grand-nephew Octavius, preferring it to his nephew Quintus Pediyu and another grand-nephew - Lutsiyu Pinar. In his will Caesar named Octavius principal heir.
In 44 BC. Octavian, as he became known after the adoption by Caesar, was 18 years old. Consul Mark Antony, who gathered after the death of Caesar, a huge army and began fighting for power, not recognized as an heir, Octavian Caesar, ie. Another contender for the championship in the State. So Octavian appealed for help to the veterans of Caesar, received from the last land in Campania. With their armed support Octavian forced the Senate to recognize the fact of his adoption, to allow him to run into the common hall before reaching the age established by law, and entrust him (along with the consul 43 BC. Avlom Geertz and Guy Panza) command of the troops directed against Antony, who had previously publicly broke with the Senate and moved north in an effort to expel the governor Tsizalpiyskoy Decima Brutus Gaul of his province. In the battle of Moutinho Antony was defeated and took refuge with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who was then governor of Gaul Narbonskoy.
Second Triumvirate. Since both the consul killed in battle, Octavian took over sole command of the army and the Senate has elected consul, from 19 August
43 to BC. (with Quint Pediem). Then Octavian entered into an agreement with Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. According to the law approved by the Senate Titiya, Octavian, Antony and Lepidus triumvirs imposed on the device state (tresviri reipublicae constituendae) for five years. From the first triumvirate, formed in 60 BC. Caesar Gneem Pompey the Great and Marcus Licinius Crassus, the second triumvirate was distinguished by the fact that was issued legally, but not an agreement, individuals and another that gave triumvirs right of full control over the activities of the State. Triumvirs began ruthless proscription against their enemies. One of the first 7 п╢п╣п╨п╟п╠я─я▐ 43 to BC. was killed by a great speaker and a Republican Cicero: Octavian donated them for the sake of Antonia, blazing to Cicero hatred.
Antony and Octavian moved his troops to the east, in Macedonia, where the fall of 42 BC. the Battle of Philippi defeated army chiefs supporters of the republic - Mark Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Then triumvirs made part of the Roman state, in which Anthony had received the East, including Greece and Macedonia, Octavian - Gaul, Spain, and Illyricum, and Lepidus Africa went to just. Italy nominally remained in the joint management of all three, but the reality is dominated by Octavian, reap the benefits that flow from this section. In 41-40 BC. Anthony's brother Lucius, along with his wife, Fulvia were headed erupted in rebellion against Octavian in Italy, but were defeated by Octavian at Perouse (sovr. Perugia). In October 40 BC. in Brundizii Octavian and Anthony entered into an agreement that had resolved the most acute differences. Union was sealed by marriage to the sister of Octavian, Antony Octavia Minor.
During these years, Sextus Pompey, the second and only surviving son Gneya Pompey the Great, took control of the whole western Mediterranean. Sextus Pompey headed and relied on the Sicily and Sardinia fleet, with which he devastated the coastal area of Italy. Initially, under the terms of the prisoner in 39 BC. in Mizenah agreement triumvirs recognized its right. But since the attacks continued, in 37 BC. in Tarentum, Antony and Octavian concluded a new agreement. The next year Octavian defeated Sextus Pompey, largely thanks to his art flotovodcheskomu captain Mark Vipsania Agrippa. Sextus fled to Asia Minor, where Anthony was killed on the orders. Lepidus crossed over to Sicily, ostensibly to aid Octavian against Sexton Pompey, but in reality in order to demonstrate its strength Octaviano. However, . when the army Lepidus and Octavian met, . Warriors moved to Lepidus Octavian, . which had deprived Lepidus triumvirskih authority, . but let him, . as the high priest of the Roman state (pontifex maximus), . live away from the affairs until his death, . followed in 13 or 12 BC,
. Augustus and Augustan age
. Augustus and Augustan age